Abstract

The role of the Coulomb potential on the generation of elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from atoms driven by elliptically polarized laser is investigated analytically. It is found that the Coulomb effect makes a contribution to the harmonic ellipticity for low harmonic orders and short quantum path. By using the strong-field eikonal-Volkov approximation, we analyze the influence of the Coulomb potential on the dynamics of the continuum state and find that the obtained harmonic ellipticity in our simulation originates from the break of symmetry of the continuum state.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. F. Lan, P. X. Lu, W. Cao, Y. H. Li, and X. L. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. G. Li, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Method to generate directly a broadband isolated attosecond pulse with stable pulse duration and high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063407 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. B. Zhang, and X. B. Wang, “Few-cycle attosecond pulses with stabilized-carrier-envelope phase in the presence of a strong terahertz field,” Opt. Express 17, 5139–5146 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Strelkov, “Role of autoionizing state in resonant high-order harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 123901 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Etches and L. B. Madsen, “Extending the strong-field approximation of high-order harmonic generation to polar molecules: gating mechanisms and extension of the harmonic cutoff,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155602 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Lein, “Molecular imaging using recolliding electrons,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, R135–R173 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Haessler, J. Caillat, and P. Salières, “Self-probing of molecules with high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44, 203001 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Hijano, C. Serrat, G. N. Gibson, and J. Biegert, “Orbital geometry determined by orthogonal high-order harmonic polarization components,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 041401(R) (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Chen and B. Zhang, “Tracing the structure of asymmetric molecules from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053402 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulanderc, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Ph. Antoine, B. Carré, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Polarization of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1314–1324 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. A. Weihe, S. K. Dutta, G. Korn, D. Du, P. H. Bucksbaum, and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Polarization of high-intensity high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3433–R3436 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1725–1745 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. V. V. Strelkov, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation and attosecond pulse emission by a low-frequency elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 013405 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, and D. Villeneuve, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Y. Qin, X. S. Zhu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and P. X. Lu, “Broadband large-ellipticity harmonic generation with polar molecules,” Opt. Express 19, 25084–25092 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. J. Yuan and A. D. Bandrauk, “Circularly polarized attosecond pulses from molecular high-order harmonic generation by ultrashort intense bichromatic circularly and linearly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45, 074001 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. V. van der Zwan and M. Lein, “Two-center interference and ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033405 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Gühr, B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High harmonic generation for N2 and CO2 beyond the two-point model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 3745–3755 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Coulomb and polarization effects in sub-cycle dynamics of strong-field ionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S307–S321 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one-and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. I. Bondar, W. K. Liu, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Two-electron ionization in strong laser fields below intensity threshold: Signatures of attosecond timing in correlated spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023417 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. C. Chirilă, “Analysis of the strong field approximation for harmonic generation and multiphoton ionization in intense ultrashort laser pulses,” PhD Thesis http://massey.dur.ac.uk/resources/cpchirila/chirilathesis.pdf .
  36. S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

K. J. Yuan and A. D. Bandrauk, “Circularly polarized attosecond pulses from molecular high-order harmonic generation by ultrashort intense bichromatic circularly and linearly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45, 074001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, and P. Salières, “Self-probing of molecules with high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and B. Zhang, “Tracing the structure of asymmetric molecules from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Qin, X. S. Zhu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and P. X. Lu, “Broadband large-ellipticity harmonic generation with polar molecules,” Opt. Express 19, 25084–25092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Strelkov, “Role of autoionizing state in resonant high-order harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 123901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Etches and L. B. Madsen, “Extending the strong-field approximation of high-order harmonic generation to polar molecules: gating mechanisms and extension of the harmonic cutoff,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. V. van der Zwan and M. Lein, “Two-center interference and ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Hijano, C. Serrat, G. N. Gibson, and J. Biegert, “Orbital geometry determined by orthogonal high-order harmonic polarization components,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 041401(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, and D. Villeneuve, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. I. Bondar, W. K. Liu, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Two-electron ionization in strong laser fields below intensity threshold: Signatures of attosecond timing in correlated spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. B. Zhang, and X. B. Wang, “Few-cycle attosecond pulses with stabilized-carrier-envelope phase in the presence of a strong terahertz field,” Opt. Express 17, 5139–5146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. G. Li, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Method to generate directly a broadband isolated attosecond pulse with stable pulse duration and high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one-and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

