Abstract

We propose and implement a technique for arbitrary pattern fabrication in liquid crystal (LC) alignments and local polarization control for light wavefront. A micro-lithography system with a digital micro-mirror device as dynamic mask forms arbitrary micro-images on photoalignment layers and further guides the LC molecule orientations. Besides normal phase gratings, more complex 2D patterns such as quasicrystal and checkerboard structures are demonstrated. To characterize the optical performances of the fabricated structures, the electro-optically tunable diffraction patterns and efficiencies are demonstrated in several 1D/2D phase gratings. Compared to other techniques, our method enables the arbitrary and instant manipulation of LC alignments and light polarization states, facilitating wide applications in display and photonic fields.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).
  2. E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 292–298 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, England, 2008).
  7. M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).
  11. V. Presnyakov, K. Asatryan, T. Galstian, and V. Chigrinov, “Optical polarization grating induced liquid crystal micro-structure using azo-dye command layer,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10558–10564 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. Zhao, A. Bermak, F. Boussaid, T. Du, and V. G. Chigrinov, “High-resolution photoaligned liquid-crystal micropolarizer array for polarization imaging in visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3619–3621 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111116 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A. 121(1), 113–120 (2005).
  16. C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 126107 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Y. Liu and R. Riklund, “Electronic properties of perfect and nonperfect one-dimensional quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(12), 6034–6042 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature 404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(1), 1035–1047 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 126107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

2006 (4)

V. Presnyakov, K. Asatryan, T. Galstian, and V. Chigrinov, “Optical polarization grating induced liquid crystal micro-structure using azo-dye command layer,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10558–10564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A. 121(1), 113–120 (2005).

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature 404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(1), 1035–1047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Y. Y. Liu and R. Riklund, “Electronic properties of perfect and nonperfect one-dimensional quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(12), 6034–6042 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asatryan, K.

Baumberg, J. J.

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature 404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermak, A.

Boussaid, F.

Charlton, M. D. B.

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature 404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

Chigrinov, V. G.

Choi, J. W.

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. H.

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, H. Q.

Culbreath, C.

C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 126107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, T.

Fan, Y. H.

Fang, N.

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A. 121(1), 113–120 (2005).

Feng, J.

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T.

Glazar, N.

C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 126107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, Y. M.

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jang, E. J.

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, B. B.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y. F.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kapoustine, V.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazakevitch, A.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. R.

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar Srivastava, A.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. D.

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.- S.

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. W.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X.-W.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Liu, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Liu and R. Riklund, “Electronic properties of perfect and nonperfect one-dimensional quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(12), 6034–6042 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y. Q.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.-Q.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, F. F.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(1), 1035–1047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Na, Y. J.

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M. C.

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature 404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, G. J.

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature 404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Presnyakov, V.

Ren, H. W.

Riklund, R.

Y. Y. Liu and R. Riklund, “Electronic properties of perfect and nonperfect one-dimensional quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(12), 6034–6042 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

So, V.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A.

Sugioka, K.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A. 121(1), 113–120 (2005).

Sun, J. T.

Sun, J.-T.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tam, R.

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. M.

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A. 121(1), 113–120 (2005).

Wu, J. B.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. R.

Wu, S. T.

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W. Y.

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

Wu, Y. H.

Wu, Z. J.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.-J.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 126107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zgonik, M.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(1), 1035–1047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A. 121(1), 113–120 (2005).

Zhao, X.

Zhao, Y.

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. G.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zoorob, M. E.

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature 404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIP Advances (1)

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Advances 1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. J. Jang, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Na, and S. D. Lee, “Multistage optical memory of a liquid crystal diffraction grating in a single beam rewriting scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Huang, S. T. Wu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu, A. Kumar Srivastava, X.-W. Lin, X. Liang, Z.-J. Wu, J.-T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Liao, M. Huang, Y. F. Ju, F. F. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a micro-cell fabricated by femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 498(1–3), 188–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

J. Feng, Y. Zhao, S.- S. Li, X. W. Lin, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fiber optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mech. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. W. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S. H. Lee, and K. H. Choi, “Design of microstereolithography system based on dynamic image projection for fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 20(12), 2094–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Y. Wu and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Rewritable liquid crystal gratings fabricated using photoalignment effect in dye-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6761–6766 (2007).

Nature (2)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multi-domain liquid-crystal displays with wide viewing-angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Parker, M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, “Complete photonic bandgaps in 12-fold symmetric quasicrystals,” Nature 404(6779), 740–743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. Kapoustine, A. Kazakevitch, V. So, and R. Tam, “Simple method of formation of switchable liquid crystal gratings by introducing periodic photoalignment pattern into liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

Y. Y. Liu and R. Riklund, “Electronic properties of perfect and nonperfect one-dimensional quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 35(12), 6034–6042 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, “Light diffraction at mixed phase and absorption gratings in anisotropic media for arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 55(1), 1035–1047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Culbreath, N. Glazar, and H. Yokoyama, “Note: Automated maskless micro-multidomain photoalignment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(12), 126107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensor. Actuators, A. (1)

C. Sun, N. Fang, D. M. Wu, and X. Zhang, “Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask,” Sensor. Actuators, A. 121(1), 113–120 (2005).

Other (2)

V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, England, 2008).

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of DMD based micro-lithography system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Micrographs of different LC patterns under a cross-polarized microscope: a) logo of Nanjing University, b) checkerboard, c) Fibonacci grating, d) 12-fold symmetric quasi-periodic structure and e-f) diffraction patterns of the sample shown in d) under different applied voltages. All cell gaps are 6 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micrographs of LC polarization rotators with different twist angles under a polarizing microscope with a) crossed and b) parallel polarizers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

V-T curves of an LC phase grating with alternate TN/PA regions. The transmittance of 2nd order is amplified by 5 times for better display. Insets show a micrograph and diffraction patterns at different voltages respectively. All given voltages are peak to peak values.

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