Abstract

Cladding waveguides have been produced in Nd:YVO4 crystals by using femtosecond laser inscription. Such structures are fabricated with circular cross sections and diameters of ~100-120 μm, supporting multi-mode guidance in the two orthogonal polarizations. At room temperature continuous wave laser oscillations at wavelength of ~1064 nm have been realized through the optical pump at 808 nm with slope efficiency as high as 65% and a maximum output power of 335 mW.

© 2012 OSA

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  6. E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, and G. Lifante, “Waveguide lasers based on dielectric materials,” Opt. Mater.34(3), 555–571 (2012).
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  7. K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser in a monoclinic double tungstate with 70% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 887–889 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Mary, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, R. R. Thomson, D. Jaque, S. Ohara, and A. K. Kar, “Compact, highly efficient ytterbium doped bismuthate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1691–1693 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient waveguide lasers in a femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguide,” in Advances in Optical Materials, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper AIFB4.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “ Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solid: rrl DOI .
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Ren, N. Dong, Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, and Q. Lu, “Continuous Wave Laser Generation in Proton Implanted Nd:GGG Planar Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3578–3581 (2010).

2012

2011

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, V. V. Dvoyrin, A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, S. K. Turitsyn, A. V. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Waveguide-saturable absorber fabricated by femtosecond pulses in YAG:Cr4+ crystal for Q-switched operation of Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.34(24), 3881–3883 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys.106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2002

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

Ams, M.

Aravazhi, S.

Beecher, S. J.

Benayas, A.

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Brown, G.

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calmano, T.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cantelar, E.

E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, and G. Lifante, “Waveguide lasers based on dielectric materials,” Opt. Mater.34(3), 555–571 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Ren, N. N. Dong, J. Macdonald, F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, and A. K. Kar, “Continuous wave channel waveguide lasers in Nd:LuVO4 fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express20(3), 1969–1974 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, N. N. Dong, J. Yang, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and Q. M. Lu, “Channel waveguide lasers in Nd:GGG crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express19(13), 12503–12508 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, N. Dong, Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, and Q. Lu, “Continuous Wave Laser Generation in Proton Implanted Nd:GGG Planar Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3578–3581 (2010).

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “ Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solid: rrl DOI .
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Dong, N.

Y. Ren, N. Dong, Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, and Q. Lu, “Continuous Wave Laser Generation in Proton Implanted Nd:GGG Planar Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3578–3581 (2010).

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “ Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solid: rrl DOI .
[CrossRef]

Dong, N. N.

Dvoyrin, V. V.

Eason, R. W.

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fuerbach, A.

García-Blanco, S. M.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser in a monoclinic double tungstate with 70% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 887–889 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gross, S.

Guan, J.

Hellmig, O.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Huber, G.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacinto, C.

Jaque, D.

R. Mary, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, R. R. Thomson, D. Jaque, S. Ohara, and A. K. Kar, “Compact, highly efficient ytterbium doped bismuthate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1691–1693 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, and G. Lifante, “Waveguide lasers based on dielectric materials,” Opt. Mater.34(3), 555–571 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, F.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys.106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

Khrushchev, I.

Kuan, K.

Kurkov, A. S.

Lamela, J.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

Laversenne, L.

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, and G. Lifante, “Waveguide lasers based on dielectric materials,” Opt. Mater.34(3), 555–571 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, N. Dong, Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, and Q. Lu, “Continuous Wave Laser Generation in Proton Implanted Nd:GGG Planar Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3578–3581 (2010).

Lu, Q. M.

Macdonald, J.

Mackenzie, J. I.

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, H.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mary, R.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mejía, E. B.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V.

Mezentsev, V. K.

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys.106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J.

Miura, K.

Mizeikis, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys.106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Nolte, S.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, S.

Okhrimchuk, A.

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Osellame, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paschke, A. G.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser in a monoclinic double tungstate with 70% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 887–889 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, N. Dong, Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, and Q. Lu, “Continuous Wave Laser Generation in Proton Implanted Nd:GGG Planar Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3578–3581 (2010).

Ren, Y. Y.

Rickards, J.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ródenas, A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Romero, C.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Morales, M. E.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A.

Shestakov, A. V.

Sholokhov, E. M.

Siebenmorgen, J.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Silva, W. F.

Sugimoto, N.

Tan, Y.

Thomson, R. R.

Torchia, G. A.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trejo-Luna, R.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turitsyn, S. K.

van Dalfsen, K.

Vázquez, G. V.

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “ Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solid: rrl DOI .
[CrossRef]

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Wilkinson, J. S.

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Yagi, H.

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, H. J.

Appl. Phys. B

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Laser emission in Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B94(2), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(3), 031119 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys.106(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Laser Phys. Lett.

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(8), 560–571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser in a monoclinic double tungstate with 70% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 887–889 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mary, S. J. Beecher, G. Brown, R. R. Thomson, D. Jaque, S. Ohara, and A. K. Kar, “Compact, highly efficient ytterbium doped bismuthate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1691–1693 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
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A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, “Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG:Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett.30(17), 2248–2250 (2005).
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A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, V. V. Dvoyrin, A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, S. K. Turitsyn, A. V. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Waveguide-saturable absorber fabricated by femtosecond pulses in YAG:Cr4+ crystal for Q-switched operation of Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.34(24), 3881–3883 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, A. Benayas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 916–918 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater.

E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, and G. Lifante, “Waveguide lasers based on dielectric materials,” Opt. Mater.34(3), 555–571 (2012).
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C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, “Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.73(3), 1117–1120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals: Their Physics and Properties (Springer, 1990)

E. J. Murphy, Integrated optical circuits and components: Design and applications (Marcel Dekker, 1999).

Y. Tan, J. Guan, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient waveguide lasers in a femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguide,” in Advances in Optical Materials, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper AIFB4.

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “ Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solid: rrl DOI .
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic of fabrication of Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguide by fs-laser inscription. The inset shows the microscope image of the cross section of the cladding waveguide with a diameter of 120 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The spatial modal profiles of the (a) TE and (b) TM modes for the Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguide of 120 μm diameter at a wavelength of 1064 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser emission spectra from the fs-laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguide. The inset depicts the laser modal profiles at lasing wavelength of ~1064.3 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output laser powers at 1064.3 nm as a function of the absorbed pump power at 808 nm obtained from the Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides with diameter of (a) 100 μm and (b) 120 μm.

Equations (1)

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Δn= sin 2 Θ m 2n

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