P. F. Lan, P. X. Lu, W. Cao, Y. H. Li, and X. L. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Gühr, B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High harmonic generation for N2 and CO2 beyond the two-point model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 3745–3755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, “Molecular imaging using recolliding electrons,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, R135–R173 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Coulomb and polarization effects in sub-cycle dynamics of strong-field ionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S307–S321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Strelkov, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation and attosecond pulse emission by a low-frequency elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 013405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Ph. Antoine, B. Carré, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Polarization of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1314–1324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1725–1745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

F. A. Weihe, S. K. Dutta, G. Korn, D. Du, P. H. Bucksbaum, and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Polarization of high-intensity high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3433–R3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulanderc, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, Ph.

Ph. Antoine, B. Carré, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Polarization of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1314–1324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1725–1745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

K. J. Yuan and A. D. Bandrauk, “Circularly polarized attosecond pulses from molecular high-order harmonic generation by ultrashort intense bichromatic circularly and linearly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45, 074001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

E. Hijano, C. Serrat, G. N. Gibson, and J. Biegert, “Orbital geometry determined by orthogonal high-order harmonic polarization components,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 041401(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bondar, D. I.

D. I. Bondar, W. K. Liu, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Two-electron ionization in strong laser fields below intensity threshold: Signatures of attosecond timing in correlated spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

M. Gühr, B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High harmonic generation for N2 and CO2 beyond the two-point model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 3745–3755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Weihe, S. K. Dutta, G. Korn, D. Du, P. H. Bucksbaum, and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Polarization of high-intensity high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3433–R3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caillat, J.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, and P. Salières, “Self-probing of molecules with high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

P. F. Lan, P. X. Lu, W. Cao, Y. H. Li, and X. L. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carré, B.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Antoine, B. Carré, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Polarization of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1314–1324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1725–1745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and B. Zhang, “Tracing the structure of asymmetric molecules from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chirila, C. C.

C. C. Chirilă, “Analysis of the strong field approximation for harmonic generation and multiphoton ionization in intense ultrashort laser pulses,” PhD Thesis http://massey.dur.ac.uk/resources/cpchirila/chirilathesis.pdf .

Chu, S. I.

S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bohan, A.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulanderc, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, L. C.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, D.

F. A. Weihe, S. K. Dutta, G. Korn, D. Du, P. H. Bucksbaum, and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Polarization of high-intensity high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3433–R3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, and D. Villeneuve, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dutoi, A. D.

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, S. K.

F. A. Weihe, S. K. Dutta, G. Korn, D. Du, P. H. Bucksbaum, and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Polarization of high-intensity high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3433–R3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etches, A.

A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Etches and L. B. Madsen, “Extending the strong-field approximation of high-order harmonic generation to polar molecules: gating mechanisms and extension of the harmonic cutoff,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, J. P.

M. Gühr, B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High harmonic generation for N2 and CO2 beyond the two-point model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 3745–3755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frasinski, L. J.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G. N.

E. Hijano, C. Serrat, G. N. Gibson, and J. Biegert, “Orbital geometry determined by orthogonal high-order harmonic polarization components,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 041401(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gonoskov, A. A.

V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonoskov, I. A.

V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gühr, M.

M. Gühr, B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High harmonic generation for N2 and CO2 beyond the two-point model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 3745–3755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haessler, S.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, and P. Salières, “Self-probing of molecules with high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hijano, E.

E. Hijano, C. Serrat, G. N. Gibson, and J. Biegert, “Orbital geometry determined by orthogonal high-order harmonic polarization components,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 041401(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, W. Y.

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one-and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Coulomb and polarization effects in sub-cycle dynamics of strong-field ionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S307–S321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

D. I. Bondar, W. K. Liu, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Two-electron ionization in strong laser fields below intensity threshold: Signatures of attosecond timing in correlated spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J.

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopold, R.

