Abstract

We propose a reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display (RD-LCD) which has advantages of long memory retention time and high contrast ratio. The proposed device adopts ideal bistable characteristics, a cell thickness over pitch (d/p) of 0.25. It can realize long memory retention time, thereby reducing power consumption. In addition, an optical configuration for the RD-LCD makes low light leakages at dark state and shows good dispersion characteristics in both dark and bright states over the entire visible ranges. We experimentally confirmed retention time over 6 months in memory mode and memory and dynamic contrast ratios of 47:1 and 43:1 under ambient light, respectively. As a result, the proposed RD-LCD demonstrates convincingly that it is a candidate for green display.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T.-H. Yoon, G.-D. Lee, and J. C. Kim, “Nontwist quarter-wave liquid-crystal cell for a high-contrast reflective display,” Opt. Lett.25(20), 1547–1549 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G.-D. Lee, H. J. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical configuration of non-twisted liquid crystal cells for single-polarizer reflective display,” Displays22(1), 19–26 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. W. Ko, J. C. Kim, H. C. Choi, K.-H. Park, S. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, W.-R. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Wideband quarter-wave liquid crystal cell with wide viewing angle for the reflective mode with single polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K.-M. Kim, S.-H. Ji, J.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design for excellent contrast ratio in a reflective horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(11), 115101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable cholesteric liquid-crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett.37(1), 109–111 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Barberi, M. Giocondo, J. Li, R. Bartolino, I. Dozov, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display with grey scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(24), 3495–3497 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Davidson and N. J. Mottram, “Flexoelectric switching in a bistable nematic device,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.65(5), 051710 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. H. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimized configuration for transmissive and reflective bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(18), 181101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Kim, J. H. Lee, B. W. Park, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-W. Choi, “Long memory retention time and high contrast ratio in a tristate liquid crystal display device,” Appl. Opt.51(12), 2178–2182 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 123507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. N. Thurston, “Unit sphere description of liquid-crystal configurations,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 3040–3052 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(9A), 6581–6586 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Cheng and R. N. Thurston, “The propagation of disclinations in bistable switching,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 2766–2775 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(6A), 5063–5068 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Yeh and C. Cu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (John Wiley & Sons, 1999), Chap. 4.

2012

2010

J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

K.-M. Kim, S.-H. Ji, J.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design for excellent contrast ratio in a reflective horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(11), 115101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. W. Ko, J. C. Kim, H. C. Choi, K.-H. Park, S. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, W.-R. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Wideband quarter-wave liquid crystal cell with wide viewing angle for the reflective mode with single polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. H. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimized configuration for transmissive and reflective bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(18), 181101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(6A), 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(9A), 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. J. Davidson and N. J. Mottram, “Flexoelectric switching in a bistable nematic device,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.65(5), 051710 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

G.-D. Lee, H. J. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical configuration of non-twisted liquid crystal cells for single-polarizer reflective display,” Displays22(1), 19–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Yoon, G.-D. Lee, and J. C. Kim, “Nontwist quarter-wave liquid-crystal cell for a high-contrast reflective display,” Opt. Lett.25(20), 1547–1549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Barberi, M. Giocondo, J. Li, R. Bartolino, I. Dozov, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display with grey scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(24), 3495–3497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. Cheng and R. N. Thurston, “The propagation of disclinations in bistable switching,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 2766–2775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Thurston, “Unit sphere description of liquid-crystal configurations,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 3040–3052 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable cholesteric liquid-crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett.37(1), 109–111 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Back, J. I.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(6A), 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barberi, R.

R. Barberi, M. Giocondo, J. Li, R. Bartolino, I. Dozov, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display with grey scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(24), 3495–3497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartolino, R.

R. Barberi, M. Giocondo, J. Li, R. Bartolino, I. Dozov, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display with grey scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(24), 3495–3497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable cholesteric liquid-crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett.37(1), 109–111 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(6A), 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng and R. N. Thurston, “The propagation of disclinations in bistable switching,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 2766–2775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. C.

T. W. Ko, J. C. Kim, H. C. Choi, K.-H. Park, S. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, W.-R. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Wideband quarter-wave liquid crystal cell with wide viewing angle for the reflective mode with single polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-W.

Davidson, A. J.

A. J. Davidson and N. J. Mottram, “Flexoelectric switching in a bistable nematic device,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.65(5), 051710 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dozov, I.

