Abstract

The visible and NIR maximum degree of polarization (DoP) of cloud-free skylight depends on many factors, including wavelength, sun zenith angle, surface reflectance, and aerosol properties. For clear-sky environments, radiative transfer models accurately estimate the sky DoP when each of these properties is well constrained. (The model used here was recently compared with full-sky polarization measurements with excellent agreement.) Using coincident Hyperion satellite observations and AERONET retrievals to provide model inputs, we simulate the maximum sky DoP for a variety of locations. Results show large variations in the wavelength dependence of sky polarization across different Earth environments. Therefore, accurate modeling of the sky DoP depends largely upon proper representation of the surface and aerosols in the model. Simple models which do not incorporate accurate aerosol and surface information have limited utility for simulating cloud-free sky DoP.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

2010

A. Kreuter, C. Emde, and M. Blumthaler, “Measuring the influence of aerosols and albedo on sky polarization,” Atmos. Res.98(2-4), 363–367 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model, development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10(2), 383–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth's atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spect. Rad. Trans.107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, P. Goloub, C. Devaux, X. Gu, J. L. Deuze, Y. Qiao, and F. Zhao, “Retrieval of aerosol optical and physical properties from ground-based spectral, multi-angular, and polarized sun-photometer measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.101(4), 519–533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Boesche, P. Stammes, T. Ruhtz, R. Preusker, and J. Fischer, “Effect of aerosol microphysical properties on polarization of skylight: sensitivity study and measurements,” Appl. Opt.45(34), 8790–8805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. S. Pearlman, P. S. Barry, C. C. Segal, J. Shepanski, D. Beiso, and S. L. Carman, “Hyperion, a space-based imaging spectrometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1160–1173 (2003).

2000

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geol. Res.105(D16), 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarization of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett.26(5), 591–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Nadal and F. M. Breon, “Parameterization of surface polarized reflectance derived from POLDER spaceborne measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.37(3), 1709–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “Degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the oxygen A band,” J. Geol. Res.104(D14), 16843–16858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

H. Rahman, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Coupled surface-atmosphere reflectance (CSAR) model. 2: Semiempirical surface model usable with NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer data,” J. Geol. Res.98(D11), 20791–20801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. Beaglehole and G. G. Carter, “Antartic Skies 2. Characterization of the intensity and polarization of skylight in a high albedo environment,” J. Geol. Res.97(D2), 2597–2600 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. G. Kuriyan, D. H. Phillips, and R. C. Willson, “Determination of optical parameters of atmospheric particulates from ground-based polarimeter measurements,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.100(426), 665–677 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1967

Z. Sekera, “Determination of atmospheric parameters from measurement of polarization of upward radiation by satellite or space probe,” Icarus6(1-3), 348–359 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Aben, I.

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarization of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett.26(5), 591–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T. P.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barry, P. S.

J. S. Pearlman, P. S. Barry, C. C. Segal, J. Shepanski, D. Beiso, and S. L. Carman, “Hyperion, a space-based imaging spectrometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1160–1173 (2003).

Beaglehole, D.

D. Beaglehole and G. G. Carter, “Antartic Skies 2. Characterization of the intensity and polarization of skylight in a high albedo environment,” J. Geol. Res.97(D2), 2597–2600 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beckert, J. C.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beiso, D.

J. S. Pearlman, P. S. Barry, C. C. Segal, J. Shepanski, D. Beiso, and S. L. Carman, “Hyperion, a space-based imaging spectrometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1160–1173 (2003).

Bennartz, R.

Blumthaler, M.

A. Kreuter, C. Emde, and M. Blumthaler, “Measuring the influence of aerosols and albedo on sky polarization,” Atmos. Res.98(2-4), 363–367 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model, development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10(2), 383–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boesche, E.

Breon, F. M.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Nadal and F. M. Breon, “Parameterization of surface polarized reflectance derived from POLDER spaceborne measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.37(3), 1709–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bruegge, C. J.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buras, R.

