Abstract

Polarization controlled quantum dashes (QDHs) Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) emitting at 1.6 µm grown on InP(001) are investigated and compared with a quantum well (QW) similar VCSEL. Polarization stability of optically-pumped VCSELs under a low frequency modulation is investigated. While major fluctuations of the polarization-resolved intensity are observed on QW-based structures, enhanced polarization stability is reached on QDH-based ones. Statistical measurements over a large number of pulses show an extremely low variation in QDH VCSEL polarized output intensity, related to the intrinsic polarization control. This makes QDH VCSEL ideal candidate to improve telecommunication networks laser performances.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).
  2. M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(7), 675–682 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55µm VCSEL Arrays for High-Bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 291–293 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain dependant polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. D. Choquette, D. A. Richie, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Temperature dependence of gain-guided vertical cavity surface emitting laser polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(16), 2062–2064 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Martín-Regalado, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, and P. Brusenbach, “Polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers observed at constant active region temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3350 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. San Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. Van Exter, A. M. Van Der Lee, and J. P. Woerdman, “Coupled-mode description for the polarization state of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55(2), 1473–1484 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Valle, K. A. Shore, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization selection in birefringent vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(9), 2062–2068 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. D. Choquette and R. E. Leibenguth, “Control of Vertical-Cavity Laser Polarization with anisotropic transverse cavity geometries,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(1), 40–42 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Ortsiefer, M. Görblich, Y. Xu, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Ohno, S. Shimomura, S. Hiyamizu, Y. Takasuka, M. Ogura, and K. Komori, “Polarization control of vertical cavity surface emitting laser structure by using self-organized quantum wires grown on (775)B-oriented GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(3), 1526–1528 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, C. Paranthoen, F. Thoumyre, and C. Labbe, “Si wafer bonded of a-Si/a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. Ortsiefer, M. Görblich, Y. Xu, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55µm VCSEL Arrays for High-Bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(7), 675–682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, C. Paranthoen, F. Thoumyre, and C. Labbe, “Si wafer bonded of a-Si/a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Ohno, S. Shimomura, S. Hiyamizu, Y. Takasuka, M. Ogura, and K. Komori, “Polarization control of vertical cavity surface emitting laser structure by using self-organized quantum wires grown on (775)B-oriented GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(3), 1526–1528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. San Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. Van Exter, A. M. Van Der Lee, and J. P. Woerdman, “Coupled-mode description for the polarization state of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55(2), 1473–1484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Martín-Regalado, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, and P. Brusenbach, “Polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers observed at constant active region temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Valle, K. A. Shore, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization selection in birefringent vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(9), 2062–2068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain dependant polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. D. Choquette, D. A. Richie, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Temperature dependence of gain-guided vertical cavity surface emitting laser polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(16), 2062–2064 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Choquette and R. E. Leibenguth, “Control of Vertical-Cavity Laser Polarization with anisotropic transverse cavity geometries,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(1), 40–42 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Achtenhagen, M.

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

Amann, M. C.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Görblich, Y. Xu, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55µm VCSEL Arrays for High-Bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balle, S.

A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. San Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berseth, C. A.

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

Bohm, G.

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55µm VCSEL Arrays for High-Bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(7), 675–682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brusenbach, P.

J. Martín-Regalado, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, and P. Brusenbach, “Polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers observed at constant active region temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buell, D. A.

M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(7), 675–682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caliman, A.

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

Caroff, P.

J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chilla, J. L. A.

J. Martín-Regalado, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, and P. Brusenbach, “Polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers observed at constant active region temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain dependant polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Choquette and R. E. Leibenguth, “Control of Vertical-Cavity Laser Polarization with anisotropic transverse cavity geometries,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(1), 40–42 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Choquette, D. A. Richie, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Temperature dependence of gain-guided vertical cavity surface emitting laser polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(16), 2062–2064 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(7), 675–682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dehaese, O.

J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, C. Paranthoen, F. Thoumyre, and C. Labbe, “Si wafer bonded of a-Si/a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D.

M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(7), 675–682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Folliot, H.

J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, C. Paranthoen, F. Thoumyre, and C. Labbe, “Si wafer bonded of a-Si/a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gahl, A.

A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. San Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. P.

