Abstract

We demonstrated the femtosecond erbium-doped all-fiber lasers mode-locked with graphene oxide, which can be conveniently obtained from natural graphite by simple oxidation and ultra-sonication process. With proper dispersion management in an all-fiber ring cavity, the laser directly generated 200 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 22.9 MHz and the average output power was 5.8 mW. With the variation of net cavity dispersion, output pulses with pulse width of 0.2~3 ps were obtained at a repetition rate of 22.9~0.93 MHz. These results are comparable with those of graphene saturable absorbers and the superiority of easy fabrication and hydrophilic property of graphene oxide will facilitate its potential applications for ultrafast photonics.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G. R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (8)

L. Gui, X. Yang, G. Zhao, X. Yang, X. Xiao, J. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Suppression of continuous lasing in a carbon nanotube polyimide film mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 50(1), 110–115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, X. Y. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3024–3026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechinecal exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (9)

Y. Song, S. Jang, W. Han, and M. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact grapheme mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1–10 (2010).

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

C. Berger, Z. Song, T. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(52), 19912–19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 microm,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2846–2848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, and M. F. Yan, “High power, single mode, all-fiber source of femtosecond pulses at 1550 nm and its use in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 12(13), 3025–3034 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, “Experimental study of sideband generation in femtosecond fiber lasers,” Quantum Electron. 30(6), 1469–1477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphite oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339–1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M.

Y. Song, S. Jang, W. Han, and M. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact grapheme mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1–10 (2010).

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, C.

C. Berger, Z. Song, T. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(52), 19912–19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. L.

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. C.

Chang, Y. M.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 microm,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2846–2848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, W. H.

Chhowalla, M.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, E. H.

C. Berger, Z. Song, T. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(52), 19912–19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cunning, B. V.

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Z.

C. Berger, Z. Song, T. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(52), 19912–19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Heer, W. A.

C. Berger, Z. Song, T. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(52), 19912–19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, M. L.

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, “Experimental study of sideband generation in femtosecond fiber lasers,” Quantum Electron. 30(6), 1469–1477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dikin, D.

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duling, I. N.

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, “Experimental study of sideband generation in femtosecond fiber lasers,” Quantum Electron. 30(6), 1469–1477 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eda, G.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feder, K. S.

Feng, R.

C. Berger, Z. Song, T. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(52), 19912–19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

First, P. N.

C. Berger, Z. Song, T. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(52), 19912–19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fuse, K.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechinecal exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gui, L.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gui, X. Yang, G. Zhao, X. Yang, X. Xiao, J. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Suppression of continuous lasing in a carbon nanotube polyimide film mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 50(1), 110–115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, W.

Y. Song, S. Jang, W. Han, and M. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, X. Y.

Ho, J.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P.

Huang, P. L.

Huang, S. H.

Hummers, W. S.

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphite oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339–1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jang, S.

Y. Song, S. Jang, W. Han, and M. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. Y.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jia, X.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jose, R.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1–10 (2010).

Kielpinski, D.

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kleinhammes, A.

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kohlhaas, K.

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, H. H.

Lee, J. H.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. J.

Li, T.

C. Berger, Z. Song, T. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(52), 19912–19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. T.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1–10 (2010).

Lin, B.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact grapheme mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. R.

Lin, S. C.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. B.

Z. B. Liu, X. Y. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3024–3026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact grapheme mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1–10 (2010).

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marchenkov, A. N.

C. Berger, Z. Song, T. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(52), 19912–19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechinecal exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nezich, D.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, S.

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nishizawa, N.

Novoselov, K. S.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Offeman, R. E.

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphite oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339–1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ogbazghi, A. Y.

C. Berger, Z. Song, T. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(52), 19912–19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R.

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polavarapu, L.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, Z. S.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishna, S.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1–10 (2010).

Reina, A.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruoff, R.

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sardesai, H. P.

Shen, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, H.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Y.

Y. Song, S. Jang, W. Han, and M. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

H. Kim, J. Cho, S. Y. Jang, and Y. W. Song, “Deformation-immunized optical deposition of graphene for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, Z.

C. Berger, Z. Song, T. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(52), 19912–19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stankovich, S.

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. Y.

Su, L. B.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z. P.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact grapheme mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1–10 (2010).

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact grapheme mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1–10 (2010).

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Westbrook, P. S.

Wu, D.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

L. Gui, X. Yang, G. Zhao, X. Yang, X. Xiao, J. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Suppression of continuous lasing in a carbon nanotube polyimide film mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 50(1), 110–115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Xu, J.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Yamashita, S.

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[CrossRef]

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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gui, X. Yang, G. Zhao, X. Yang, X. Xiao, J. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Suppression of continuous lasing in a carbon nanotube polyimide film mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 50(1), 110–115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1–10 (2010).

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Yeh, C. Y.

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1–10 (2010).

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact grapheme mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact grapheme mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
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J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1–10 (2010).

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

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X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121905 (2011).
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Carbon (1)

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
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J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact grapheme mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Raman spectrum of graphene oxide. (b) Saturable absorption of graphene oxide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic setup of the graphene oxide mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; SMF: single mode fiber; GOSAM: graphene oxide saturable absorber mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characterization of graphene oxide mode-locked fiber laser in anomalous dispersion cavity: (a) Stable pulse train at 25.6 MHz repetition rate. (b) Optical spectrum. (c). 600 fs pulse width. (d) Frequency spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization of graphene oxide mode-locked fiber laser in near zero dispersion cavity: (a) Stable pulse train at 22.9 MHz repetition rate. (b) Optical spectrum. (c) 200 fs pulse width. (d) Frequency spectrum.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Parameter of Graphene Oxide Mode-locked Fiber Laser

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