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model, development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10(2), 383–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carman, S. L.

J. S. Pearlman, P. S. Barry, C. C. Segal, J. Shepanski, D. Beiso, and S. L. Carman, “Hyperion, a space-based imaging spectrometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1160–1173 (2003).

Carter, G. G.

D. Beaglehole and G. G. Carter, “Antartic Skies 2. Characterization of the intensity and polarization of skylight in a high albedo environment,” J. Geol. Res.97(D2), 2597–2600 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Conel, J. E.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dahlberg, A. R.

Davies, R.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Haan, J. F.

D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “Degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the oxygen A band,” J. Geol. Res.104(D14), 16843–16858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deuze, J. L.

Z. Li, P. Goloub, C. Devaux, X. Gu, J. L. Deuze, Y. Qiao, and F. Zhao, “Retrieval of aerosol optical and physical properties from ground-based spectral, multi-angular, and polarized sun-photometer measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.101(4), 519–533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deuzé, J. L.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth's atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spect. Rad. Trans.107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, C.

Z. Li, P. Goloub, C. Devaux, X. Gu, J. L. Deuze, Y. Qiao, and F. Zhao, “Retrieval of aerosol optical and physical properties from ground-based spectral, multi-angular, and polarized sun-photometer measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.101(4), 519–533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diner, D. J.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geol. Res.105(D16), 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Emde, C.

A. Kreuter, C. Emde, and M. Blumthaler, “Measuring the influence of aerosols and albedo on sky polarization,” Atmos. Res.98(2-4), 363–367 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model, development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10(2), 383–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J.

Gerstl, S. A. W.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

Z. Li, P. Goloub, C. Devaux, X. Gu, J. L. Deuze, Y. Qiao, and F. Zhao, “Retrieval of aerosol optical and physical properties from ground-based spectral, multi-angular, and polarized sun-photometer measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.101(4), 519–533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Z. Li, P. Goloub, C. Devaux, X. Gu, J. L. Deuze, Y. Qiao, and F. Zhao, “Retrieval of aerosol optical and physical properties from ground-based spectral, multi-angular, and polarized sun-photometer measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.101(4), 519–533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helderman, F.

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarization of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett.26(5), 591–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth's atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spect. Rad. Trans.107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “Degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the oxygen A band,” J. Geol. Res.104(D14), 16843–16858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, R.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, R. A.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geol. Res.105(D16), 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knap, W.

Kreuter, A.

A. Kreuter, C. Emde, and M. Blumthaler, “Measuring the influence of aerosols and albedo on sky polarization,” Atmos. Res.98(2-4), 363–367 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuriyan, J. G.

J. G. Kuriyan, D. H. Phillips, and R. C. Willson, “Determination of optical parameters of atmospheric particulates from ground-based polarimeter measurements,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.100(426), 665–677 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lafrance, B.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth's atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spect. Rad. Trans.107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lapyonok, T.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth's atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spect. Rad. Trans.107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leon, J. F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, P. Goloub, C. Devaux, X. Gu, J. L. Deuze, Y. Qiao, and F. Zhao, “Retrieval of aerosol optical and physical properties from ground-based spectral, multi-angular, and polarized sun-photometer measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.101(4), 519–533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Martonchik, J.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martonchik, J. V.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model, development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10(2), 383–396 (2010).
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Mishchenko, M.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J. P.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, O.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Myneni, R. B.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nadal, F.

F. Nadal and F. M. Breon, “Parameterization of surface polarized reflectance derived from POLDER spaceborne measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.37(3), 1709–1718 (1999).
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Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pearlman, J. S.

J. S. Pearlman, P. S. Barry, C. C. Segal, J. Shepanski, D. Beiso, and S. L. Carman, “Hyperion, a space-based imaging spectrometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1160–1173 (2003).

Phillips, D. H.