J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Görblich, M.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Görblich, Y. Xu, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J. P.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hiyamizu, S.

Y. Ohno, S. Shimomura, S. Hiyamizu, Y. Takasuka, M. Ogura, and K. Komori, “Polarization control of vertical cavity surface emitting laser structure by using self-organized quantum wires grown on (775)B-oriented GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(3), 1526–1528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, W.

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55µm VCSEL Arrays for High-Bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. C. Y.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iakovlev, V.

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

Jackson, A. W.

M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(7), 675–682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jansen van Doorn, A. K.

A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. Van Exter, A. M. Van Der Lee, and J. P. Woerdman, “Coupled-mode description for the polarization state of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55(2), 1473–1484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

Komori, K.

Y. Ohno, S. Shimomura, S. Hiyamizu, Y. Takasuka, M. Ogura, and K. Komori, “Polarization control of vertical cavity surface emitting laser structure by using self-organized quantum wires grown on (775)B-oriented GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(3), 1526–1528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuksenkov, D. V.

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Labbe, C.

C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, C. Paranthoen, F. Thoumyre, and C. Labbe, “Si wafer bonded of a-Si/a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lamy, J. M.

J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lamy, J.-M.

J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le Corre, A.

J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, C. Paranthoen, F. Thoumyre, and C. Labbe, “Si wafer bonded of a-Si/a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lear, K. L.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain dependant polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain dependant polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Choquette and R. E. Leibenguth, “Control of Vertical-Cavity Laser Polarization with anisotropic transverse cavity geometries,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(1), 40–42 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Choquette, D. A. Richie, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Temperature dependence of gain-guided vertical cavity surface emitting laser polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(16), 2062–2064 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Levallois, C.

J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, C. Paranthoen, F. Thoumyre, and C. Labbe, “Si wafer bonded of a-Si/a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loualiche, S.

J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, C. Paranthoen, F. Thoumyre, and C. Labbe, “Si wafer bonded of a-Si/a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Regalado, J.

J. Martín-Regalado, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, and P. Brusenbach, “Polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers observed at constant active region temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, M.

M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(7), 675–682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mereuta, A.

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

Mircea, A.

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

Nakhar, A.

J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakkar, A.

J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, M.

Y. Ohno, S. Shimomura, S. Hiyamizu, Y. Takasuka, M. Ogura, and K. Komori, “Polarization control of vertical cavity surface emitting laser structure by using self-organized quantum wires grown on (775)B-oriented GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(3), 1526–1528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno, S. Shimomura, S. Hiyamizu, Y. Takasuka, M. Ogura, and K. Komori, “Polarization control of vertical cavity surface emitting laser structure by using self-organized quantum wires grown on (775)B-oriented GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(3), 1526–1528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ortsiefer, M.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Görblich, Y. Xu, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55µm VCSEL Arrays for High-Bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paranthoen, C.

J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, C. Paranthoen, F. Thoumyre, and C. Labbe, “Si wafer bonded of a-Si/a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paranthoën, C.

J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pesquera, L.

A. Valle, K. A. Shore, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization selection in birefringent vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(9), 2062–2068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Piron, R.

J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramdane, A.

J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richie, D. A.

K. D. Choquette, D. A. Richie, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Temperature dependence of gain-guided vertical cavity surface emitting laser polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(16), 2062–2064 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

J. Martín-Regalado, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, and P. Brusenbach, “Polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers observed at constant active region temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rönneberg, E.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Görblich, Y. Xu, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosskopf, J.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Görblich, Y. Xu, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rudra, A.

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

San Miguel, M.

A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. San Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, R. P.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain dependant polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shau, R.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Görblich, Y. Xu, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, S.

Y. Ohno, S. Shimomura, S. Hiyamizu, Y. Takasuka, M. Ogura, and K. Komori, “Polarization control of vertical cavity surface emitting laser structure by using self-organized quantum wires grown on (775)B-oriented GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(3), 1526–1528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

A. Valle, K. A. Shore, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization selection in birefringent vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(9), 2062–2068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sirbu, A.

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

Stoffel, N. G.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suruceanu, G.

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

Swirhun, S.

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takasuka, Y.

