Abstract

Single attosecond pulse generation with polarization gating Bessel-Gauss beam in relatively strongly-ionized media is investigated. The results show that Bessel-Gauss beam has the ability to suppress the spatial plasma dispersion effects caused by high density of free electrons, thus the laser field can maintain its spatial profile through highly-ionized medium. This indicates the use of Bessel-Gauss beam has advantages over Gaussian beam in high harmonic generation under high ionization conditions. In our scheme, significant improvement of spatiotemporal properties of harmonics is achieved and an isolated attosecond pulse with high beam quality is filtered out using polarization gating.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  15. W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in high-order harmonic generation via a ω + 3ω bichromatic laser field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40, 869 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. A. L’Huillier and P. Balcou, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A46, 2778–2790 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  36. Q. Li, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation from asymmetric molecules with an ω + 2ω/3 multicycle two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A81, 053846 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
    [PubMed]

2012

2011

P. Lan, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation with infrared double optical gating,” Phys. Rev. A83, 063839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, A. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Medium propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation of Ar and N2,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Q. Li, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation from asymmetric molecules with an ω + 2ω/3 multicycle two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A81, 053846 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Wei, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Mid-infrared modulated polarization gating for ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express18, 11308–11315 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Dao, K. B. Dinh, and P. Hannaford, “Generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation with a Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 131114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond interference control of XUV photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41085601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Auguste, O. Gobert, and B. Carré, “Numerical study on high-order harmonic generation by a Bessel-Gauss laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A78, 033411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, F. Li, Y. Li, and Z. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase measurement from half-cycle high harmonics,” Opt. Express16, 5868–5873 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in high-order harmonic generation via a ω + 3ω bichromatic laser field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40, 869 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett.31, 3188–3190 (2006).

M. B. Gaarde and M. Murakami, “Spatial separation of large dynamical blueshift and harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A74, 053401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys.67, 813–855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A55, 3204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘Single-Cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 1251–1254 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

A. L’Huillier and P. Balcou, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP64, 1191–1194 (1986).

1954

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys.67, 813–855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Antoine, P.

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

T. Auguste, O. Gobert, and B. Carré, “Numerical study on high-order harmonic generation by a Bessel-Gauss laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A78, 033411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A55, 3204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier and P. Balcou, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bruzzese, R.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond interference control of XUV photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41085601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in high-order harmonic generation via a ω + 3ω bichromatic laser field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40, 869 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carré, B.

T. Auguste, O. Gobert, and B. Carré, “Numerical study on high-order harmonic generation by a Bessel-Gauss laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A78, 033411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caumes, J.-P.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ceccherini, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christov, I.

I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘Single-Cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 1251–1254 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Constant, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dao, L. V.

L. V. Dao, K. B. Dinh, and P. Hannaford, “Generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation with a Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 131114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Lisio, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP64, 1191–1194 (1986).

DiMauro, L. F.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys.67, 813–855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dinh, K. B.

L. V. Dao, K. B. Dinh, and P. Hannaford, “Generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation with a Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 131114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elouga, L.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and M. Murakami, “Spatial separation of large dynamical blueshift and harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A74, 053401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett.31, 3188–3190 (2006).

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobert, O.

T. Auguste, O. Gobert, and B. Carré, “Numerical study on high-order harmonic generation by a Bessel-Gauss laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A78, 033411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, H.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hannaford, P.

L. V. Dao, K. B. Dinh, and P. Hannaford, “Generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation with a Bessel-Gaussian beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 131114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herne, C.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, W.

Z. Wang, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Efficient generation of isolated attosecond pulses with high beam quality by two-color Bessel-Gauss beams,” Opt. Lett.37, 238–240 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation from asymmetric molecules with an ω + 2ω/3 multicycle two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A81, 053846 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Wei, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Mid-infrared modulated polarization gating for ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express18, 11308–11315 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in high-order harmonic generation via a ω + 3ω bichromatic laser field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40, 869 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Jin, C.

C. Jin, A. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Medium propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation of Ar and N2,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘Single-Cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 1251–1254 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. T.

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A55, 3204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier and P. Balcou, “Calculations of high-order harmonic-generation processes in xenon at 1064 nm,” Phys. Rev. A46, 2778–2790 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lan, P.