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

F. A. Weihe, S. K. Dutta, G. Korn, D. Du, P. H. Bucksbaum, and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Polarization of high-intensity high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3433–R3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovacev, M.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulanderc, K. C.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulanderc, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

Ph. Antoine, B. Carré, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Polarization of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1314–1324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1725–1745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, P. F.

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. B. Zhang, and X. B. Wang, “Few-cycle attosecond pulses with stabilized-carrier-envelope phase in the presence of a strong terahertz field,” Opt. Express 17, 5139–5146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. G. Li, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Method to generate directly a broadband isolated attosecond pulse with stable pulse duration and high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Lan, P. X. Lu, W. Cao, Y. H. Li, and X. L. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lein, M.

E. V. van der Zwan and M. Lein, “Two-center interference and ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, “Molecular imaging using recolliding electrons,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, R135–R173 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, J.

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

Ph. Antoine, B. Carré, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Polarization of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1314–1324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1725–1745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q. G.

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. G. Li, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Method to generate directly a broadband isolated attosecond pulse with stable pulse duration and high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. H.

P. F. Lan, P. X. Lu, W. Cao, Y. H. Li, and X. L. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. K.

D. I. Bondar, W. K. Liu, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Two-electron ionization in strong laser fields below intensity threshold: Signatures of attosecond timing in correlated spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lock, R.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P. X.

M. Y. Qin, X. S. Zhu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and P. X. Lu, “Broadband large-ellipticity harmonic generation with polar molecules,” Opt. Express 19, 25084–25092 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. B. Zhang, and X. B. Wang, “Few-cycle attosecond pulses with stabilized-carrier-envelope phase in the presence of a strong terahertz field,” Opt. Express 17, 5139–5146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. G. Li, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Method to generate directly a broadband isolated attosecond pulse with stable pulse duration and high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Lan, P. X. Lu, W. Cao, Y. H. Li, and X. L. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. B.

A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, L. B.

A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Etches and L. B. Madsen, “Extending the strong-field approximation of high-order harmonic generation to polar molecules: gating mechanisms and extension of the harmonic cutoff,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, and D. Villeneuve, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFarland, B. K.

M. Gühr, B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High harmonic generation for N2 and CO2 beyond the two-point model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 3745–3755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Merdji, H.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miloševic, D. B.

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Monchicourt, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patchkovskii, S.

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, and D. Villeneuve, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, M. Y.

Ramakrishna, S.

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryabikin, M. Yu.

V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, and P. Salières, “Self-probing of molecules with high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1725–1745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulanderc, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seideman, T.

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Serrat, C.

E. Hijano, C. Serrat, G. N. Gibson, and J. Biegert, “Orbital geometry determined by orthogonal high-order harmonic polarization components,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 041401(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sherratt, P. A. J.

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shkolnikov, P. L.

F. A. Weihe, S. K. Dutta, G. Korn, D. Du, P. H. Bucksbaum, and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Polarization of high-intensity high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3433–R3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnova, O.

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, and D. Villeneuve, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one-and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Coulomb and polarization effects in sub-cycle dynamics of strong-field ionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S307–S321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Son, S. K.

S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spanner, M.

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one-and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Coulomb and polarization effects in sub-cycle dynamics of strong-field ionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S307–S321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strelkov, V.

V. Strelkov, “Role of autoionizing state in resonant high-order harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 123901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strelkov, V. V.

V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Strelkov, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation and attosecond pulse emission by a low-frequency elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 013405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taïeb, R.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telnov, D. A.

S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Zwan, E. V.

E. V. van der Zwan and M. Lein, “Two-center interference and ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D.

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, and D. Villeneuve, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, N.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. B.

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. B. Zhang, and X. B. Wang, “Few-cycle attosecond pulses with stabilized-carrier-envelope phase in the presence of a strong terahertz field,” Opt. Express 17, 5139–5146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. G. Li, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Method to generate directly a broadband isolated attosecond pulse with stable pulse duration and high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

P. F. Lan, P. X. Lu, W. Cao, Y. H. Li, and X. L. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weihe, F. A.

F. A. Weihe, S. K. Dutta, G. Korn, D. Du, P. H. Bucksbaum, and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Polarization of high-intensity high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3433–R3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulanderc, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z. Y.

