Abstract

Two dual-configuration extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5nm wavelength) optical designs are described as a means to overcome principal EUV photomask metrology challenges. Semiconductor industry-wide efforts to define performance requirements and create standalone tools that can be used to discover, review, and accurately locate phase, amplitude, and mask pattern defects are described. The reference designs co-optimize low and high magnification configurations for orthogonal chief ray planes to avoid inspection and review trade-offs and emulate the aerial image of a lithography scanner.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. Wurm and K. Ronse, presented at the 2009 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Prague, Czech Republic (2009).
  2. M. Goldstein, R. Hudyma, P. Naulleau, and S. Wurm, “Extreme-ultraviolet microexposure tool at 0.5 NA for sub-16 nm lithography,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2995–2997 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. A. Shroff, M. Leeson, P. Y. Yan, E. Gullikson, and F. Salmassi, “High transmission pellicles for extreme ultraviolet lithography reticle protection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6E36 (2010).
  5. Y. A. Shroff, M. Goldstein, B. Rice, S. H. Lee, K. V. Ravi, and D. Tanzil, “EUV pellicle development for mask defect control,” Proc. SPIE 6151, 1–10 (2006).
  6. E. Gallagher, K. Badger, L. Kindt, M. Lawliss, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, and J. Whang, “EUV masks: ready or not?” 2011 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Miami, Florida (USA).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).
  18. A. K.-K. Wong, Optical Imaging in Projection Microlithography (SPIE Press, 2005).
  19. http://www.e2v.com
  20. S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3009–3013 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Phase defect analysis with actinic full-field EUVL mask blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660 G 1–8 (2011).

K. A. Goldberg and I. Mochi, “Actinic characterization of extreme ultraviolet bump-type phase defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(6), 06F502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

2010 (4)

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Improvement of actinic blank inspection and phase defect analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–8 (2010).

S. Mangan, R. Jonckheere, D. Van den Heuvel, M. Rozentsvige, V. Kudriashov, R. Brikman, L. Shoval, G. Santoro, and I. Englard, “EUV mask defectivity study by existing DUV tools and new E-beam technology,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–11 (2010).

F. Brizuela, S. Carbajo, A. Sakdinawat, D. Alessi, D. H. Martz, Y. Wang, B. Luther, K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, D. T. Attwood, B. La Fontaine, J. J. Rocca, and C. S. Menoni, “Extreme ultraviolet laser-based table-top aerial image metrology of lithographic masks,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14467–14473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Shroff, M. Leeson, P. Y. Yan, E. Gullikson, and F. Salmassi, “High transmission pellicles for extreme ultraviolet lithography reticle protection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6E36 (2010).

2009 (1)

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Goldstein, R. Hudyma, P. Naulleau, and S. Wurm, “Extreme-ultraviolet microexposure tool at 0.5 NA for sub-16 nm lithography,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2995–2997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2220–2224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. A. Shroff, M. Goldstein, B. Rice, S. H. Lee, K. V. Ravi, and D. Tanzil, “EUV pellicle development for mask defect control,” Proc. SPIE 6151, 1–10 (2006).

1999 (1)

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alessi, D.

Anderson, C. N.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2220–2224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arling, R. W.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

Berger, K. W.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Birtola, S. R.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brikman, R.

S. Mangan, R. Jonckheere, D. Van den Heuvel, M. Rozentsvige, V. Kudriashov, R. Brikman, L. Shoval, G. Santoro, and I. Englard, “EUV mask defectivity study by existing DUV tools and new E-beam technology,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–11 (2010).

Brizuela, F.

Carbajo, S.

Chiu, J.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Englard, I.

S. Mangan, R. Jonckheere, D. Van den Heuvel, M. Rozentsvige, V. Kudriashov, R. Brikman, L. Shoval, G. Santoro, and I. Englard, “EUV mask defectivity study by existing DUV tools and new E-beam technology,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–11 (2010).

Feldmann, H.

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

Fetter, L. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, B. L.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

George, S.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, K. A.

