Abstract

With the nano-imprint lithography and the pulsed growth mode of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, a regularly-patterned, c-axis nitride nanorod (NR) array of quite uniform geometry with simultaneous depositions of top-face, c-plane disc-like and sidewall, m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures is formed. The differences of geometry and composition between these two groups of QW are studied with scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In particular, the strain state analysis results in TEM observations provide us with the information about the QW width and composition. It is found that the QW widths are narrower and the indium contents are higher in the sidewall m-plane QWs, when compared with the top-face c-plane QWs. Also, in the sidewall m-plane QWs, the QW width (indium content) decreases (increases) with the height on the sidewall. The observed results can be interpreted with the migration behaviors of the constituent atoms along the NR sidewall from the bottom.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

A. D. L. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 193102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (10)

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li and G. T. Wang, “Spatial distribution of defect luminescence in GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1554–1558 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Song, W. I. Park, and U. Paik, “Epitaxial growth of one-dimensional GaN nanostructures with enhanced near-band edge emission by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Tang, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, W.-M. Chang, C.-H. Liao, K.-C. Shen, C.-C. Yang, M.-C. Hsu, J.-H. Yeh, and T.-C. Hsu, “Nitride nanocolumns for the development of light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 71–78 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Colby, Z. Liang, I. H. Wildeson, D. A. Ewoldt, T. D. Sands, R. E. García, and E. A. Stach, “Dislocation filtering in GaN nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1568–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

R. L. Woo, L. Gao, N. Goel, M. K. Hudait, K. L. Wang, S. Kodambaka, and R. F. Hicks, “Kinetic control of self-catalyzed indium phosphide nanowires, nanocones, and nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2207–2211 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ristić, E. Calleja, S. Fernandez-Garrido, L. Cerutti, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and K. H. Ploog, “On the mechanisms of spontaneous growth of III-nitride nanocolumns by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(18), 4035–4045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Lim, M. J. Tambe, M. M. Brewster, and S. Gradecak, “Controlled growth of ternary alloy nanowires using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1386–1392 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

R. K. Debnath, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, R. Calarco, and H. Luth, “Mechanism of molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 123117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GanN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, I. M. Watson, C. Liu, R. A. Taylor, J. H. Rice, J. H. Na, J. W. Robinson, and J. D. Smith, “Quantum dot emission from site-controlled InGaN/GaN micropyramid arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4281–4283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K. J. Ma, S. C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C. C. Pan, and J. I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependence of photoluminescence emission from a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 496–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
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L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1601–1602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. Tachibana, T. Someya, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Selective growth of InGaN quantum dot structures and their microphotoluminescence at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3212–3214 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I.-H. Ho and G. B. Stringfellow, “Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2701–2703 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abid, M.

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

K. Tachibana, T. Someya, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Selective growth of InGaN quantum dot structures and their microphotoluminescence at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3212–3214 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 193102 (2011).
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W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
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Barnes, J. P.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
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Barrelet, C. J.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
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Beaumont, B.

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bergbauer, W.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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Bhattacharya, P.

W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 193102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonanno, P. L.

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
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Bougerol, C.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
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Brewster, M.

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
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Brewster, M. M.

S. K. Lim, M. J. Tambe, M. M. Brewster, and S. Gradecak, “Controlled growth of ternary alloy nanowires using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1386–1392 (2008).
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Bugallo, A. D. L.

G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
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A. D. L. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z. H.

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Calarco, R.

R. K. Debnath, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, R. Calarco, and H. Luth, “Mechanism of molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 123117 (2007).
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Calleja, E.

J. Ristić, E. Calleja, S. Fernandez-Garrido, L. Cerutti, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and K. H. Ploog, “On the mechanisms of spontaneous growth of III-nitride nanocolumns by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(18), 4035–4045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, L.

J. Ristić, E. Calleja, S. Fernandez-Garrido, L. Cerutti, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and K. H. Ploog, “On the mechanisms of spontaneous growth of III-nitride nanocolumns by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(18), 4035–4045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. M.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.-M.

T.-Y. Tang, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, W.-M. Chang, C.-H. Liao, K.-C. Shen, C.-C. Yang, M.-C. Hsu, J.-H. Yeh, and T.-C. Hsu, “Nitride nanocolumns for the development of light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 71–78 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. D.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GanN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GanN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. H.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GanN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K. J. Ma, S. C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C. C. Pan, and J. I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-C.

