Abstract

The emission of a quantum cascade laser can be synchronized to the repetition rate of a femtosecond laser through the use of coherent injection seeding. This synchronization defines a sampling coherence between the terahertz laser emission and the femtosecond laser which enables coherent field detection. In this letter the sampling coherence is measured in the time-domain through the use of coherent and incoherent detection. For large seed amplitudes the emission is synchronized, while for small seed amplitudes the emission is non-synchronized. For intermediate seed amplitudes the emission exhibits a partial sampling coherence that is time-dependent.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. D. H. Auston, A. M. Johnson, R. R. Smith, and J. C. Bean, “Picosecond optoelectronic detection, sampling, and correlation measurements in amorphous semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(4), 371–373 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultra-fast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(4), 337–339 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41(3), 211–212 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Dai, X. Xie, and X. C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(10), 103903 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. H. Auston and K. P. Cheung, “Coherent time-domain far-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(4), 606–612 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1759–1780 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, “Measuring the optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 577–580 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Jiang and X. C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1114–1116 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of flames,” Opt. Lett. 20(15), 1646–1648 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Broadband THz lasing from a photon-phonon quantum cascade structure,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8043–8052 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and F. Capasso, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12929–12943 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructure large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Integrated injection seeded terahertz source and amplifier for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 731–733 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46(11), 788–790 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero-transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowky, “Measurement of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3450–3452 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, C. Walther, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Broadband THz lasing from a photon-phonon quantum cascade structure,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8043–8052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46(11), 788–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and F. Capasso, “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12929–12943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, “Measuring the optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 577–580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X. C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructure large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1759–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero-transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowky, “Measurement of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1989 (1)

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultra-fast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(4), 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41(3), 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. H. Auston, A. M. Johnson, R. R. Smith, and J. C. Bean, “Picosecond optoelectronic detection, sampling, and correlation measurements in amorphous semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(4), 371–373 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Alton, J.

R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amanti, M. I.

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston and K. P. Cheung, “Coherent time-domain far-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(4), 606–612 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, A. M. Johnson, R. R. Smith, and J. C. Bean, “Picosecond optoelectronic detection, sampling, and correlation measurements in amorphous semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(4), 371–373 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ban, D.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bean, J. C.

D. H. Auston, A. M. Johnson, R. R. Smith, and J. C. Bean, “Picosecond optoelectronic detection, sampling, and correlation measurements in amorphous semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(4), 371–373 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Beere, H. E.

R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

Belyanin, A.

Burghoff, D.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

Cavalié, P.

Chen, Q.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero-transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. P.

Cheville, R. A.

Dai, J.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X. C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darmo, J.

J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46(11), 788–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Integrated injection seeded terahertz source and amplifier for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 731–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dean, P.

Dekorsy, T.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructure large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dhillon, S.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhillon, S. S.

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Integrated injection seeded terahertz source and amplifier for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 731–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diehl, L.

Dreyhaupt, A.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructure large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Fattinger, Ch.

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultra-fast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(4), 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Filloux, P.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, J. R.

R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, “Measuring the optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 577–580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gabel, C. W.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41(3), 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowky, “Measurement of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gellie, P.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gkortsas, V. M.

Grant, P.

Grischkowky, D.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowky, “Measurement of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of flames,” Opt. Lett. 20(15), 1646–1648 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultra-fast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(4), 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Haffouz, S.

Ham, D.

Hameau, S.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructure large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, M. S. M.

Jeon, T. I.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowky, “Measurement of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero-transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X. C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1114–1116 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, A. M.

D. H. Auston, A. M. Johnson, R. R. Smith, and J. C. Bean, “Picosecond optoelectronic detection, sampling, and correlation measurements in amorphous semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(4), 371–373 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jukam, N.

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Integrated injection seeded terahertz source and amplifier for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 731–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T.-Y.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Khanna, S. P.

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Integrated injection seeded terahertz source and amplifier for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 731–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kröll, J.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuznetsova, L.

Lee, A. W. M.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Linfield, E. H.

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Integrated injection seeded terahertz source and amplifier for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 731–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

Madeo, J.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Madéo, J.

Malik, S.

R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manquest, C.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marcadet, X.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, O.

R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martl, M.

J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46(11), 788–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maussang, K.

Maysonnave, J.

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowky, “Measurement of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41(3), 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oustinov, D.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, M. B.

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, “Measuring the optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 577–580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ravaro, M.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, “Measuring the optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 577–580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rungsawang, R.

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1759–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, H.

Sirtori, C.

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. R.