R. Barberi, M. Giocondo, J. Li, R. Bartolino, I. Dozov, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display with grey scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(24), 3495–3497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durand, G.

R. Barberi, M. Giocondo, J. Li, R. Bartolino, I. Dozov, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display with grey scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(24), 3495–3497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giocondo, M.

R. Barberi, M. Giocondo, J. Li, R. Bartolino, I. Dozov, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display with grey scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(24), 3495–3497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heffner, W. R.

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable cholesteric liquid-crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett.37(1), 109–111 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. H.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(9A), 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jhun, C. G.

J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(6A), 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ji, S.-H.

K.-M. Kim, S.-H. Ji, J.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design for excellent contrast ratio in a reflective horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(11), 115101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-G.

J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-H.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

G.-D. Lee, H. J. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical configuration of non-twisted liquid crystal cells for single-polarizer reflective display,” Displays22(1), 19–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(9A), 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ko, J. C. Kim, H. C. Choi, K.-H. Park, S. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, W.-R. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Wideband quarter-wave liquid crystal cell with wide viewing angle for the reflective mode with single polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimized configuration for transmissive and reflective bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(18), 181101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(6A), 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, H. J. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical configuration of non-twisted liquid crystal cells for single-polarizer reflective display,” Displays22(1), 19–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Yoon, G.-D. Lee, and J. C. Kim, “Nontwist quarter-wave liquid-crystal cell for a high-contrast reflective display,” Opt. Lett.25(20), 1547–1549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. M.

T. W. Ko, J. C. Kim, H. C. Choi, K.-H. Park, S. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, W.-R. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Wideband quarter-wave liquid crystal cell with wide viewing angle for the reflective mode with single polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-H.

Kim, K.-M.

K.-M. Kim, S.-H. Ji, J.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design for excellent contrast ratio in a reflective horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(11), 115101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. J.

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(9A), 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-C.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

T. Kim, J. H. Lee, B. W. Park, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-W. Choi, “Long memory retention time and high contrast ratio in a tristate liquid crystal display device,” Appl. Opt.51(12), 2178–2182 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. S.

J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. W.

T. W. Ko, J. C. Kim, H. C. Choi, K.-H. Park, S. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, W.-R. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Wideband quarter-wave liquid crystal cell with wide viewing angle for the reflective mode with single polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-B.

J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-D.

K.-M. Kim, S.-H. Ji, J.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design for excellent contrast ratio in a reflective horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(11), 115101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ko, J. C. Kim, H. C. Choi, K.-H. Park, S. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, W.-R. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Wideband quarter-wave liquid crystal cell with wide viewing angle for the reflective mode with single polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, H. J. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical configuration of non-twisted liquid crystal cells for single-polarizer reflective display,” Displays22(1), 19–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Yoon, G.-D. Lee, and J. C. Kim, “Nontwist quarter-wave liquid-crystal cell for a high-contrast reflective display,” Opt. Lett.25(20), 1547–1549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

T. Kim, J. H. Lee, B. W. Park, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-W. Choi, “Long memory retention time and high contrast ratio in a tristate liquid crystal display device,” Appl. Opt.51(12), 2178–2182 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

K.-M. Kim, S.-H. Ji, J.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design for excellent contrast ratio in a reflective horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(11), 115101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

K.-M. Kim, S.-H. Ji, J.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design for excellent contrast ratio in a reflective horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(11), 115101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ko, J. C. Kim, H. C. Choi, K.-H. Park, S. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, W.-R. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Wideband quarter-wave liquid crystal cell with wide viewing angle for the reflective mode with single polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimized configuration for transmissive and reflective bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(18), 181101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(9A), 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(6A), 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, U. J.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.-R.

T. W. Ko, J. C. Kim, H. C. Choi, K.-H. Park, S. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, W.-R. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Wideband quarter-wave liquid crystal cell with wide viewing angle for the reflective mode with single polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(9A), 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

R. Barberi, M. Giocondo, J. Li, R. Bartolino, I. Dozov, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display with grey scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(24), 3495–3497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.-H.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mottram, N. J.

A. J. Davidson and N. J. Mottram, “Flexoelectric switching in a bistable nematic device,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.65(5), 051710 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noh, J.-D.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. W.

Park, K. C.

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(9A), 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-H.

T. W. Ko, J. C. Kim, H. C. Choi, K.-H. Park, S. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, W.-R. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Wideband quarter-wave liquid crystal cell with wide viewing angle for the reflective mode with single polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. S.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. K.

