Abstract

We demonstrate a highly efficient optomechanical oscillator based upon a small silicon microdisk resonator with a 2-μm radius. The device exhibits a strong optomechanical coupling of 115 GHz/nm and a large intrinsic mechanical frequency-Q product of 4.32 × 1012 Hz. It is able to operate at a high frequency of 1.294 GHz with an ultralow threshold of 3.56 μW while working in the air environment. The high efficiency, high frequency together with the structural compactness and CMOS compatibility of our device enables great potential for broad applications in photonic-phononic signal processing, sensing, and metrology.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, “Nanoelectromechanical systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 061101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. T.-C. Nguyen, “MEMS technology for timing and frequency control,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 251–270 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. T. M. van Beek and R. Puers, “A review of MEMS oscillators for frequency reference and timing applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 22, 013001 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscopic scale,” Science 321, 1172–1176 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Favero and K. Karrai, “Optomechanics of deformable optical cavities,” Nat. Photonics 3, 201–205 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Van Thourhout and J. Roels, “Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force,” Nat. Photonics 4, 211–217 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Corbitt, D. Ottaway, E. Innerhofer, J. Pelc, and N. Mavalvala, “Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 021802 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–556 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Eichenfiled, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).
  12. Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103601 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113601 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-Level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “High frequency GaAs nano-optomechanical disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263903 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Talhur, S. Sridaran, and S. A. Bhave, “A monolithic radiation-pressure driven low phase noise silicon nitride opto-mechanical oscillator,” Opt. Express 19, 24522–24529 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011), .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. A. Taylor, A. Szorkovszky, J. Knittel, K. H. Lee, T. G. McRae, and W. P. Bowen, “Cavity optoelectromechanical regenerative amplification,” arXiv:1107.0779v1 (2011).
  20. X. Sun, K. Y. Fong, C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “GHz optomechanical resonators with high mechanical Q factor in air,” Opt. Express 19, 22316–22321 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113801 (2011).
  22. X. Sun, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q silicon optomechanical microdisk resonators at gigahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173116 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Rosenberg, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “Static and dynamic wavelength routing via the gradient optical force,” Nat. Photonics 3, 478–483 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Weinstein and S. A. Bhave, “Internal dielectric transduction of in bulk-mode resonators,” J. Microelectmech. Syst. 18, 1401–1408 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

J. T. M. van Beek and R. Puers, “A review of MEMS oscillators for frequency reference and timing applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 22, 013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q silicon optomechanical microdisk resonators at gigahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011), .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, K. Y. Fong, C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “GHz optomechanical resonators with high mechanical Q factor in air,” Opt. Express 19, 22316–22321 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Talhur, S. Sridaran, and S. A. Bhave, “A monolithic radiation-pressure driven low phase noise silicon nitride opto-mechanical oscillator,” Opt. Express 19, 24522–24529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113801 (2011).

2010 (4)

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-Level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “High frequency GaAs nano-optomechanical disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Thourhout and J. Roels, “Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force,” Nat. Photonics 4, 211–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

D. Weinstein and S. A. Bhave, “Internal dielectric transduction of in bulk-mode resonators,” J. Microelectmech. Syst. 18, 1401–1408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Rosenberg, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “Static and dynamic wavelength routing via the gradient optical force,” Nat. Photonics 3, 478–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Favero and K. Karrai, “Optomechanics of deformable optical cavities,” Nat. Photonics 3, 201–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfiled, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscopic scale,” Science 321, 1172–1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. T.-C. Nguyen, “MEMS technology for timing and frequency control,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 251–270 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Corbitt, D. Ottaway, E. Innerhofer, J. Pelc, and N. Mavalvala, “Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, “Nanoelectromechanical systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahl, G.

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011), .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, C.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113801 (2011).

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “High frequency GaAs nano-optomechanical disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhave, S. A.

S. Talhur, S. Sridaran, and S. A. Bhave, “A monolithic radiation-pressure driven low phase noise silicon nitride opto-mechanical oscillator,” Opt. Express 19, 24522–24529 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Weinstein and S. A. Bhave, “Internal dielectric transduction of in bulk-mode resonators,” J. Microelectmech. Syst. 18, 1401–1408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, W. P.

M. A. Taylor, A. Szorkovszky, J. Knittel, K. H. Lee, T. G. McRae, and W. P. Bowen, “Cavity optoelectromechanical regenerative amplification,” arXiv:1107.0779v1 (2011).

Briant, T.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camacho, R.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camacho, R. M.

M. Eichenfiled, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).

Carmon, T.

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011), .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfiled, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, D.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cohadon, P.-F.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corbitt, T.

