Abstract

We report on the fabrication and characterization of composite multimode waveguide structures that consist of a stack of single-mode waveguides fabricated by ultrafast laser inscription. We explore 2 types of composite structures; those that consist of overlapping single-mode waveguides which offer the maximum effective index contrast and non-overlapped structures which support multiple modes via strong evanescent coupling. We demonstrate that both types of waveguides have negligible propagation losses (to within experimental uncertainty) for light injected with focal ratios >8, which corresponds to the cutoff of the waveguides. We also show that right below cutoff, there is a narrow region where the injected focal ratio is preserved (to within experimental uncertainty) at the output. Finally, we outline the major application of these highly efficient waveguides; in a device that is used to reformat the light in the focal plane of a telescope to a slit, in order to feed a diffraction-limited spectrograph.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5698–5705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Haynes, M. J. Withford, J. M. Dawes, J. S. Lawrence, and R. Haynes, “Relative contributions of scattering, diffraction and modal diffusion to focal ratio degradation in optical fibres,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 414(1), 253–263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

S. M. Croom, R. J. Smith, B. J. Boyle, T. Shanks, L. Miller, P. J. Outram, and N. S. Loaring, “The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey - XII. The spectroscopic catalogue and luminosity function,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349(4), 1397–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, “Ultrafast laser processing: new options for three-dimensional photonic structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2533–2542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1980 (1)

J. M. Hill, J. R. P. Angel, J. S. Scott, D. Lindley, and P. Hintzen, “Multiple object spectroscopy - The Medusa spectrograph,” Astrophys. J. 242, L69–L72 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R. P.

J. M. Hill, J. R. P. Angel, J. S. Scott, D. Lindley, and P. Hintzen, “Multiple object spectroscopy - The Medusa spectrograph,” Astrophys. J. 242, L69–L72 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

Argyros, A.

Benisty, M.

M. Benisty, J. P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).

Berger, J. P.

M. Benisty, J. P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).

Betters, C.

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, C. Betters, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, G. Robertson, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “First starlight spectrum captured using an integrated photonic micro-spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. Lett. (Accepted), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219116.

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Developing arrayed waveguide grating spectrographs for multi-object astronomical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2062–2072 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5698–5705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and P. Kern, “Astrophotonics: a new era for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1880–1884 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. Skovgaard, M. D. Nielsen, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1988–1994 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Horton and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Coupling light into few-mode optical fibres I: The diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1443–1453 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and M. Englund, “Multimode fiber devices with single-mode performance,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2545–2547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, C. Betters, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, G. Robertson, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “First starlight spectrum captured using an integrated photonic micro-spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. Lett. (Accepted), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219116.

Bovatsek, J.

Boyle, B. J.

S. M. Croom, R. J. Smith, B. J. Boyle, T. Shanks, L. Miller, P. J. Outram, and N. S. Loaring, “The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey - XII. The spectroscopic catalogue and luminosity function,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349(4), 1397–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bridges, T.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, “Ultrafast laser processing: new options for three-dimensional photonic structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2533–2542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, R.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-J.

Cole, S.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Colless, M.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Collins, C.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Couch, W.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Croom, S. M.

S. M. Croom, R. J. Smith, B. J. Boyle, T. Shanks, L. Miller, P. J. Outram, and N. S. Loaring, “The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey - XII. The spectroscopic catalogue and luminosity function,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349(4), 1397–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cross, N.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cvetojevic, N.

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Developing arrayed waveguide grating spectrographs for multi-object astronomical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2062–2072 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, C. Betters, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, G. Robertson, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “First starlight spectrum captured using an integrated photonic micro-spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. Lett. (Accepted), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219116.

Dalton, G.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J. M.

D. M. Haynes, M. J. Withford, J. M. Dawes, J. S. Lawrence, and R. Haynes, “Relative contributions of scattering, diffraction and modal diffusion to focal ratio degradation in optical fibres,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 414(1), 253–263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Propris, R.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deeley, K.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Driver, S. P.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

Efstathiou, G.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, R. S.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, S. C.

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, C. Betters, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, G. Robertson, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “First starlight spectrum captured using an integrated photonic micro-spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. Lett. (Accepted), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219116.

Englund, M.

Frenk, C. S.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Glazebrook, K.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, D. M.

D. M. Haynes, M. J. Withford, J. M. Dawes, J. S. Lawrence, and R. Haynes, “Relative contributions of scattering, diffraction and modal diffusion to focal ratio degradation in optical fibres,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 414(1), 253–263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, R.

D. M. Haynes, M. J. Withford, J. M. Dawes, J. S. Lawrence, and R. Haynes, “Relative contributions of scattering, diffraction and modal diffusion to focal ratio degradation in optical fibres,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 414(1), 253–263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P.

Herman, P. R.

Hibino, Y.

Hill, J. M.

J. M. Hill, J. R. P. Angel, J. S. Scott, D. Lindley, and P. Hintzen, “Multiple object spectroscopy - The Medusa spectrograph,” Astrophys. J. 242, L69–L72 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hintzen, P.