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. G. Li, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Method to generate directly a broadband isolated attosecond pulse with stable pulse duration and high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, K. J.

K. J. Yuan and A. D. Bandrauk, “Circularly polarized attosecond pulses from molecular high-order harmonic generation by ultrashort intense bichromatic circularly and linearly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45, 074001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Y. Chen and B. Zhang, “Tracing the structure of asymmetric molecules from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. B.

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X. S.

Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (6)

M. Gühr, B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High harmonic generation for N2 and CO2 beyond the two-point model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, 3745–3755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Coulomb and polarization effects in sub-cycle dynamics of strong-field ionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S307–S321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Yuan and A. D. Bandrauk, “Circularly polarized attosecond pulses from molecular high-order harmonic generation by ultrashort intense bichromatic circularly and linearly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45, 074001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Etches and L. B. Madsen, “Extending the strong-field approximation of high-order harmonic generation to polar molecules: gating mechanisms and extension of the harmonic cutoff,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 155602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, “Molecular imaging using recolliding electrons,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40, R135–R173 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Haessler, J. Caillat, and P. Salières, “Self-probing of molecules with high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (16)

S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. V. van der Zwan and M. Lein, “Two-center interference and ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one-and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Bondar, W. K. Liu, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Two-electron ionization in strong laser fields below intensity threshold: Signatures of attosecond timing in correlated spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 023417 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hijano, C. Serrat, G. N. Gibson, and J. Biegert, “Orbital geometry determined by orthogonal high-order harmonic polarization components,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 041401(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and B. Zhang, “Tracing the structure of asymmetric molecules from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 053402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Lan, P. X. Lu, W. Cao, Y. H. Li, and X. L. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Hong, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, Q. G. Li, Q. B. Zhang, Z. Y. Yang, and X. B. Wang, “Method to generate directly a broadband isolated attosecond pulse with stable pulse duration and high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 063407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Antoine, B. Carré, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Polarization of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1314–1324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Weihe, S. K. Dutta, G. Korn, D. Du, P. H. Bucksbaum, and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Polarization of high-intensity high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3433–R3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 1725–1745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Strelkov, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation and attosecond pulse emission by a low-frequency elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 013405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulanderc, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, and D. Villeneuve, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pépin, J. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Polarization state of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Strelkov, “Role of autoionizing state in resonant high-order harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 123901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. C. Chirilă, “Analysis of the strong field approximation for harmonic generation and multiphoton ionization in intense ultrashort laser pulses,” PhD Thesis http://massey.dur.ac.uk/resources/cpchirila/chirilathesis.pdf .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) and (b) Typical trajectories of the continuum electrons with recombination kinetic energy of 1Up, 2Up and 3Up for short and long quantum paths respectively. (c) and (d) Snap shots of the evolution of the probability density distribution of the wavepacket at the instant of recombination.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculations of the Coulomb modification term σk(r,t) at the instant of recombination for (a) short quantum path and low harmonic order, (b) long quantum path and low harmonic order, (c) short quantum path and high harmonic order and (d) long quantum path and high harmonic order.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The harmonic ellipticity and the rotation angle as functions of the recombination time t.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The harmonic ellipticity and (b) the phase difference between the two orthogonal components as functions of the harmonic order. Inset: Comparison between the soft-core potential V(r) and the short-range potential Vs(r). The analytical results in [25] are also presented in panel (a) with the green curves.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d i ( t ; k ) = ψ 0 ( r , t ) | r i | ψ k ( r , t ) , i = x , y
H = 1 2 2 + V ( r ) ,
V ( r ) = 1 r 2 + a ,
ψ k ( r , t ) = e i k ( t ) r + i σ k ( r , t ) .
σ k ( r , t ) = t b t k L ( t ) { k L ( t ) k L 2 ( t ) 2 V [ r L ( t ) ] } d t
r L ( t ) = r t t k L ( t ) d t
ε = 1 + R 2 1 + 2 R 2 cos 2 δ + R 4 1 + R 2 + 1 + 2 R 2 cos 2 δ + R 4 .

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