T. Corbitt, D. Ottaway, E. Innerhofer, J. Pelc, and N. Mavalvala, “Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113801 (2011).

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “High frequency GaAs nano-optomechanical disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ducci, S.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113801 (2011).

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “High frequency GaAs nano-optomechanical disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eichenfield, M.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichenfiled, M.

M. Eichenfiled, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).

Ekinci, K. L.

K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, “Nanoelectromechanical systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Favero, I.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113801 (2011).

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “High frequency GaAs nano-optomechanical disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Favero and K. Karrai, “Optomechanics of deformable optical cavities,” Nat. Photonics 3, 201–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fong, K. Y.

Grudinin, I. S.

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-Level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidmann, A.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Innerhofer, E.

T. Corbitt, D. Ottaway, E. Innerhofer, J. Pelc, and N. Mavalvala, “Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karrai, K.

I. Favero and K. Karrai, “Optomechanics of deformable optical cavities,” Nat. Photonics 3, 201–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscopic scale,” Science 321, 1172–1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knittel, J.

M. A. Taylor, A. Szorkovszky, J. Knittel, K. H. Lee, T. G. McRae, and W. P. Bowen, “Cavity optoelectromechanical regenerative amplification,” arXiv:1107.0779v1 (2011).

Lee, H.

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-Level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. H.

M. A. Taylor, A. Szorkovszky, J. Knittel, K. H. Lee, T. G. McRae, and W. P. Bowen, “Cavity optoelectromechanical regenerative amplification,” arXiv:1107.0779v1 (2011).

Lemaitre, A.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113801 (2011).

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “High frequency GaAs nano-optomechanical disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leo, G.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113801 (2011).

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “High frequency GaAs nano-optomechanical disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Rosenberg, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “Static and dynamic wavelength routing via the gradient optical force,” Nat. Photonics 3, 478–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maleki, L.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsko, A. B.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mavalvala, N.

T. Corbitt, D. Ottaway, E. Innerhofer, J. Pelc, and N. Mavalvala, “Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McRae, T. G.

M. A. Taylor, A. Szorkovszky, J. Knittel, K. H. Lee, T. G. McRae, and W. P. Bowen, “Cavity optoelectromechanical regenerative amplification,” arXiv:1107.0779v1 (2011).

Nguyen, C. T.-C.

C. T.-C. Nguyen, “MEMS technology for timing and frequency control,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 251–270 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ottaway, D.

T. Corbitt, D. Ottaway, E. Innerhofer, J. Pelc, and N. Mavalvala, “Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-Level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfiled, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rosenberg, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “Static and dynamic wavelength routing via the gradient optical force,” Nat. Photonics 3, 478–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelc, J.

T. Corbitt, D. Ottaway, E. Innerhofer, J. Pelc, and N. Mavalvala, “Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pernice, W. H. P.

Pinard, M.

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puers, R.

J. T. M. van Beek and R. Puers, “A review of MEMS oscillators for frequency reference and timing applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 22, 013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roels, J.

D. Van Thourhout and J. Roels, “Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force,” Nat. Photonics 4, 211–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rokhsari, H.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, J.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Rosenberg, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “Static and dynamic wavelength routing via the gradient optical force,” Nat. Photonics 3, 478–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roukes, M. L.

K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, “Nanoelectromechanical systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senellart, P.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113801 (2011).

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “High frequency GaAs nano-optomechanical disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sridaran, S.

Sun, X.

X. Sun, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q silicon optomechanical microdisk resonators at gigahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, K. Y. Fong, C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “GHz optomechanical resonators with high mechanical Q factor in air,” Opt. Express 19, 22316–22321 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szorkovszky, A.

M. A. Taylor, A. Szorkovszky, J. Knittel, K. H. Lee, T. G. McRae, and W. P. Bowen, “Cavity optoelectromechanical regenerative amplification,” arXiv:1107.0779v1 (2011).

Talhur, S.

Tang, H. X.

X. Sun, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q silicon optomechanical microdisk resonators at gigahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, K. Y. Fong, C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “GHz optomechanical resonators with high mechanical Q factor in air,” Opt. Express 19, 22316–22321 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, M. A.

M. A. Taylor, A. Szorkovszky, J. Knittel, K. H. Lee, T. G. McRae, and W. P. Bowen, “Cavity optoelectromechanical regenerative amplification,” arXiv:1107.0779v1 (2011).

Tomes, M.

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011), .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-Level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfiled, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscopic scale,” Science 321, 1172–1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Beek, J. T. M.

J. T. M. van Beek and R. Puers, “A review of MEMS oscillators for frequency reference and timing applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 22, 013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Van Thourhout and J. Roels, “Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force,” Nat. Photonics 4, 211–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, D.

