Abstract

Surface texturing has been widely adopted to enhance the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and chemical etching is a technique commonly used to produce surface texturing. This study employed femtosecond lasers to apply ITO films directly onto the surface of LEDs to generate periodic micro/nanostructures and roughen the surface without contact or chemical substances. As a result, photons emitted in the active region escape into the free space, due to the scattering effect produced by texturing. This study discovered that light-emitting efficiency increases with surface roughness, and achieved an improvement of 18%. Caution regarding laser fluence was required during laser processing to avoid damaging the LED beneath the ITO film, which could detract from the electrical characteristics.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light Output Enhancement for Nitride-based Light Emitting Diodes via Imprinting Lithography Using Spin-on Glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. F. Tsai, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Improvement in External Quantum Efficiency of InGaN-Based LEDs by Micro-Textured Surface with Different Geometric Patterns,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H151–H156 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Lee, N. S. Kim, S. S. Hong, and J. H. Lee, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes using 100-kHz femtosecond-laser-scribing technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(3), 213–215 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. S. Banks, B. C. Stuart, M. A. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond laser materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 14–21 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1492–1497 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. H. R. Crawford and H. K. Haugen, “Sub-wavelength surface structures on silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses at 1300 and 2100 nm wavelengths,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 4970–4977 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. W. Cheng, W. C. Shen, C. Y. Lin, Y. J. Lee, and J. S. Chen, “Fabrication of micro/nano crystalline ITO structures by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(2), 243–248 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. C. Peng and Y. C. S. Wu, “Enhanced light output in double roughened GaN light-emitting diodes via various texturing treatments of undoped-GaN layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7709–7712 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

C. F. Tsai, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Improvement in External Quantum Efficiency of InGaN-Based LEDs by Micro-Textured Surface with Different Geometric Patterns,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H151–H156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

J. H. Lee, N. S. Kim, S. S. Hong, and J. H. Lee, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes using 100-kHz femtosecond-laser-scribing technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(3), 213–215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light Output Enhancement for Nitride-based Light Emitting Diodes via Imprinting Lithography Using Spin-on Glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Cheng, W. C. Shen, C. Y. Lin, Y. J. Lee, and J. S. Chen, “Fabrication of micro/nano crystalline ITO structures by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(2), 243–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. H. R. Crawford and H. K. Haugen, “Sub-wavelength surface structures on silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses at 1300 and 2100 nm wavelengths,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 4970–4977 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

W. C. Peng and Y. C. S. Wu, “Enhanced light output in double roughened GaN light-emitting diodes via various texturing treatments of undoped-GaN layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7709–7712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1492–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. S. Banks, B. C. Stuart, M. A. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond laser materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 14–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Banks, P. S.

P. S. Banks, B. C. Stuart, M. A. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond laser materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 14–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. S.

C. W. Cheng, W. C. Shen, C. Y. Lin, Y. J. Lee, and J. S. Chen, “Fabrication of micro/nano crystalline ITO structures by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(2), 243–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-Y.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. S.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. W.

C. W. Cheng, W. C. Shen, C. Y. Lin, Y. J. Lee, and J. S. Chen, “Fabrication of micro/nano crystalline ITO structures by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(2), 243–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-W.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1492–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ciou, M. J.

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light Output Enhancement for Nitride-based Light Emitting Diodes via Imprinting Lithography Using Spin-on Glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, T. H. R.

T. H. R. Crawford and H. K. Haugen, “Sub-wavelength surface structures on silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses at 1300 and 2100 nm wavelengths,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 4970–4977 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

P. S. Banks, B. C. Stuart, M. A. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond laser materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 14–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

T. H. R. Crawford and H. K. Haugen, “Sub-wavelength surface structures on silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses at 1300 and 2100 nm wavelengths,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 4970–4977 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. S.

J. H. Lee, N. S. Kim, S. S. Hong, and J. H. Lee, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes using 100-kHz femtosecond-laser-scribing technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(3), 213–215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. J.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. S.

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light Output Enhancement for Nitride-based Light Emitting Diodes via Imprinting Lithography Using Spin-on Glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-Y.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M.-Y.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. S.

J. H. Lee, N. S. Kim, S. S. Hong, and J. H. Lee, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes using 100-kHz femtosecond-laser-scribing technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(3), 213–215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. K.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Komashko, M. A.