P. Lan, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation with infrared double optical gating,” Phys. Rev. A83, 063839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond interference control of XUV photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41085601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, F. Li, Y. Li, and Z. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase measurement from half-cycle high harmonics,” Opt. Express16, 5868–5873 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in high-order harmonic generation via a ω + 3ω bichromatic laser field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40, 869 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le, A.

C. Jin, A. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Medium propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation of Ar and N2,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A55, 3204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, F. Li, Y. Li, and Z. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase measurement from half-cycle high harmonics,” Opt. Express16, 5868–5873 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation from asymmetric molecules with an ω + 2ω/3 multicycle two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A81, 053846 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond interference control of XUV photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41085601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, F. Li, Y. Li, and Z. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase measurement from half-cycle high harmonics,” Opt. Express16, 5868–5873 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

C. Jin, A. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Medium propagation effects in high-order harmonic generation of Ar and N2,” Phys. Rev. A83, 023411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lu, P.

Z. Wang, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Efficient generation of isolated attosecond pulses with high beam quality by two-color Bessel-Gauss beams,” Opt. Lett.37, 238–240 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation from asymmetric molecules with an ω + 2ω/3 multicycle two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A81, 053846 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Wei, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Mid-infrared modulated polarization gating for ultra-broadband supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express18, 11308–11315 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043413 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond interference control of XUV photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41085601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Multi-cycle laser-driven broadband supercontinuum with a modulated polarization gating,” Opt. Express16, 9795–9803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, F. Li, Y. Li, and Z. Yang, “Carrier-envelope phase measurement from half-cycle high harmonics,” Opt. Express16, 5868–5873 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in high-order harmonic generation via a ω + 3ω bichromatic laser field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40, 869 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mcleod, J. H.

Mével, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

P. Lan, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation with infrared double optical gating,” Phys. Rev. A83, 063839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, M.

M. B. Gaarde and M. Murakami, “Spatial separation of large dynamical blueshift and harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A74, 053401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘Single-Cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 1251–1254 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C. H.

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of apatially coherent light ar extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Poletto, L.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A55, 3204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett.31, 3188–3190 (2006).

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sola, I. J.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strelkov, V.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, E.

P. Lan, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation with infrared double optical gating,” Phys. Rev. A83, 063839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tate, J. L.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tosa, V.

V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Wang, X.

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond interference control of XUV photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41085601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in high-order harmonic generation via a ω + 3ω bichromatic laser field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40, 869 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wei, P.

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

Zhang, Q.

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M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Attosecond interference control of XUV photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.41085601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Hong, and X. Wang, “Control of quantum paths in high-order harmonic generation via a ω + 3ω bichromatic laser field,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40, 869 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys.2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. S. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimentional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A61, 063801 (2000).
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V. Tosa, K. T. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “Macroscopic generation of attosecond-pulse trains in strongly ionized media,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, W. Hong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and P. Lu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation from asymmetric molecules with an ω + 2ω/3 multicycle two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A81, 053846 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, “Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A76, 011402(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. Lu, P. Lan, X. Wang, and Y. Li, “Control of the launch of attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A75, 063423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Lan, E. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation with infrared double optical gating,” Phys. Rev. A83, 063839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A52, 4747–4754 (1995).
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P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: the role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A55, 3204 (1997).
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P. Lan, P. Lu, Q. Li, F. Li, W. Hong, and Q. Zhang, “Macroscopic effects for quantum control of broadband isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color field,” Phys. Rev. A79, 043413 (2009).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science314, 443–446 (2006).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electric field components E⃗x (red solid line) and E⃗y (blue dash-dotted line). CEP is chosen to be 0. The inset is the time dependent Ellipticity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Single-atom harmonic spectrum generated by 1.8μm mid-infrared laser pulse using polarization gating and (b) the corresponding time-frequency distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatiotemporal profiles of the two electric field components E⃗x(t) and E⃗y(t) at the entrance of the gas cell. left column: γ = 0°; middle column: γ = 0.5°; right column: γ = 1.0°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spatiotemporal profiles of the two electric field components E⃗x(t) and E⃗y(t) at the exit of the gas cell. left column: γ = 0°; middle column: γ = 0.5°; right column: γ = 1.0°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of the on-axis electric field components E⃗x(t) at the entrance (black dash-dotted line) and the exit. (a) γ = 0° (green solid line), (b) γ = 0.5° (blue solid line) and (c) γ = 1.0° (red solid line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

