Abstract

A chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguide is realized by depositing a thin layer of A2S3 glass onto a conventional silicon on insulator optical waveguide. The photosensitivity of the chalcogenide is exploited to locally change the optical properties of the waveguide through exposure to visible light radiation. Waveguide trimming is experimentally demonstrated by permanently shifting the resonant wavelength of a microring resonator by 6.7 nm, corresponding to an effective index increase of 1.6·10−2. Saturation effects, trimming range, velocity and temporal stability of the process are discussed in details. Results demonstrate that photo-induced treatments can be exploited for a post-fabrication compensation of fabrication tolerances, as well as to set and reconfigure the circuit response.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2011

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun.2, 296 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

C. J. Chen, J. Zheng, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Selective tuning of high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities via laser-assisted local oxidation,” Opt. Express19, 12480–12489 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ibrahim, N. K. Fontaine, S. S. Djordjevic, B. Guan, T. Su, S. Cheung, R. P. Scott, A. T. Pomerene, L. L. Seaford, C. M. Hill, S. Danziger, Z. Ding, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of a fast-reconfigurable silicon CMOS optical lattice filter,” Opt. Express19, 13245–13256 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, I. B. Divliansky, D. N. Basov, and S. Mookherjea, “Electric-field-driven nano-oxidation trimming of silicon microrings and interferometers,” Opt. Lett.36, 2668–2670 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ferrari, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Penalty-free transmission in a silicon coupled resonator optical waveguide over the full C-band,” Opt. Lett.36, 3948–3950 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Canciamilla, S. Grillanda, F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, J. Hu, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of coupled ring-resonator filters and delay lines in As2S3 chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett.36, 4002–4004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bachman, Z. Chen, A. M. Prabhu, R. Fedosejevs, Y. Y. Tsui, and V. Van, “Femtosecond laser tuning of silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Lett.36, 4695–4697 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. Hu, M. Torregiani, F. Morichetti, N. Carlie, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Resonant cavity-enhanced photosensitivity in As2S3 chalcogenide glass at 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35, 874–876 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Carlie, J. D. Musgraves, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, J. Hu, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and K. Richardson, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges,” Opt. Express18, 26728–26743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Canciamilla, M. Torregiani, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, R. M. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Silicon coupled-ring resonator structures for slow light applications: potential, impairments and ultimate limits,” J. Opt.12, 104008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 033902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2, 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

J. Schrauwen, D. van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction and strain,” Opt. Express16, 3738–3743 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Planar waveguide-coupled, high-index-contrast, high-Q resonators in chalcogenide glass for sensing,” Opt. Lett.33, 2500–2502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, M. R. E. Lamont, V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, M. D. Pelusi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic chips,” Opt. Photonics News19, 18–23 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Gnan, S. Thorns, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett.44, 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

2003

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids330, 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

D. A. B. Miller,“Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6, 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. Little, and Y. Kokubun, “Wavelength trimming of a microring resonator filter by means of a UV sensitive polymer overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11, 688–690 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstyan, S. La Rochelle, and K. Richardson, “First- and second-order Bragg gratings in single-mode planar waveguides of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.17, 837–842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. V. Galstyan, J. -F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Ahn, D.

Allen, P.

Anheier, N.

Bachman, D.

Baets, R.

Baker, N. J.

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, M. R. E. Lamont, V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, M. D. Pelusi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic chips,” Opt. Photonics News19, 18–23 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Global design rules for silicon microphotonic waveguides: sensitivity, polarization and resonance tunability,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuCC1.
[PubMed]

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. S. Dahlem, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Tunable, fourth-order silicon microring-resonator add-drop filters,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), IET Seminar Digests (2007), paper 123.
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

Beals, M.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23, 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Canciamilla, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun.2, 296 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ferrari, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Penalty-free transmission in a silicon coupled resonator optical waveguide over the full C-band,” Opt. Lett.36, 3948–3950 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Canciamilla, S. Grillanda, F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, J. Hu, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of coupled ring-resonator filters and delay lines in As2S3 chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett.36, 4002–4004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Carlie, J. D. Musgraves, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, J. Hu, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, and K. Richardson, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges,” Opt. Express18, 26728–26743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 033902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Canciamilla, M. Torregiani, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, R. M. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Silicon coupled-ring resonator structures for slow light applications: potential, impairments and ultimate limits,” J. Opt.12, 104008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2, 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

Chen, C. J.