P. S. Banks, B. C. Stuart, M. A. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond laser materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 14–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. T.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, N. S. Kim, S. S. Hong, and J. H. Lee, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes using 100-kHz femtosecond-laser-scribing technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(3), 213–215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, N. S. Kim, S. S. Hong, and J. H. Lee, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes using 100-kHz femtosecond-laser-scribing technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(3), 213–215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. C.

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light Output Enhancement for Nitride-based Light Emitting Diodes via Imprinting Lithography Using Spin-on Glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

C. W. Cheng, W. C. Shen, C. Y. Lin, Y. J. Lee, and J. S. Chen, “Fabrication of micro/nano crystalline ITO structures by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(2), 243–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-K.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, G. C.

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1492–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

C. F. Tsai, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Improvement in External Quantum Efficiency of InGaN-Based LEDs by Micro-Textured Surface with Different Geometric Patterns,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H151–H156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. Y.

C. W. Cheng, W. C. Shen, C. Y. Lin, Y. J. Lee, and J. S. Chen, “Fabrication of micro/nano crystalline ITO structures by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(2), 243–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1492–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Munz, M.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ng, F. L.

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1492–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W. C.

W. C. Peng and Y. C. S. Wu, “Enhanced light output in double roughened GaN light-emitting diodes via various texturing treatments of undoped-GaN layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7709–7712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

P. S. Banks, B. C. Stuart, M. A. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond laser materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 14–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

P. S. Banks, B. C. Stuart, M. A. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond laser materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 14–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. F.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W. C.

C. W. Cheng, W. C. Shen, C. Y. Lin, Y. J. Lee, and J. S. Chen, “Fabrication of micro/nano crystalline ITO structures by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(2), 243–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

P. S. Banks, B. C. Stuart, M. A. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond laser materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 14–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, H.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

C. F. Tsai, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Improvement in External Quantum Efficiency of InGaN-Based LEDs by Micro-Textured Surface with Different Geometric Patterns,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H151–H156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. F.

C. F. Tsai, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Improvement in External Quantum Efficiency of InGaN-Based LEDs by Micro-Textured Surface with Different Geometric Patterns,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H151–H156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-C.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. C.

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1492–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. C. S.

W. C. Peng and Y. C. S. Wu, “Enhanced light output in double roughened GaN light-emitting diodes via various texturing treatments of undoped-GaN layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7709–7712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-R.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-C.

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

C. W. Cheng, W. C. Shen, C. Y. Lin, Y. J. Lee, and J. S. Chen, “Fabrication of micro/nano crystalline ITO structures by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(2), 243–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(5), 1492–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. H. R. Crawford and H. K. Haugen, “Sub-wavelength surface structures on silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses at 1300 and 2100 nm wavelengths,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(11), 4970–4977 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (2)

J. H. Lee, N. S. Kim, S. S. Hong, and J. H. Lee, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes using 100-kHz femtosecond-laser-scribing technology,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(3), 213–215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, S.-C. Wang, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, S.-C. Yang, L.-Y. Chen, M.-Y. Ke, C.-K. Li, Y.-R. Wu, and J. J. Huang, “Optical properties of the partially strain relaxed InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes induced by p-type GaN surface texturing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(2), 182–184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

C. F. Tsai, Y. K. Su, and C. L. Lin, “Improvement in External Quantum Efficiency of InGaN-Based LEDs by Micro-Textured Surface with Different Geometric Patterns,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H151–H156 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. C. Peng and Y. C. S. Wu, “Enhanced light output in double roughened GaN light-emitting diodes via various texturing treatments of undoped-GaN layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7709–7712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light Output Enhancement for Nitride-based Light Emitting Diodes via Imprinting Lithography Using Spin-on Glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. S. Banks, B. C. Stuart, M. A. Komashko, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond laser materials processing,” Proc. SPIE 3934, 14–21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Process flow to prepare surface texturing of GaN-based LED.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of ITO etching at femtosecond laser power of 2 mW moving speed of 130 mm/s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM images of ITO etching using a femtosecond laser power of 10 mW and moving speed of 40 mm/s and (b) AFM image and line scanning of laser processing region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of I-V curves for conventional LEDs and other LEDs etched by femtosecond lasers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of L-I curves for conventional LED and other LEDs etched by femtosecond laser.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of Forward Voltage, Light Output Power, and Light Enhanced Efficiency of Various Laser Texturing Conditions and Those of Conventional LEDs with Injection Current of 20 mA

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