T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-C.

T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. J.

G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. D. L. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. S.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-S.

T.-Y. Tang, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, W.-M. Chang, C.-H. Liao, K.-C. Shen, C.-C. Yang, M.-C. Hsu, J.-H. Yeh, and T.-C. Hsu, “Nitride nanocolumns for the development of light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 71–78 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K. J. Ma, S. C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C. C. Pan, and J. I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. W.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.-C.

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chèze, C.

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chi, T. W.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1601–1602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, H. L.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.-C.

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, H. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chyi, J. I.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K. J. Ma, S. C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C. C. Pan, and J. I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J.-I.

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colby, R.

R. Colby, Z. Liang, I. H. Wildeson, D. A. Ewoldt, T. D. Sands, R. E. García, and E. A. Stach, “Dislocation filtering in GaN nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1568–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craven, M. D.

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependence of photoluminescence emission from a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 496–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dang, D. S.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Luna Bugallo, A.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debnath, R. K.

R. K. Debnath, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, R. Calarco, and H. Luth, “Mechanism of molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 123117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denbaars, S. P.

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependence of photoluminescence emission from a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 496–498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durand, C.

G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. L. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, P. R.

P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, I. M. Watson, C. Liu, R. A. Taylor, J. H. Rice, J. H. Na, J. W. Robinson, and J. D. Smith, “Quantum dot emission from site-controlled InGaN/GaN micropyramid arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4281–4283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ewoldt, D. A.

R. Colby, Z. Liang, I. H. Wildeson, D. A. Ewoldt, T. D. Sands, R. E. García, and E. A. Stach, “Dislocation filtering in GaN nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1568–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eymery, J.

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J. Ristić, E. Calleja, S. Fernandez-Garrido, L. Cerutti, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and K. H. Ploog, “On the mechanisms of spontaneous growth of III-nitride nanocolumns by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(18), 4035–4045 (2008).
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Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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R. L. Woo, L. Gao, N. Goel, M. K. Hudait, K. L. Wang, S. Kodambaka, and R. F. Hicks, “Kinetic control of self-catalyzed indium phosphide nanowires, nanocones, and nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2207–2211 (2009).
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S. K. Lim, M. J. Tambe, M. M. Brewster, and S. Gradecak, “Controlled growth of ternary alloy nanowires using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1386–1392 (2008).
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W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 193102 (2011).
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W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
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D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
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X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
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S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
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R. L. Woo, L. Gao, N. Goel, M. K. Hudait, K. L. Wang, S. Kodambaka, and R. F. Hicks, “Kinetic control of self-catalyzed indium phosphide nanowires, nanocones, and nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2207–2211 (2009).
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Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1601–1602 (2003).
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M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
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C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
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Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
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C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051913 (2006).
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T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
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Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
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Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
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T.-Y. Tang, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, W.-M. Chang, C.-H. Liao, K.-C. Shen, C.-C. Yang, M.-C. Hsu, J.-H. Yeh, and T.-C. Hsu, “Nitride nanocolumns for the development of light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 71–78 (2010).
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T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
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C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051913 (2006).
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H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GanN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
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Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
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Huang, J. J.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
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Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.-J.

T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hudait, M. K.

R. L. Woo, L. Gao, N. Goel, M. K. Hudait, K. L. Wang, S. Kodambaka, and R. F. Hicks, “Kinetic control of self-catalyzed indium phosphide nanowires, nanocones, and nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2207–2211 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
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G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. D. L. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jahn, U.

J. Ristić, E. Calleja, S. Fernandez-Garrido, L. Cerutti, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and K. H. Ploog, “On the mechanisms of spontaneous growth of III-nitride nanocolumns by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(18), 4035–4045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jenichen, B.

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Julien, F. H.

A. D. L. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M. Y.

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10549–10556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, A.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
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K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kishino, K.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kociak, M.

G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kodambaka, S.

R. L. Woo, L. Gao, N. Goel, M. K. Hudait, K. L. Wang, S. Kodambaka, and R. F. Hicks, “Kinetic control of self-catalyzed indium phosphide nanowires, nanocones, and nanopillars,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2207–2211 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koester, R.