D. Weinstein and S. A. Bhave, “Internal dielectric transduction of in bulk-mode resonators,” J. Microelectmech. Syst. 18, 1401–1408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

Zehnpfennig, J.

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011), .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Sun, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q silicon optomechanical microdisk resonators at gigahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 113801 (2011).

X. Sun, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q silicon optomechanical microdisk resonators at gigahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 173116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

C. T.-C. Nguyen, “MEMS technology for timing and frequency control,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 251–270 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microelectmech. Syst. (1)

D. Weinstein and S. A. Bhave, “Internal dielectric transduction of in bulk-mode resonators,” J. Microelectmech. Syst. 18, 1401–1408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

J. T. M. van Beek and R. Puers, “A review of MEMS oscillators for frequency reference and timing applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 22, 013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

G. Bahl, J. Zehnpfennig, M. Tomes, and T. Carmon, “Stimulated optomechanical excitation of surface acoustic waves in a microdevice,” Nat. Commun. 2, 403 (2011), .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

J. Rosenberg, Q. Lin, and O. Painter, “Static and dynamic wavelength routing via the gradient optical force,” Nat. Photonics 3, 478–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Favero and K. Karrai, “Optomechanics of deformable optical cavities,” Nat. Photonics 3, 201–205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Thourhout and J. Roels, “Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force,” Nat. Photonics 4, 211–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459, 550–556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfiled, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).

O. Arcizet, P.-F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444, 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Corbitt, D. Ottaway, E. Innerhofer, J. Pelc, and N. Mavalvala, “Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tomes and T. Carmon, “Photonic micro-electromechanical systems vibrating at X-band (11-GHz) rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 113601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Grudinin, H. Lee, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Phonon laser action in a tunable two-Level system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 083901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “High frequency GaAs nano-optomechanical disk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, “Nanoelectromechanical systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscopic scale,” Science 321, 1172–1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. A. Taylor, A. Szorkovszky, J. Knittel, K. H. Lee, T. G. McRae, and W. P. Bowen, “Cavity optoelectromechanical regenerative amplification,” arXiv:1107.0779v1 (2011).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of the device. The silicon microdisk has a layer thickness of 260 nm, sitting on a 2-μm high silica pedestal with an undercut width of ∼ 1.9 μm. (b) & (c) The FEM simulations of fundamental and second-order radial-stretching mechanical mode, respectively. The color map indicates the amplitude of mechanical displacement. (d) Simulated mechanical frequencies as a function of microdisk radius for the fundamental (red) and second-order (blue) radial-stretching mode with a undercut-to-radius ratio of 95%. The dashed line indicates that for our fabricated device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup. VOA: variable optical attenuator. MZI: Mach-Zehnder interferometer. (b) Experimentally recorded (blue) cavity transmission for an optical mode at 1502.03 nm, with a theoretical fitting (red). The inset shows the simulated mode profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) RF spectrum of cavity transmission. The irregular background is due to the spectrum analyzer which has a capture bandwidth of 36 MHz. (b) The spectral density of mechanical displacement for the fundamental radial stretching mode. The experimental data (blue) is compared directly with the theory (red). The experimental data were recorded with an input optical power low enough not to introduce noticeable dynamic back-action. In both figures, the gray traces show the noise background of the detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) RF Spectrum of the oscillator, with a dropped optical power of 0.63 (blue) and 4.0 (red) μW, respectively. The inset shows the detailed spectrum at the pump power of 4.0 μW, with a Lorentzian fitting (red). (b) The mechanical energy as a function of the dropped optical power. The mechanical energy is measured by integrating the spectral area of the transduced mechanical spectrum, normalized by the intrinsic thermal mechanical energy at room temperature. The red curve is a linear fit to data above threshold (except the last three points showing saturation). The inset shows the theoretical power threshold for our device as a function of laser-cavity frequency detuning normalized by the mechanical frequency Ωm. The dashed line indicates the detuning used in our experiment.

Equations (2)

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P d = m eff ω 0 2 g OM 2 Γ 0 Γ m Γ t Δ [ ( Δ Ω m ) 2 + ( Γ t / 2 ) 2 ] [ ( Δ + Ω m ) 2 + ( Γ t / 2 ) 2 ] ,
δ Ω m h ¯ g OM 2 N ph Δ m eff Ω m Δ 2 Ω m 2 + ( Γ t / 2 ) 2 [ ( Δ Ω m ) 2 + ( Γ t / 2 ) 2 ] [ ( Δ + Ω m ) 2 + ( Γ t / 2 ) 2 ] .

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