K. A. Goldberg and I. Mochi, “Actinic characterization of extreme ultraviolet bump-type phase defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(6), 06F502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Brizuela, S. Carbajo, A. Sakdinawat, D. Alessi, D. H. Martz, Y. Wang, B. Luther, K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, D. T. Attwood, B. La Fontaine, J. J. Rocca, and C. S. Menoni, “Extreme ultraviolet laser-based table-top aerial image metrology of lithographic masks,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14467–14473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2220–2224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, M.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Goldstein, R. Hudyma, P. Naulleau, and S. Wurm, “Extreme-ultraviolet microexposure tool at 0.5 NA for sub-16 nm lithography,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2995–2997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Shroff, M. Goldstein, B. Rice, S. H. Lee, K. V. Ravi, and D. Tanzil, “EUV pellicle development for mask defect control,” Proc. SPIE 6151, 1–10 (2006).

Gullikson, E.

Y. A. Shroff, M. Leeson, P. Y. Yan, E. Gullikson, and F. Salmassi, “High transmission pellicles for extreme ultraviolet lithography reticle protection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6E36 (2010).

Gunion, R. F.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2220–2224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.-S.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2220–2224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haney, S. J.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harnisch, W.

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

Hellweg, D.

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

Herkommer, A.

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

Himel, M. D.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoef, B.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hudyma, R.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Goldstein, R. Hudyma, P. Naulleau, and S. Wurm, “Extreme-ultraviolet microexposure tool at 0.5 NA for sub-16 nm lithography,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2995–2997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huh, S.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2220–2224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ihl, T.

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

Jeong, S.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, T. E.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jin, P. S.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jonckheere, R.

S. Mangan, R. Jonckheere, D. Van den Heuvel, M. Rozentsvige, V. Kudriashov, R. Brikman, L. Shoval, G. Santoro, and I. Englard, “EUV mask defectivity study by existing DUV tools and new E-beam technology,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–11 (2010).

Jones, G.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, C. D.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2220–2224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koh, C.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kubiak, G. D.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kudriashov, V.

S. Mangan, R. Jonckheere, D. Van den Heuvel, M. Rozentsvige, V. Kudriashov, R. Brikman, L. Shoval, G. Santoro, and I. Englard, “EUV mask defectivity study by existing DUV tools and new E-beam technology,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–11 (2010).

La Fontaine, B.

Lee, S. H.

Y. A. Shroff, M. Goldstein, B. Rice, S. H. Lee, K. V. Ravi, and D. Tanzil, “EUV pellicle development for mask defect control,” Proc. SPIE 6151, 1–10 (2006).

Leeson, M.

Y. A. Shroff, M. Leeson, P. Y. Yan, E. Gullikson, and F. Salmassi, “High transmission pellicles for extreme ultraviolet lithography reticle protection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6E36 (2010).

Luther, B.

Ma, A.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacDowell, A. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, M. E.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, S.

S. Mangan, R. Jonckheere, D. Van den Heuvel, M. Rozentsvige, V. Kudriashov, R. Brikman, L. Shoval, G. Santoro, and I. Englard, “EUV mask defectivity study by existing DUV tools and new E-beam technology,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–11 (2010).

Martz, D. H.

Menoni, C. S.

Mochi, I.

K. A. Goldberg and I. Mochi, “Actinic characterization of extreme ultraviolet bump-type phase defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(6), 06F502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Brizuela, S. Carbajo, A. Sakdinawat, D. Alessi, D. H. Martz, Y. Wang, B. Luther, K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, D. T. Attwood, B. La Fontaine, J. J. Rocca, and C. S. Menoni, “Extreme ultraviolet laser-based table-top aerial image metrology of lithographic masks,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14467–14473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2220–2224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, W.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

M. Goldstein, R. Hudyma, P. Naulleau, and S. Wurm, “Extreme-ultraviolet microexposure tool at 0.5 NA for sub-16 nm lithography,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2995–2997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2220–2224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P. P.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niakoula, D.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nissen, R. P.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. H.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Perlitz, S.

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

Prisbrey, S. T.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ravi, K. V.

Y. A. Shroff, M. Goldstein, B. Rice, S. H. Lee, K. V. Ravi, and D. Tanzil, “EUV pellicle development for mask defect control,” Proc. SPIE 6151, 1–10 (2006).

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rekawa, S.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rekawa, S. B.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2220–2224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rice, B.

Y. A. Shroff, M. Goldstein, B. Rice, S. H. Lee, K. V. Ravi, and D. Tanzil, “EUV pellicle development for mask defect control,” Proc. SPIE 6151, 1–10 (2006).

Ringel, M.