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolper, C.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kölper, Ch.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahnemann, J.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lähnemann, J.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahrèche, H.

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laügt, M.

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lavenus, P.

G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Le Gratiet, L.

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-M.

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leroux, M.

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Q. Li and G. T. Wang, “Spatial distribution of defect luminescence in GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1554–1558 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S. F.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Z.

R. Colby, Z. Liang, I. H. Wildeson, D. A. Ewoldt, T. D. Sands, R. E. García, and E. A. Stach, “Dislocation filtering in GaN nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1568–1573 (2010).
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Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-C.

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-H.

T.-Y. Tang, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, W.-M. Chang, C.-H. Liao, K.-C. Shen, C.-C. Yang, M.-C. Hsu, J.-H. Yeh, and T.-C. Hsu, “Nitride nanocolumns for the development of light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 71–78 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. K.

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Lim, M. J. Tambe, M. M. Brewster, and S. Gradecak, “Controlled growth of ternary alloy nanowires using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1386–1392 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

T.-Y. Tang, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, W.-M. Chang, C.-H. Liao, K.-C. Shen, C.-C. Yang, M.-C. Hsu, J.-H. Yeh, and T.-C. Hsu, “Nitride nanocolumns for the development of light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 71–78 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, E. C.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K. J. Ma, S. C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C. C. Pan, and J. I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. L.

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, I. M. Watson, C. Liu, R. A. Taylor, J. H. Rice, J. H. Na, J. W. Robinson, and J. D. Smith, “Quantum dot emission from site-controlled InGaN/GaN micropyramid arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4281–4283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.-C.

T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, I.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1601–1602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzini, P.

H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GanN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luth, H.

R. K. Debnath, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, R. Calarco, and H. Luth, “Mechanism of molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 123117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, K. J.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K. J. Ma, S. C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C. C. Pan, and J. I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, K.-J.

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. W.

P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, I. M. Watson, C. Liu, R. A. Taylor, J. H. Rice, J. H. Na, J. W. Robinson, and J. D. Smith, “Quantum dot emission from site-controlled InGaN/GaN micropyramid arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4281–4283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meijers, R.

R. K. Debnath, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, R. Calarco, and H. Luth, “Mechanism of molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 123117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moudakir, T.

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Na, J. H.

P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, I. M. Watson, C. Liu, R. A. Taylor, J. H. Rice, J. H. Na, J. W. Robinson, and J. D. Smith, “Quantum dot emission from site-controlled InGaN/GaN micropyramid arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4281–4283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neubauer, B.

D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
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Ooi, B. S.

W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 193102 (2011).
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Orsal, G.

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ougazzaden, A.

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
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Paik, U.

T. Song, W. I. Park, and U. Paik, “Epitaxial growth of one-dimensional GaN nanostructures with enhanced near-band edge emission by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011105 (2010).
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Pan, C. C.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K. J. Ma, S. C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C. C. Pan, and J. I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. I.

T. Song, W. I. Park, and U. Paik, “Epitaxial growth of one-dimensional GaN nanostructures with enhanced near-band edge emission by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patriarche, G.

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. H.

Perillat-Merceroz, G.

X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
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Ploog, K. H.

J. Ristić, E. Calleja, S. Fernandez-Garrido, L. Cerutti, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and K. H. Ploog, “On the mechanisms of spontaneous growth of III-nitride nanocolumns by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(18), 4035–4045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Potin, V.

D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qian, F.

S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramdane, A.

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rice, J. H.

P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, I. M. Watson, C. Liu, R. A. Taylor, J. H. Rice, J. H. Na, J. W. Robinson, and J. D. Smith, “Quantum dot emission from site-controlled InGaN/GaN micropyramid arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4281–4283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richter, T.

R. K. Debnath, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, R. Calarco, and H. Luth, “Mechanism of molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 123117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riechert, H.

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
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Rigutti, L.

G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. D. L. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ristic, J.

J. Ristić, E. Calleja, S. Fernandez-Garrido, L. Cerutti, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and K. H. Ploog, “On the mechanisms of spontaneous growth of III-nitride nanocolumns by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(18), 4035–4045 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. W.