J. M. Hill, J. R. P. Angel, J. S. Scott, D. Lindley, and P. Hintzen, “Multiple object spectroscopy - The Medusa spectrograph,” Astrophys. J. 242, L69–L72 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.

Horton, A. J.

Jackson, C.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jocou, L.

M. Benisty, J. P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).

Jovanovic, N.

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Developing arrayed waveguide grating spectrographs for multi-object astronomical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2062–2072 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, C. Betters, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, G. Robertson, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “First starlight spectrum captured using an integrated photonic micro-spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. Lett. (Accepted), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219116.

Kar, A. K.

Kern, P.

J. Bland-Hawthorn and P. Kern, “Astrophotonics: a new era for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1880–1884 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Benisty, J. P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).

Kohtoku, M.

Labeye, P.

M. Benisty, J. P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).

Lahav, O.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, J.

Lawrence, J. S.

D. M. Haynes, M. J. Withford, J. M. Dawes, J. S. Lawrence, and R. Haynes, “Relative contributions of scattering, diffraction and modal diffusion to focal ratio degradation in optical fibres,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 414(1), 253–263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, C. Betters, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, G. Robertson, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “First starlight spectrum captured using an integrated photonic micro-spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. Lett. (Accepted), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219116.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Lewis, I.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lindley, D.

J. M. Hill, J. R. P. Angel, J. S. Scott, D. Lindley, and P. Hintzen, “Multiple object spectroscopy - The Medusa spectrograph,” Astrophys. J. 242, L69–L72 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Loaring, N. S.

S. M. Croom, R. J. Smith, B. J. Boyle, T. Shanks, L. Miller, P. J. Outram, and N. S. Loaring, “The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey - XII. The spectroscopic catalogue and luminosity function,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349(4), 1397–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lumsden, S.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maddox, S.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Madgwick, D.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malbet, F.

M. Benisty, J. P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).

Miller, L.

S. M. Croom, R. J. Smith, B. J. Boyle, T. Shanks, L. Miller, P. J. Outram, and N. S. Loaring, “The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey - XII. The spectroscopic catalogue and luminosity function,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349(4), 1397–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

Ng, M. L.

Nielsen, M. D.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, “Ultrafast laser processing: new options for three-dimensional photonic structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2533–2542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noordegraaf, D.

Norberg, P.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Outram, P. J.

S. M. Croom, R. J. Smith, B. J. Boyle, T. Shanks, L. Miller, P. J. Outram, and N. S. Loaring, “The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey - XII. The spectroscopic catalogue and luminosity function,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349(4), 1397–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, J. A.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perraut, K.

M. Benisty, J. P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).

Peterson, B. A.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Price, I.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, G.

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, C. Betters, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, G. Robertson, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “First starlight spectrum captured using an integrated photonic micro-spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. Lett. (Accepted), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219116.

Roddier, F.

Scott, J. S.

J. M. Hill, J. R. P. Angel, J. S. Scott, D. Lindley, and P. Hintzen, “Multiple object spectroscopy - The Medusa spectrograph,” Astrophys. J. 242, L69–L72 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Seaborne, M.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

Shaklan, S.

Shanks, T.

S. M. Croom, R. J. Smith, B. J. Boyle, T. Shanks, L. Miller, P. J. Outram, and N. S. Loaring, “The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey - XII. The spectroscopic catalogue and luminosity function,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349(4), 1397–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skovgaard, P. M.

Smith, R. J.

S. M. Croom, R. J. Smith, B. J. Boyle, T. Shanks, L. Miller, P. J. Outram, and N. S. Loaring, “The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey - XII. The spectroscopic catalogue and luminosity function,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349(4), 1397–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, W.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, K.

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

Tunnermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, “Ultrafast laser processing: new options for three-dimensional photonic structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2533–2542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, “Ultrafast laser processing: new options for three-dimensional photonic structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2533–2542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M.

Withford, M. J.

D. M. Haynes, M. J. Withford, J. M. Dawes, J. S. Lawrence, and R. Haynes, “Relative contributions of scattering, diffraction and modal diffusion to focal ratio degradation in optical fibres,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 414(1), 253–263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, F.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

M. Benisty, J. P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).

Astron. Astrophys. Lett. (1)

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, C. Betters, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, G. Robertson, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “First starlight spectrum captured using an integrated photonic micro-spectrograph,” Astron. Astrophys. Lett. (Accepted), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219116.