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

Rocca, J. J.

Rozentsvige, M.

S. Mangan, R. Jonckheere, D. Van den Heuvel, M. Rozentsvige, V. Kudriashov, R. Brikman, L. Shoval, G. Santoro, and I. Englard, “EUV mask defectivity study by existing DUV tools and new E-beam technology,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–11 (2010).

Ruoff, J.

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

Sakdinawat, A.

Salmassi, F.

Y. A. Shroff, M. Leeson, P. Y. Yan, E. Gullikson, and F. Salmassi, “High transmission pellicles for extreme ultraviolet lithography reticle protection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6E36 (2010).

Santoro, G.

S. Mangan, R. Jonckheere, D. Van den Heuvel, M. Rozentsvige, V. Kudriashov, R. Brikman, L. Shoval, G. Santoro, and I. Englard, “EUV mask defectivity study by existing DUV tools and new E-beam technology,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–11 (2010).

Shoval, L.

S. Mangan, R. Jonckheere, D. Van den Heuvel, M. Rozentsvige, V. Kudriashov, R. Brikman, L. Shoval, G. Santoro, and I. Englard, “EUV mask defectivity study by existing DUV tools and new E-beam technology,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–11 (2010).

Shroff, Y. A.

Y. A. Shroff, M. Leeson, P. Y. Yan, E. Gullikson, and F. Salmassi, “High transmission pellicles for extreme ultraviolet lithography reticle protection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6E36 (2010).

Y. A. Shroff, M. Goldstein, B. Rice, S. H. Lee, K. V. Ravi, and D. Tanzil, “EUV pellicle development for mask defect control,” Proc. SPIE 6151, 1–10 (2006).

Strößner, U.

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

Stühler, J.

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

Stulen, R. H.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Suga, O.

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Phase defect analysis with actinic full-field EUVL mask blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660 G 1–8 (2011).

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Improvement of actinic blank inspection and phase defect analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–8 (2010).

Sweatt, W. C.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Phase defect analysis with actinic full-field EUVL mask blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660 G 1–8 (2011).

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Improvement of actinic blank inspection and phase defect analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–8 (2010).

Tanzil, D.

Y. A. Shroff, M. Goldstein, B. Rice, S. H. Lee, K. V. Ravi, and D. Tanzil, “EUV pellicle development for mask defect control,” Proc. SPIE 6151, 1–10 (2006).

Tejnil, E.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D. M.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Terasawa, T.

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Phase defect analysis with actinic full-field EUVL mask blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660 G 1–8 (2011).

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Improvement of actinic blank inspection and phase defect analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–8 (2010).

Tichenor, D. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van den Heuvel, D.

S. Mangan, R. Jonckheere, D. Van den Heuvel, M. Rozentsvige, V. Kudriashov, R. Brikman, L. Shoval, G. Santoro, and I. Englard, “EUV mask defectivity study by existing DUV tools and new E-beam technology,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–11 (2010).

Wallow, T.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C. C.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

White, D. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilkerson, G. A.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wood, O. R.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wurm, S.

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Goldstein, R. Hudyma, P. Naulleau, and S. Wurm, “Extreme-ultraviolet microexposure tool at 0.5 NA for sub-16 nm lithography,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2995–2997 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamane, T.

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Phase defect analysis with actinic full-field EUVL mask blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660 G 1–8 (2011).

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Improvement of actinic blank inspection and phase defect analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–8 (2010).

Yan, P. Y.

Y. A. Shroff, M. Leeson, P. Y. Yan, E. Gullikson, and F. Salmassi, “High transmission pellicles for extreme ultraviolet lithography reticle protection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6E36 (2010).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (4)

Y. A. Shroff, M. Leeson, P. Y. Yan, E. Gullikson, and F. Salmassi, “High transmission pellicles for extreme ultraviolet lithography reticle protection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6E36 (2010).

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, I. Mochi, E. H. Anderson, S. B. Rekawa, C. D. Kemp, R. F. Gunion, H.-S. Han, and S. Huh, “Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(6), 2220–2224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg and I. Mochi, “Actinic characterization of extreme ultraviolet bump-type phase defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(6), 06F502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

P. P. Naulleau, C. N. Anderson, J. Chiu, P. Denham, S. George, K. A. Goldberg, M. Goldstein, B. Hoef, R. Hudyma, G. Jones, C. Koh, B. L. Fontaine, A. Ma, W. Montgomery, D. Niakoula, J.- Park, T. Wallow, and S. Wurm, “22-nm Half-pitch extreme ultraviolet node development at the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 448–455 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (6)

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Improvement of actinic blank inspection and phase defect analysis,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–8 (2010).

