Abstract

Significant enhancement in the light output from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was achieved with a hemicylindrical grating structure on the top layer of the diodes. The grating structure was first optimized by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, which showed that the profile of the grating structure was critical for light extraction efficiency. It was found that the transmission efficiency of the 530 nm light emitted from the inside of the GaN LED increased for incidence angles between 23.58° and 60°. Such a structure was fabricated by electron-beam lithography and an etching method. The light output power from the LED was increased approximately 4.7 times compared with that from a conventional LED. The structure optimization is the key to the great increase in transmission efficiency. Furthermore, the light emitted from the edge of the LED units could be collected and extracted by the grating structures in adjacent LED units, thus enhancing the performance of the whole LED chip.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

X. X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, J. J. Deng, C. Xiong, T. Dai, X. Z. Jiang, T. J. Yu, Z. Z. Chen, and G. Y. Zhang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals structures fabricated by porous anodic alumina template,” Opt. Express19(S5Suppl 5), A1104–A1108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

J. Wierer, A. David, and M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction effciency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C.-J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, Z. Z.

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. O.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

Cho, J.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, J.

Choi, J. H.

Choi, W. J.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, T.

David, A.

J. Wierer, A. David, and M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction effciency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J. J.

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X. X.

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.

Hu, E. L.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huh, C.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Im, J. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Izuno, K.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

Jeon, H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. Z.

Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, X. N.

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. K.

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

J. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C.-J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

J. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C.-J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, J. S.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. D.

Lee, K. S.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

J. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C.-J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. C.

Lee, Y. H.

Lin, J. Y.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lu, Y. S.

J. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C.-J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M.

J. Wierer, A. David, and M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction effciency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murazaki, Y.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ni, C. H.

Niki, I.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oder, T. N.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W. C.

W. C. Peng and Y. C. Wu, “Improved luminance intensity of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roh, Y. G.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J.

J. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C.-J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tun, C.-J.

J. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C.-J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J.

J. Wierer, A. David, and M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction effciency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Wu, Y. C.

W. C. Peng and Y. C. Wu, “Improved luminance intensity of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

Xu, X.

Yamada, M.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Z.

Yu, T. J.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, G. Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes with a long lifetime of 27 hours,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(11), 1417–1419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C.-J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Peng and Y. C. Wu, “Improved luminance intensity of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright green InGaN single-quantum-well-structure light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 10B), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wierer, A. David, and M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction effciency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Other (1)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Camberidge University Press, New York, 2006), p. 185, and references therein.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional views of the GaN LED with four configurations, left side is the total view of the grating and the right side is the cell of the FDTD simulation: (1) conventional planar LED, (2) LED with rectangle grating (RG) on top of the p-GaN layer, (3) LED with a concave hemicylindrical grating (CHG) on top of the p-GaN layer, (4) LED with a hemicylindrical grating (HG) on top of the p-GaN layer. Light is emitted from the MQW layer and θ is the incidence angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission efficiency of unstructured, rectangular grating (RG) structured, concave hemicylindrical grating (CHG) structured, and hemicylindrical grating (HG) structured LED. (b) Transmission versus incidence angle for HG-structured LEDs with different periods and for the unstructured LED (pink line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram of a HG-structured GaN LED unit. (b) SEM image of the cross-section of the hemicylindrical grating being etched with the modified condition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) EL spectra from standard and HG-structured LEDs at an injection current of 10 mA. (b) I-V characteristics of standard and HG-structured LEDs. The inset shows the characteristics of light output power versus injection current.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical microscopy images of LEDs (a) without and (b) with the HG structure. Both are operated at an injection current of 10 mA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Optical microscopy image of LED units containing HG structures. The left unit is operated at an injection current of 20 mA and the right one with no injection current. (b) EL spectra of the LED units in a). (c) Schematic diagram for light extraction situation of two adjacent HG-structured GaN LED units.

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