P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, I. M. Watson, C. Liu, R. A. Taylor, J. H. Rice, J. H. Na, J. W. Robinson, and J. D. Smith, “Quantum dot emission from site-controlled InGaN/GaN micropyramid arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4281–4283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roder, C.

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Wu, H. M.

Yang, C. C.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GanN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K. J. Ma, S. C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C. C. Pan, and J. I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-C.

T.-Y. Tang, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, W.-M. Chang, C.-H. Liao, K.-C. Shen, C.-C. Yang, M.-C. Hsu, J.-H. Yeh, and T.-C. Hsu, “Nitride nanocolumns for the development of light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 71–78 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. R.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K. J. Ma, S. C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C. C. Pan, and J. I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yao, C.-L.

T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, L. J.

Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. M.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GanN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. H.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J.-H.

T.-Y. Tang, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, W.-M. Chang, C.-H. Liao, K.-C. Shen, C.-C. Yang, M.-C. Hsu, J.-H. Yeh, and T.-C. Hsu, “Nitride nanocolumns for the development of light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 71–78 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
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Yi, G. C.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Yoon, A.

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
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Zagonel, L. F.

G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
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Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

Y. J. Hong, C. H. Lee, A. Yoon, M. Kim, H. K. Seong, H. J. Chung, C. Sone, Y. J. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Visible-color-tunable light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(29), 3284–3288 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon, X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire light-emitting diodes based on GaN wires containing both polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 014101 (2012).
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Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K. J. Ma, S. C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C. C. Pan, and J. I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
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R. K. Debnath, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, R. Calarco, and H. Luth, “Mechanism of molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 123117 (2007).
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M. D. Craven, P. Waltereit, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependence of photoluminescence emission from a-plane GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 496–498 (2004).
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C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051913 (2006).
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L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(10), 1601–1602 (2003).
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C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, B. Jenichen, and H. Riechert, “Different growth rates for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 153105 (2010).
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T. Song, W. I. Park, and U. Paik, “Epitaxial growth of one-dimensional GaN nanostructures with enhanced near-band edge emission by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011105 (2010).
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X. J. Chen, G. Perillat-Merceroz, D. Sam-Giao, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “Homoepitaxial growth of catalyst-free GaN wires on N-polar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151909 (2010).
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Y. Kawakami, S. Suzuki, A. Kaneta, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Origin of high oscillator strength in green-emitting InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 163124 (2006).
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W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 193102 (2011).
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H. Lin, Y. Lu, H. Chen, H. Lee, and S. Gwo, “InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073101 (2010).
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P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, I. M. Watson, C. Liu, R. A. Taylor, J. H. Rice, J. H. Na, J. W. Robinson, and J. D. Smith, “Quantum dot emission from site-controlled InGaN/GaN micropyramid arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4281–4283 (2004).
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X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
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H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
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A. D. L. Bugallo, L. Rigutti, G. Jacopin, F. H. Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, “Single-wire photodetectors based on InGaN/GaN radial quantum wells in GaN wires grown by catalyst-free metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Y. Ke, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, H. H. Chen, H. L. Chiang, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Hsieh, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “Application of nanosphere lithography to LED surface texturing and to the fabrication of nanorod LED arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1242–1249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

T.-Y. Tang, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, W.-M. Chang, C.-H. Liao, K.-C. Shen, C.-C. Yang, M.-C. Hsu, J.-H. Yeh, and T.-C. Hsu, “Nitride nanocolumns for the development of light-emitting diode,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 71–78 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T.-Y. Tang, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-H. Lin, K.-C. Shen, J.-J. Huang, S.-Y. Ting, T.-C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C.-L. Yao, J.-H. Yeh, T.-C. Hsu, W.-C. Chen, H.-C. Hsu, and L.-C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (6)

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 2063–2068 (2009).
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H. Lahrèche, P. Vennéguès, O. Tottereau, M. Laügt, P. Lorenzini, M. Leroux, B. Beaumont, and P. Gibart, “Optimisation of AlN and GaN growth by metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on Si (1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth 217(1-2), 13–25 (2000).
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W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011).
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W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kolper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lahnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fundling, S. F. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
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J. Ristić, E. Calleja, S. Fernandez-Garrido, L. Cerutti, A. Trampert, U. Jahn, and K. H. Ploog, “On the mechanisms of spontaneous growth of III-nitride nanocolumns by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(18), 4035–4045 (2008).
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Y. S. Chen, L. J. Yao, Y. L. Lin, L. Hung, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, and C. C. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy study on pre-strained InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 297(1), 66–73 (2006).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
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Nano Lett. (9)