T. Yamane, T. Tanaka, T. Terasawa, and O. Suga, “Phase defect analysis with actinic full-field EUVL mask blank inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8166, 81660 G 1–8 (2011).

Y. A. Shroff, M. Goldstein, B. Rice, S. H. Lee, K. V. Ravi, and D. Tanzil, “EUV pellicle development for mask defect control,” Proc. SPIE 6151, 1–10 (2006).

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, M. E. Malinowski, R. H. Stulen, S. J. Haney, K. W. Berger, R. P. Nissen, G. A. Wilkerson, P. H. Paul, S. R. Birtola, P. S. Jin, R. W. Arling, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. C. Sweatt, W. W. Chow, J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, M. D. Himel, A. A. MacDowell, D. M. Tennant, L. A. Fetter, O. R. Wood, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, and T. E. Jewell, “Development of a Laboratory Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Tool,” Proc. SPIE 2194, 95–105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Hellweg, J. Ruoff, A. Herkommer, J. Stühler, T. Ihl, H. Feldmann, M. Ringel, U. Strößner, S. Perlitz, and W. Harnisch, “AIMS EUV: the actinic aerial image review platform for EUV masks,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 1–10 (2011).

S. Mangan, R. Jonckheere, D. Van den Heuvel, M. Rozentsvige, V. Kudriashov, R. Brikman, L. Shoval, G. Santoro, and I. Englard, “EUV mask defectivity study by existing DUV tools and new E-beam technology,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 1–11 (2010).

Other (7)

D. Wack, Y. Xiong, and G. Inderhees, “Solutions for EUV mask and blank inspections,” presented at the 2011 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Miami FL, USA (2011).

A. K.-K. Wong, Optical Imaging in Projection Microlithography (SPIE Press, 2005).

http://www.e2v.com

AIMS is a registered trademark of Carl Zeiss SMT AG.

E. Gallagher, K. Badger, L. Kindt, M. Lawliss, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, and J. Whang, “EUV masks: ready or not?” 2011 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Miami, Florida (USA).

M. Goldstein, D. Chan, A. Ma, K. Kimmel, S. Wurm, J. Harris-Jones, C. Lin, V. Jindal, A. John, and H. Kwon, “Update from the SEMATECH EUV Mask Infrastructure Initiative,” 2011 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Miami, Florida (USA).

S. Wurm and K. Ronse, presented at the 2009 International Symposium on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Prague, Czech Republic (2009).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Inspection measurement of a typical multilayer-coated EUV mask blank measured using a 266nm wavelength Lasertec M7360 scanning confocal microscope (SCM). (a) Location (mm) and size distribution (nm) of measured defects. (b) Example SCM pit image. (c) Example SCM buried particle image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EUV lithography mask blank defect images. (a) Substrate pit-generated phase defect with a top surface AFM measured depth of 5.3nm and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~51nm. (b) A substrate bump-generated phase defect with top surface AFM measured height of 8nm and FWHM of ~62nm. (c) An example ~50nm surface particle. (d) A ~30nm embedded particle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illumination and imaging optic pupils shown for mask inspection and defect review/localization. (a) Microscope pupil with dual illumination paths for 0.0625 (0.25/4) NA inspection and 0.08 (0.32/4) NA review. (b) Microscope pupil with on-axis illumination and mask tilt selected paths for 0.1 (0.4/4) NA inspection and 0.0825 (0.33/4) NA review.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dual illumination path EUV microscope shown in two orthogonal planes. (a) xz plane view for inspection with 0.25/4 NA and 130 × magnification. The light path is {object, M1, M2, image}. (b) The same optic with yz plane illumination for defect review/localization with 0.32/4 NA and 500 × magnification. The light path is {object, M3, M4, M3, M2, image}. (c) Footprint of 280mm diameter M1. (d) Footprint of 15mm diameter M2. (e) Footprint of 280mm diameter M3. (f) Footprint of 42mm diameter M4.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Imaging sensor and aberration-limited field sizes. (a) The object (mask) field size for inspection and review modes. (b) The image field size for both modes mapped on 27mm CCD sensors. (c) The corner of field wavefront error for the 4-optic review mode. (d) The corner of field wavefront error for the 2-optic inspection mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