D. H. Auston, A. M. Johnson, R. R. Smith, and J. C. Bean, “Picosecond optoelectronic detection, sampling, and correlation measurements in amorphous semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(4), 371–373 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Song, C. Y.

Steenson, D. P.

Sun, F. G.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero-transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Terazzi, R.

Tignon, J.

J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Integrated injection seeded terahertz source and amplifier for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 731–733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46(11), 788–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdmanis, J. A.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41(3), 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultra-fast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(4), 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vasanelli, A.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walther, C.

Wang, C. Y.

Wasilewski, Z. R.

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winnerl, S.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructure large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, “Measuring the optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 577–580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X. C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowky, “Measurement of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X. C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero-transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X. C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1114–1116 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.-Y.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

D. H. Auston, A. M. Johnson, R. R. Smith, and J. C. Bean, “Picosecond optoelectronic detection, sampling, and correlation measurements in amorphous semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(4), 371–373 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, “High brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultra-fast detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(4), 337–339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41(3), 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, Z.-Y. Zhao, S. Hameau, J. Tignon, S. Barbieri, A. Vasanelli, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, and X. Marcadet, “Investigation of spectral gain narrowing in quantum cascade lasers using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructure large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero-transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1191–1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowky, “Measurement of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(23), 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1759–1780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46(11), 788–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1(6), 69 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, “Measuring the optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 577–580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature 449(7163), 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X. C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) RF pulses bias the QCL along with a quasi-DC bias added with a bias tee (BT). THz seed pulses (generated from a photoconductive antenna [PC]) are coupled into a facet of the QCL. The output from the opposite facet is focused onto a ZnTe crystal for electro-optic detection, which takes place in either a quarter-wave geometry with λ/4 wave-plate and Wollaston prism (W), or a cross-polarizer geometry with an analyzer (A). The detection geometry can be changed by moving a mirror on a translation stage. b) The RF pulse measured with a pick-off tee (PT). The zero position is approximate and cannot be calibrated with the zero position of the femtosecond delay line. c)The synchronized THz field of the injection seeded QCL measured in the quarter-wave geometry. A quasi-DC bias of (1.91V, 70 A/cm2) is applied to the QCL, which is significantly less than the threshold bias (3.21V, 125 A/cm2) and the maximum QCL power bias (3.63V, 157 A/cm2). A 6W RF pulse, which experiences a significant reflection from the impedance mismatch of the QCL, drives the QCL above threshold to roughly the maximum QCL power bias. The photoconductive antenna is biased at 4V. d) Maximum peak-to-peak (p-p) THz field of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh round-trip pulses in part c as a function of the THz antenna bias voltage, which is proportional to the seed amplitude. e) A portion of part c, for which the synchronized THz field approaches zero.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The mean square (MS) field-envelope of the total emission (synchronized and non-synchronized) of the QCL measured in the cross-polarizer geometry in the absence of a THz seed pulse a) and with a THz seed pulse b). For part b an antenna bias of 4.0V is used to generate the seed. c) The square of the phase-resolved synchronized field measured in the quarter-wave geometry, with a 4.0V THz antenna bias. The time scale is too large to discern the individual field oscillations. (The MS field envelope is half the maximum value of the squared field.) For all graphs the RF power is 6W, and the quasi-DC bias is 1.91V - 70A/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a-d) Blue curves are the mean square (MS) synchronized field-envelope. Red curves are the total (synchronized and non-synchronized) MS field-envelope. The green curves are the MS non-synchronized field-envelope and are found by subtracting the MS field-envelope (blue curve) from the total MS field-envelope (red curve).The THz seed pulses are generated with photo-conductive antenna biases of a) 0.05V, b) 0.2V, c) 0.8V, and d) 4.0V. The amplitude of a THz seed pulse is proportional to the antenna bias. e-h) The degree of sampling coherence as a function of time for the corresponding curves in a-d). In the grey regions the sampling coherence is undefined since no THz field is present at these times. For all curves a quasi-DC bias of 1.91V (70 A/cm2) is applied to the QCL along with 6W of RF power.

Equations (3)

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E s (t)=( 1 J fs L ) 0 LT P fs (t-τ)E THz (t)dt ; P fs (t-τ) J fs n=0 L δ(t-nT) .
EO λ/4 ( t )= P o sin( Γ( τ )  ) P o ( Γ( τ ) )=  P o η E THz ( τ )
EO cross  ( t )= P o sin 2 ( Γ( τ )+ Γ o ) P o { η 2 E THz 2 ( τ )+2η Γ o E THz ( τ ) }.

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