Abstract

We propose and implement a technique for arbitrary pattern fabrication in liquid crystal (LC) alignments and local polarization control for light wavefront. A micro-lithography system with a digital micro-mirror device as dynamic mask forms arbitrary micro-images on photoalignment layers and further guides the LC molecule orientations. Besides normal phase gratings, more complex 2D patterns such as quasicrystal and checkerboard structures are demonstrated. To characterize the optical performances of the fabricated structures, the electro-optically tunable diffraction patterns and efficiencies are demonstrated in several 1D/2D phase gratings. Compared to other techniques, our method enables the arbitrary and instant manipulation of LC alignments and light polarization states, facilitating wide applications in display and photonic fields.

© 2012 OSA

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  2. E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 292–298 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, England, 2008).
  7. M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(4), 041104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun.266(1), 1–5 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).
  11. V. Presnyakov, K. Asatryan, T. Galstian, and V. Chigrinov, “Optical polarization grating induced liquid crystal micro-structure using azo-dye command layer,” Opt. Express14(22), 10558–10564 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. Zhao, A. Bermak, F. Boussaid, T. Du, and V. G. Chigrinov, “High-resolution photoaligned liquid-crystal micropolarizer array for polarization imaging in visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3619–3621 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A.121(1), 113–120 (2005).
  16. C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(12), 126107 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol.20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Y. Liu and R. Riklund, “Electronic properties of perfect and nonperfect one-dimensional quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter35(12), 6034–6042 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(1), 1035–1047 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(12), 126107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

2006

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun.266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Presnyakov, K. Asatryan, T. Galstian, and V. Chigrinov, “Optical polarization grating induced liquid crystal micro-structure using azo-dye command layer,” Opt. Express14(22), 10558–10564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol.20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A.121(1), 113–120 (2005).

2004

2000

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(1), 1035–1047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987

Y. Y. Liu and R. Riklund, “Electronic properties of perfect and nonperfect one-dimensional quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter35(12), 6034–6042 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asatryan, K.

Baumberg, J. J.

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermak, A.

Boussaid, F.

Charlton, M. D. B.

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

Chigrinov, V. G.

Choi, J. W.

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol.20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. H.

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol.20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, H. Q.

Culbreath, C.

C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(12), 126107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, T.

Fan, Y. H.

Fang, N.

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A.121(1), 113–120 (2005).

Feng, J.

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T.

Glazar, N.

C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(12), 126107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, Y. M.

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol.20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jang, E. J.

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, B. B.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y. F.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kapoustine, V.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun.266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazakevitch, A.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun.266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. R.

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar Srivastava, A.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. D.

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol.20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.- S.

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. W.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X.-W.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Liu, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Liu and R. Riklund, “Electronic properties of perfect and nonperfect one-dimensional quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter35(12), 6034–6042 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y. Q.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.-Q.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, F. F.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(1), 1035–1047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Na, Y. J.

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M. C.

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, G. J.

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Presnyakov, V.

Ren, H. W.

Riklund, R.

Y. Y. Liu and R. Riklund, “Electronic properties of perfect and nonperfect one-dimensional quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter35(12), 6034–6042 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

So, V.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun.266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A.

Sugioka, K.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A.121(1), 113–120 (2005).

Sun, J. T.

Sun, J.-T.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tam, R.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun.266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. M.

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A.121(1), 113–120 (2005).

Wu, J. B.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. R.

Wu, S. T.

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W. Y.

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

Wu, Y. H.

Wu, Z. J.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.-J.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(12), 126107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zgonik, M.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(1), 1035–1047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A.121(1), 113–120 (2005).

Zhao, X.

Zhao, Y.

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. G.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zoorob, M. E.

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIP Advances

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett.498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mech. Sci. Technol.

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol.20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

Nature

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun.266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(1), 1035–1047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(12), 126107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensor. Actuators, A.

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A.121(1), 113–120 (2005).

Other

V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, England, 2008).

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of DMD based micro-lithography system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Micrographs of different LC patterns under a cross-polarized microscope: a) logo of Nanjing University, b) checkerboard, c) Fibonacci grating, d) 12-fold symmetric quasi-periodic structure and e-f) diffraction patterns of the sample shown in d) under different applied voltages. All cell gaps are 6 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micrographs of LC polarization rotators with different twist angles under a polarizing microscope with a) crossed and b) parallel polarizers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

V-T curves of an LC phase grating with alternate TN/PA regions. The transmittance of 2nd order is amplified by 5 times for better display. Insets show a micrograph and diffraction patterns at different voltages respectively. All given voltages are peak to peak values.

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