J. G. Kuriyan, D. H. Phillips, and R. C. Willson, “Determination of optical parameters of atmospheric particulates from ground-based polarimeter measurements,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.100(426), 665–677 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pinty, B.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Rahman, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Coupled surface-atmosphere reflectance (CSAR) model. 2: Semiempirical surface model usable with NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer data,” J. Geol. Res.98(D11), 20791–20801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Preusker, R.

Pust, N. J.

Qiao, Y.

Z. Li, P. Goloub, C. Devaux, X. Gu, J. L. Deuze, Y. Qiao, and F. Zhao, “Retrieval of aerosol optical and physical properties from ground-based spectral, multi-angular, and polarized sun-photometer measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.101(4), 519–533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, H.

H. Rahman, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Coupled surface-atmosphere reflectance (CSAR) model. 2: Semiempirical surface model usable with NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer data,” J. Geol. Res.98(D11), 20791–20801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, T. H.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roger, J. C.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruhtz, T.

Santer, R.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth's atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spect. Rad. Trans.107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Segal, C. C.

J. S. Pearlman, P. S. Barry, C. C. Segal, J. Shepanski, D. Beiso, and S. L. Carman, “Hyperion, a space-based imaging spectrometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1160–1173 (2003).

Sekera, Z.

Z. Sekera, “Determination of atmospheric parameters from measurement of polarization of upward radiation by satellite or space probe,” Icarus6(1-3), 348–359 (1967).
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Sellers, P. J.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

Shepanski, J.

J. S. Pearlman, P. S. Barry, C. C. Segal, J. Shepanski, D. Beiso, and S. L. Carman, “Hyperion, a space-based imaging spectrometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 1160–1173 (2003).

Sinyuk, A.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, M.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stam, D. M.

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarization of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett.26(5), 591–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “Degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the oxygen A band,” J. Geol. Res.104(D14), 16843–16858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stammes, P.

E. Boesche, P. Stammes, R. Preusker, R. Bennartz, W. Knap, and J. Fischer, “Polarization of skylight in the O2A band: effects of aerosol properties,” Appl. Opt.47(19), 3467–3480 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boesche, P. Stammes, T. Ruhtz, R. Preusker, and J. Fischer, “Effect of aerosol microphysical properties on polarization of skylight: sensitivity study and measurements,” Appl. Opt.45(34), 8790–8805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarization of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett.26(5), 591–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Stam, J. F. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, and P. Stammes, “Degree of linear polarization of light emerging from the cloudless atmosphere in the oxygen A band,” J. Geol. Res.104(D14), 16843–16858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth's atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spect. Rad. Trans.107(3), 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. J.

van der Zande, W. J.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veihelmann, B.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E. F.

A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, D. J. Diner, E. F. Vermote, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data,” Remote Sens. Environ.107(1-2), 90–108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verstraete, M. M.

D. J. Diner, J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R. A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. P. Muller, R. B. Myneni, P. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.36(4), 1072–1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Rahman, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete, “Coupled surface-atmosphere reflectance (CSAR) model. 2: Semiempirical surface model usable with NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer data,” J. Geol. Res.98(D11), 20791–20801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geol. Res.111(D11), D11208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of method for modeling maximum sky DoP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Select examples of the maximum DoP for different sites. An electronic version (Media 1) provides the complete set of models and allows the user to view the data interactively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the MISR-derived and the Hyperion-derived DoP and surface ρ for the four MISR wavelengths. The nearest Hyperion wavelength to MISR was used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Three examples of hyperspectral DoP simulations for a 1-nm bandwidth. The AERONET stations are (from top to bottom): Barrow (05 Sep 2006), Ames (31 Jul 2006), and Saada (23 May 2005). AERONET retrieved precipital water vapor values were 1.0, 2.9, and 1.0 cm, respectively. Aerosol optical depths at 550 nm were 0.02, 0.08, and 0.27, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Select cases of the maximum DoP with a 65° solar zenith angle for all models.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Select Atmospheric Parameters for the Models in Figs. 2-5

Tables Icon

Table 2 Model Surface Parameters for the Results in Fig. 3

Metrics