J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thurston, R. N.

R. N. Thurston, “Unit sphere description of liquid-crystal configurations,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 3040–3052 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Cheng and R. N. Thurston, “The propagation of disclinations in bistable switching,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 2766–2775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

T. Kim, J. H. Lee, B. W. Park, K.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and S.-W. Choi, “Long memory retention time and high contrast ratio in a tristate liquid crystal display device,” Appl. Opt.51(12), 2178–2182 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimized configuration for transmissive and reflective bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(18), 181101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(6A), 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, H. J. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical configuration of non-twisted liquid crystal cells for single-polarizer reflective display,” Displays22(1), 19–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Yoon, G.-D. Lee, and J. C. Kim, “Nontwist quarter-wave liquid-crystal cell for a high-contrast reflective display,” Opt. Lett.25(20), 1547–1549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optimized configuration for transmissive and reflective bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(18), 181101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, T. Kim, H. K. Shin, C. G. Jhun, S.-B. Kwon, D.-G. Kim, W. S. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display switchable between dynamic and memory modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 133510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ko, J. C. Kim, H. C. Choi, K.-H. Park, S. H. Lee, K. M. Kim, W.-R. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Wideband quarter-wave liquid crystal cell with wide viewing angle for the reflective mode with single polarizer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable cholesteric liquid-crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett.37(1), 109–111 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Barberi, M. Giocondo, J. Li, R. Bartolino, I. Dozov, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display with grey scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(24), 3495–3497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Bistable chiral-splay nematic liquid crystal device using horizontal switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(24), 4215–4217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Displays

G.-D. Lee, H. J. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Optical configuration of non-twisted liquid crystal cells for single-polarizer reflective display,” Displays22(1), 19–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Cheng and R. N. Thurston, “The propagation of disclinations in bistable switching,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 2766–2775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Thurston, “Unit sphere description of liquid-crystal configurations,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 3040–3052 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

K.-M. Kim, S.-H. Ji, J.-H. Lee, S. H. Lee, and G.-D. Lee, “Optical design for excellent contrast ratio in a reflective horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(11), 115101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, S.-H. Moon, J.-D. Noh, S.-C. Kim, W. S. Park, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, S. H. Hong, and S. H. Lee, “Reflective liquid crystal display using a non-twist half-wave cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), L221–L224 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G.-D. Lee, G.-H. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Configuration optimization of a reflective bistable-twisted-nematic cell for high-contrast operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 5A), 2716–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Kim, H. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, Y. K. Lee, K. C. Park, and J. Jang, “Cell gap-dependent transmittance characteristic in a fringe field-driven homogeneously aligned liquid crystal cell with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(9A), 6581–6586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, S. L. Lee, J. I. Back, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Disclination velocity in bistable chiral splay nematic liquid crystal device,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(6A), 5063–5068 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

A. J. Davidson and N. J. Mottram, “Flexoelectric switching in a bistable nematic device,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.65(5), 051710 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. Yeh and C. Cu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (John Wiley & Sons, 1999), Chap. 4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A three-terminal electrode structure and initial LC configuration in d/p = 0.25.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The transition process of the chiral-splay cell in the vicinity of d/p = 0.25: (a) initial coexisted states, (b) bend state by vertical electric field, (c) π twist state after relaxation, (d) splay state coexisted with the π twist domains and (e) uniform splay state by fringe electric field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Operation of the proposed device: (a) optically compensated π twist state, (b) dynamic mode by vertical switching, (c) memory mode by horizontal switching.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The polarization paths of three lights, 450 nm (blue light), 550 nm (green light), and 650 nm (red light) on the Poincare sphere: (a) from initial position of lights after passing the polarizer with 0° TA, (b) after passing the film 1 and film 2, (c) After passing π twist LC cell, (d) After passing again π twist LC cell due to a reflection, (e) after passing the film 2 and film 1, and (f) final positions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance curves as a function of wavelength in the π twist state before and after optical compensation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The fabricated coexisted cell in d/p = 0.25: (a) before optical compensation, (b) after optical compensation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance curves as a function of the wavelength in (a) the memory mode and (b) dynamic mode.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) The voltage-reflectance (V-R) curves and (b) response time curves measured in dynamic mode.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The electro-optical characteristics in the memory mode.

Equations (1)

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R π ( λ )= | [ 1 0 ] M ˜ f1 M ˜ f2 M ˜ π M π M f2 M f1 [ 1 0 ] t | 2

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