EUV microscope with object tilt-selected magnification shown in two orthogonal planes. (a) xz plane view for inspection with 0.1 NA and 85 × magnification. (b) The same optic in the yz plane for defect review/localization with 0.0825 (0.33/4) NA and 450 × magnification. (c) Footprint of 400mm diameter M1. (d) Footprint of 25.4mm diameter M2. (e) Footprint of 100mm diameter M3. (f) Footprint of 30mm diameter M4.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Object and image field layouts. (a) The object (mask) areas at 85 × magnification of 300 × 60 μm2 (untilted darkfield) and 200 × 10 μm2 (tilted brightfield), and at 450 × magnification of 180 × 15 μm2 (tilted or untilted bright- and darkfields). (b) Image (sensor) field layouts at 85 × magnification of 25.5 × 5.1 mm2 (darkfield) and 17 × 0.85 mm2 (brightfield), and at 450 × magnification of 81 × 6.75 mm2 (bright- or darkfields).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Image field spot diagrams for normal and 6° tilted masks, with an untilted image plane, relative to the Airy diffraction disk diameters of 14μm and 89.8μm in low and high magnification modes. (a) Untilted mask spot diagrams in an 85 × darkfield inspection design over a 300 × 60 μm2 object field. (b) Tilted mask spot diagrams in an 85 × brightfield inspection design with a 200 × 10 μm2 object field. (c) Untilted mask 450 × darkfield inspection over a 200 × 60 μm2 object field. (d) Tilted mask 450 × brightfield inspection over a 180 × 15 μm2 object field.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Mask pattern with Gaussian phase defect and pupil-fill used for partially coherent lithography simulation. (a) 16nm line/space features with a 50nm FWHM phase defect. (b) Quasar-dipole illumination with 0.3/0.9 inner/outer pupil radius and 60° blaze angle.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Partially coherent Fresnel-Kirchhoff lithography simulation of 16nm line/space and Gaussian phase defect feature imaged at 0.33 NA 13.5nm wavelength through a 150nm focus range. (a) Defect FWHM of 50nm and height of 1nm showing a 10% linewidth change at the edge of focus. (b) Defect FWHM of 50nm and height of 2nm showing a 29% linewidth change at the focus edge.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Aerial image simulation of an isolated 50nm FWHM and 1nm high Gaussian phase defects with 0.9 radius disk partial coherence using the second optical design aberrations and 3% flare in the 85 × low magnification mode with a 13.5μm pixel. (a) Relative signal strength through focus and aerial image with brightfield illumination. (b) Relative signal strength through focus and aerial image with darkfield illumination.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Aerial image simulation of an isolated 25nm high and 48nm wide top hat Ru surface particle with 0.9 radius disk partial coherence using the second optical design aberrations and 3% flare in the 85 × low magnification mode with a 13.5μm pixel. (a) Relative signal strength through focus and aerial image with brightfield illumination. (b) Relative signal strength through focus and aerial image with darkfield illumination.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Aerial image simulation at 450 × magnification of a phase and amplitude defect through focus. Modeling with the second optical design aberrations, 0.2/0.9 inner/outer partial coherence and standard Quasar illumination with a 90 degree blaze angle assuming 6% flare. (a) An isolated 50nm FWHM and 1nm high Gaussian phase defect. (b) An isolated 25nm high and 48nm wide top hat Ru surface particle.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Simulated contact and line features with mask patterning errors. Simulations for the second optical design aberrations, 450 × magnification, and 6% flare using standard Quasar 0.2/0.9 partial coherence with a 90 degree blaze angle. (a) 22nm wafer scale contact array with a pin-dot intrusion defect in the absorber patter. (b) 16nm line/space wafer scale features with an extrusion defect. (c) Contact aerial image with a 13.5μm CCD pixel. (d) Line/space aerial image with the same CCD. (e) Fourier-filtered contact aerial image. (f) Fourier-filtered line/space aerial image.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dual Illumination Mode Microscope Optical Prescription

Tables Icon

Table 2 Microscope with Mask Tilt-selected Magnification Optical Prescription

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