Y. Ohno, S. Shimomura, S. Hiyamizu, Y. Takasuka, M. Ogura, and K. Komori, “Polarization control of vertical cavity surface emitting laser structure by using self-organized quantum wires grown on (775)B-oriented GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(3), 1526–1528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thoumyre, F.

C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, C. Paranthoen, F. Thoumyre, and C. Labbe, “Si wafer bonded of a-Si/a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Valle, A.

A. Valle, K. A. Shore, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization selection in birefringent vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(9), 2062–2068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Der Lee, A. M.

A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. Van Exter, A. M. Van Der Lee, and J. P. Woerdman, “Coupled-mode description for the polarization state of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55(2), 1473–1484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Exter, M. P.

A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. Van Exter, A. M. Van Der Lee, and J. P. Woerdman, “Coupled-mode description for the polarization state of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55(2), 1473–1484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. Van Exter, A. M. Van Der Lee, and J. P. Woerdman, “Coupled-mode description for the polarization state of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55(2), 1473–1484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wong, E.

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55µm VCSEL Arrays for High-Bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Görblich, Y. Xu, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, N. H.

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55µm VCSEL Arrays for High-Bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Choquette, D. A. Richie, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Temperature dependence of gain-guided vertical cavity surface emitting laser polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(16), 2062–2064 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Martín-Regalado, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, and P. Brusenbach, “Polarization switching in vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers observed at constant active region temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3350 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lamy, C. Paranthoën, C. Levallois, A. Nakkar, H. Folliot, J. P. Gauthier, O. Dehaese, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, “Polarization control of 1.6μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using InAs quantum dashes on InP(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Mehta, D. Feezell, D. A. Buell, A. W. Jackson, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrical design optimization of single-mode tunnel-junction-based long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(7), 675–682 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. San Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain dependant polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, “1.55µm VCSEL Arrays for High-Bandwidth WDM-PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, M. Görblich, Y. Xu, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sirbu, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, C. A. Berseth, G. Suruceanu, V. Iakovlev, M. Achtenhagen, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “Threshold analysis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with intracavity contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1230–1232 (2006).

K. D. Choquette and R. E. Leibenguth, “Control of Vertical-Cavity Laser Polarization with anisotropic transverse cavity geometries,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(1), 40–42 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Levallois, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, C. Paranthoen, F. Thoumyre, and C. Labbe, “Si wafer bonded of a-Si/a-SiNx distributed Bragg reflectors for 1.55-μm-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Valle, K. A. Shore, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization selection in birefringent vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(9), 2062–2068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

Y. Ohno, S. Shimomura, S. Hiyamizu, Y. Takasuka, M. Ogura, and K. Komori, “Polarization control of vertical cavity surface emitting laser structure by using self-organized quantum wires grown on (775)B-oriented GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(3), 1526–1528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. Van Exter, A. M. Van Der Lee, and J. P. Woerdman, “Coupled-mode description for the polarization state of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55(2), 1473–1484 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

J.-M. Lamy, C. Levallois, A. Nakhar, P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, R. Piron, A. Le Corre, A. Ramdane, and S. Loualiche, “Characterization of InAs quantum wires on (001) InP: toward the realization of VCSEL structures with a stabilized polarization,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 204(6), 1672–1676 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

QW-VCSEL (a) and QDH-VCSEL (b) average optical output power versus optical pump power, measured along the [1–10] (triangles) and [110] (squares) polarization orientation at low frequency modulation (1µs, 100kHz). Circular dots display the characteristics without any polarization selection. Inserts present the output spectrum of the QDH (a) and QW (b) devices, measured at an incident power being twice the corresponding threshold.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical oscillogrammes of a QW-VCSEL (a,b) and a QDH-VCSEL(c,d), measured along the two main polarization axis [1–10] (black/left) and [110] (red/right).Blue dashes represent calculated interval of variation due to the fluctuations of the pumping laser. Measurements are performed at room temperature, under low frequency modulation (1µs, 100kHz).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization-resolved output intensity dispersion curves, measured along the [110] direction for the QW-VCSEL (a), and along the [1–10] direction for the QDH-VCSEL (b), for increasing incident power above threshold (from 1.0 Pth up to 2.3 Pth). Each dispersion curve is calculated over 500 consecutive pulses, at low frequency modulation (1µs, 100kHz).

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