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. M. Hill, J. R. P. Angel, J. S. Scott, D. Lindley, and P. Hintzen, “Multiple object spectroscopy - The Medusa spectrograph,” Astrophys. J. 242, L69–L72 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tunnermann, “Ultrafast laser processing: new options for three-dimensional photonic structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(16-18), 2533–2542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (3)

M. Colless, G. Dalton, S. Maddox, W. Sutherland, P. Norberg, S. Cole, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, C. Collins, W. Couch, N. Cross, K. Deeley, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, D. Madgwick, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, I. Price, M. Seaborne, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectra and redshifts,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 328(4), 1039–1063 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Croom, R. J. Smith, B. J. Boyle, T. Shanks, L. Miller, P. J. Outram, and N. S. Loaring, “The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey - XII. The spectroscopic catalogue and luminosity function,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349(4), 1397–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Haynes, M. J. Withford, J. M. Dawes, J. S. Lawrence, and R. Haynes, “Relative contributions of scattering, diffraction and modal diffusion to focal ratio degradation in optical fibres,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 414(1), 253–263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

A. J. Horton and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Coupling light into few-mode optical fibres I: The diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1443–1453 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9443–9458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and P. Kern, “Astrophotonics: a new era for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1880–1884 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. Skovgaard, M. D. Nielsen, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1988–1994 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5698–5705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Developing arrayed waveguide grating spectrographs for multi-object astronomical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2062–2072 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, (Chapman & Hall Ltd, 1983).

V. Coude du Foresto and S. T. Ridgway, “Fluor - a Stellar Interferometer Using Single-Mode Fibers,” in Proceedings of European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop, J. M. Beckers & F. Merkle, ed. (European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, Garching, Munich, 39, 1992), pp 731–740.

D. J. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics, Second Edition (Academic Press, 2000), Chap. 12 & 13.

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. Withford, “Multimode waveguides for astronomical applications,” Proc. of SPIE - Astronomical telescopes and instrumentation 7739–73, (2010).

SMF 28e specification sheet, www.tlc.unipr.it/cucinotta/cfa/datasheet_SMF28e.pdf

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional micrograph of two MM waveguides fabricated from 2 laser scans (tracks) with spacing’s of 5 μm (Left) and 10 μm (right). (b) Micrograph image taken from the top of the MM waveguide with the 10 μm spacing. It can clearly be seen that the second track ceases within the chip, a byproduct of the index matching oil boiling during the writing process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the characterization setup for the MM waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Line profiles through the energy distributions of the launch field at the point of focus (input plane of the chip) for a F/3.6 (red line) and F/14.4 (blue line) beam. The flat-top window used to represent the approximate size of the waveguides (grey dashed line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional micrograph of the three types of composite MM waveguides fabricated and characterized. The SM waveguide tracks were written with 35 nJ and a translation speed of 1750 mm/minute. The dimensions of the waveguides written under these conditions are marked in the figure and the three main regions of index change, typically seen under cumulative heating in Eagle2000 glass, are highlighted for the reader.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Far-field energy distribution for the (a) launch and (b) Hex 37 waveguide inscribed with a translation speed of 1000 mm/minute for an injection of F/7.6. (c) Output focal ratio as a function of injected focal ratio and (d) Output NA as a function of the injected NA for Hex 37 waveguide structures written with 500, 1000 and 2000 mm/minute translation speeds. A line has been added which represents the output equals input line in order to highlight regions where performance degradation occurs. Inset in Fig. (c) is a magnified view of the center of the plot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized throughput for the Hex 37 waveguide structures written with different translation speeds as a function of the injected focal ratio. (b) Normalized throughput for the Hex 37 waveguide structures for various injected focal ratio's as a function of the translation speed used for inscription.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized throughput for various lattice pitches as a function of injected focal ratio for (a) Circ 19 and (b) Hex 19 waveguide structures. Normalized throughput for various injected focal ratios as a function of lattice pitch for (c) Circ 19 and (d) Hex 19 waveguide structures. The translation speed for inscription was fixed at 1000 mm/minute for all waveguides.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized throughput for various translation speeds of inscription as a function of injected focal ratio for (a) Circ 19 and (b) Hex 19 waveguide structures. Normalized throughput for various injected focal ratios as a function of translation speed used for inscription of the (c) Circ 19 and (d) Hex 19 waveguide structures.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output focal ratio as a function of injected focal ratio for the (a) Circ 19 guides and the (b) Hex 19 guides. Output NA as a function of the injected NA for the (c) Circ 19 and the (d) Hex 19 waveguide structures written with 500, 1000 and 2000 mm/minute translation speeds. A line has been added which represents the output equals input line in order to highlight regions where performance degradation occurs.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Near-field intensity distributions for Circ 19 structures ((a) and (b)) and Hex 19 structures ((c) and (d)), for two translation speeds of inscription; 250 mm/minute ((a) and (c)) and 2000 mm/minute ((b) and (d)).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Concept for a slit reformatting device for a diffraction-limited spectrograph. Three key regions are highlighted; the MM guide that collects the seeing-limited light from the focus of the telescope, the isolated SM guides and the slit formed from the SM guides.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Cutoff F/#/NA for Hex 37 Waveguides Written at Various Translation Speeds.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Cutoff F/#/NA for Circ and Hex 19 Waveguides Written at Various Translation Speeds.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NA=sin( tan 1 ( D 2z ) ).
Nm V 2 2 = 1 2 ( πd λ NA ) 2

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