R. Koester, J. S. Hwang, D. Salomon, X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, “M-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells on GaN wires for electroluminescent devices,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4839–4845 (2011).
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R. Colby, Z. Liang, I. H. Wildeson, D. A. Ewoldt, T. D. Sands, R. E. García, and E. A. Stach, “Dislocation filtering in GaN nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1568–1573 (2010).
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S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
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W. Guo, M. Zhang, A. Banerjee, and P. Bhattacharya, “Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3355–3359 (2010).
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F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
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S. K. Lim, M. Brewster, F. Qian, Y. Li, C. M. Lieber, and S. Gradecak, “Direct correlation between structural and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3940–3944 (2009).
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Q. Li and G. T. Wang, “Spatial distribution of defect luminescence in GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1554–1558 (2010).
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Nanotechnology (2)

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GanN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Stat. Solidi C (1)

D. Gerthsen, E. Hahn, B. Neubauer, V. Potin, A. Rosenauer, and M. Schowalter, “Indium distribution in epitaxially grown InGaN layers analyzed by transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 0(6), 1668–1683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plan-view (a) and 30°-tilted (b) SEM images of the GaN NR array; Plan-view (c) and 30°-tilted (d) SEM images of the QW NR array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plan-view SEM (a) and the co-located panchromatic CL (b) images of the QW NR array; Cross-sectional SEM (c) and the co-located panchromatic CL (d) images of the QW NR array. The rectangles in parts (a) and (c) indicate the locations of local CL spectrum measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CL spectra of the QW NR array measured at different locations and different view directions, including that from the large-scale plan-view (PV) measurement, that at the center on the top face of an NR (TF-c) and that at the rim on the top face of the NR (TF-r), that from the large-scale cross-sectional view (CS) measurement, that at a point near the top of the sidewall of an NR (SW-t), near the middle height of the sidewall of the NR (SW-m), and near the bottom of the sidewall of the NR (SW-b). For comparison, the plan-view CL spectrum of the bare GaN NR array is also plotted as curve PV-GaN.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cross-sectional TEM image of a QW NR. The portions of the top, the slant (1-101) facet on the right, the top sidewall on the right, the middle-height sidewall on the left, and the bottom sidewall on the right of the NR are magnified to show parts (b) and (d)-(g), respectively. The HAADF image of the NR top portion is shown in part (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) TEM image of a few fallen QW NRs; (b) The magnified TEM image of the QW NR circled in part (a), in which the three QWs on each lateral side of the hexagon are indicated by arrows. (c) The HAADF version of the same TEM image in part (b), which has been imaged left-side right. The six lateral sides of the hexagon are designated as A-F. (d) Schematic drawing of the QW portion on a lateral side of the hexagon, in which the thick dark (blue) lines represent the three QWs. The separations between the QWs and surface are designated as t1-t3. The lateral lengths at different growth stages are designated as L1-L4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two-beam TEM image (a) and the corresponding SSA image (b) of a section of a top-face QW. Part (c) shows the line-scan indium content profile along the vertical dashed line in part (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two-beam TEM image (a) and the corresponding SSA image (b) of a section of a sidewall QW near the top of the QW NR. Part (c) shows the line-scan indium content profile along the vertical dashed line in part (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two-beam TEM image (a) and the corresponding SSA image (b) of a section of a sidewall QW near the middle height of the QW NR. Part (c) shows the line-scan indium content profile along the vertical dashed line in part (b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Two-beam TEM image (a) and the corresponding SSA image (b) of a section of a sidewall QW near the bottom of the QW NR. Part (c) shows the line-scan indium content profile along the vertical dashed line in part (b).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured QW Geometric Parameter Values on the Six Lateral Sides of the Cross-Sectional Hexagon of a QW NR.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average QW Widths, Indium Contents, and Their Product Values of the QWs at Different Locations.

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