macroscopic HHG spectra with different half-focusing angles: γ = 0° (blue solid line), γ = 0.5° (green solid line) and γ = 1.0° (red solid line). The results for the different angles have been vertically shifted for visual convenience. The intensities for all the angles are almost equal in reality.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Near-field spatiotemporal distributions of harmonics from 110th–150th with different half-focusing angles: (a) 0°, (b) 0.3°, (c) 0.5°, (d) 0.7° and (e) 1.0°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Near-field spatial and temporal profiles of harmonics from 110th–150th with Gaussian beam (γ = 0°) and BG beam (γ = 1.0°). (a) and (b) spatial profiles with Gaussian beam and BG beam, respectively, (c) and (d) temporal profiles with Gaussian and BG beam, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Far-field spatial distributions and the light spots of the attosecond pulse with Gaussian beam (γ = 0°) and BG beam (γ = 1.0°). (a) and (b) spatial distributions with Gaussian beam and BG beam, respectively, (c) and (d) light spots with Gaussian and BG beam, respectively. The position is 50 cm away from the exit of the medium for both two cases.

Equations (10)

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E x ( t ) = E 0 ( e 2 ln ( 2 ) ( ( t t d / 2 ) / τ p ) 2 + e 2 ln ( 2 ) ( ( t + t d / 2 ) / τ p ) 2 ) cos ( ω t + ϕ ) x ,
E y ( t ) = E 0 ( e 2 ln ( 2 ) ( ( t t d / 2 ) / τ p ) 2 e 2 ln ( 2 ) ( ( t + t d / 2 ) / τ p ) 2 ) sin ( ω t + ϕ ) y ,
d n l ( t ) = i t d t [ π ε + i ( t t ) / 2 ] 3 / 2 × d rec [ p s t ( t , t ) A ( t ) ] d ion [ p s t ( t , t ) A ( t ) ] × exp [ i S s t ( t , t ) ] E ( t ) g ( t ) + c . c . ,
d x ( t ) = i t d t [ π ε + i ( t t ) / 2 ] 3 / 2 × d recx [ p s t ( t , t ) A ( t ) ] × { d ionx [ p s t ( t , t ) A ( t ) ] E x ( t ) + d iony [ p s t ( t , t ) A ( t ) ] E y ( t ) } × exp [ i S s t ( t , t ) ] g ( t ) + c . c . ,
d y ( t ) = i t d t [ π ε + i ( t t ) / 2 ] 3 / 2 × d recy [ p s t ( t , t ) A ( t ) ] × { d ionx [ p s t ( t , t ) A ( t ) ] E x ( t ) + d iony [ p s t ( t , t ) A ( t ) ] E y ( t ) } × exp [ i S s t ( t , t ) ] g ( t ) + c . c . .
2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) 1 c 2 2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 = ω p 2 ( ρ , z , t ) c 2 E f ( ρ , z , t ) + μ 0 J a b s ( ρ , z , t ) t ,
2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) 1 c 2 2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 = ω p 2 ( ρ , z , t ) c 2 E h ( ρ , z , t ) + μ 0 2 P n l ( ρ , z , t ) t 2 .
ω p = [ e 2 n e ( t ) ε 0 m e ] 1 / 2
J a b s ( t ) = γ ( t ) n e ( t ) I p E f ( t ) | E f ( t ) | 2 ,
E B G ( ρ , z ) = E focus 1 + ( 2 z / b B G ) 2 J 0 ( k ρ sin γ 1 + i 2 z / b B G ) × exp [ ( k ( ρ 2 + z 2 sin 2 γ ) / b B G 1 + ( 2 z / b B G ) 2 ) ] × exp [ i ( k z cos γ arctan ( 2 z / b B G ) ) ] × exp [ i 2 z b B G ( k ( ρ 2 + z 2 sin 2 γ ) / b B G 1 + ( 2 z / b B G ) 2 ) ] ,

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