Chen, J.

Chen, Z.

Cheung, S.

Choi, D. Y.

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, M. R. E. Lamont, V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, M. D. Pelusi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic chips,” Opt. Photonics News19, 18–23 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. Little, and Y. Kokubun, “Wavelength trimming of a microring resonator filter by means of a UV sensitive polymer overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11, 688–690 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature (London)433, 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dahlem, M. S.

M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. S. Dahlem, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Tunable, fourth-order silicon microring-resonator add-drop filters,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), IET Seminar Digests (2007), paper 123.
[CrossRef]

Danziger, S.

De La Rue, R.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J.2, 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, M. Martinelli, A. Samarelli, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Coherent backscattering in optical microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 081112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Canciamilla, M. Torregiani, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, R. M. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Silicon coupled-ring resonator structures for slow light applications: potential, impairments and ultimate limits,” J. Opt.12, 104008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Gnan, S. Thorns, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett.44, 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DeCorby, R.

Ding, Z.

Divliansky, I. B.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Duguay, M. A.

T. V. Galstyan, J. -F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, M. R. E. Lamont, V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, M. D. Pelusi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic chips,” Opt. Photonics News19, 18–23 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. L. Smith, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan, and Y. H. Lee, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express15, 1277–1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids330, 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature (London)433, 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fedosejevs, R.

Feng, N. N.

Ferrari, C.

C. Ferrari, A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Penalty-free transmission in a silicon coupled resonator optical waveguide over the full C-band,” Opt. Lett.36, 3948–3950 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Canciamilla, S. Grillanda, F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, J. Hu, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of coupled ring-resonator filters and delay lines in As2S3 chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett.36, 4002–4004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, A. Samarelli, M. Sorel, and A. Melloni, “Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion,” Nat. Commun.2, 296 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ChG-assisted silicon waveguides: (a) schematic view of the waveguide cross section; (b)–(c) numerical simulations of the effects of ChG photosensitivity (for ΔnAs2S3 = 4 · 10−2): effective index variation (b) and corresponding wavelength shift (c) versus ChG thickness t, for TE (blue circles) and TM (red squares) polarizations. Green dashed line corresponds to the value selected for device fabrication (t = 420 nm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photomicrographs of the fabricated ChG-assisted silicon devices: (a) SEM image of the waveguide cross section; (b) optical microscope top view of a micro-ring resonator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic view of the trimming process of a ChG-assisted SOI micro-ring. (b) Normalized optical spectral density of the visible light source used for the trimming. (c) Experimental spectral response of the micro-ring: progressive photoinduced red-shift from the as-fabricated condition (blue dashed line) to 1 FSR shift (brown line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental behaviour of the photo-induced resonance wavelength shift of ChG-assisted SOI micro-rings: (a) versus the exposure time, when IT = 1 mW/cm2 (blue circles); (b) versus the exposure time and (c) the exposure energy density, for different values of IT : 1 mW/cm2 (black circles), 2 mW/cm2 (blue squares) and 3 mW/cm2 (green triangles). Red dashed line is the interpolating curve of the experimental data in (a), reported for comparison also in (b) and (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time stability of the trimming process of a ChG-assisted SOI ring resonator, when the device is stored in the dark after light exposure: measured (blue circles) resonance wavelength shift and power-law fitting curve (red solid line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Numerical simulations of the effects of photosensitivity on ChG-assisted SOI waveguides (ChG thickness t = 420 nm, ΔnAs2S3 = 4 · 10−2), versus the width w and height h of the core: (a) effective index variation and (b) corresponding wavelength shift, when h = 220 nm (solid lines), for TE (blue circles) and TM (red squares) polarizations, and when h = 150 nm (solid lines), for TE (black circles) polarization. Green dashed line corresponds to the value w = 500 nm.

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