Abstract

A mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar based on double-edge technique is developed for mid-altitude wind observation. To reduce the systematic error, a system-level optical frequency control method is proposed and demonstrated. The emission of the seed laser at 1064 nm is used to synchronize the FPI in the optical frequency domain. A servo loop stabilizing the frequency of the seed laser is formed by measuring the absolute frequency of the second harmonic against an iodine absorption line. And, the third harmonic is used for Rayleigh lidar detection. The frequency stability is 1.6 MHz at 1064 nm over 2 minutes. A locking accuracy of 0.3 MHz at 1064 nm is realized. In comparison experiments, wind profiles from the lidar, radiosonde and European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) analysis show good agreement from 8 km to 25 km. Wind observation over two months is carried out in Urumqi (42.1°N,87.1°E), northwest of China, demonstrating the stability and robustness of the system. For the first time, quasi-zero wind layer and dynamic evolution of high-altitude tropospheric jet are observed based on Rayleigh Doppler lidar in Asia.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

M. Weissmann, R. H. Langland, P. M. Pauley, S. Rahm, and C. Cardinali, “Influence of airborne Doppler wind lidar profiles near Typhoon Sinlaku on ECMWF and NOGAPS forecasts,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.138, 118–130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. Baumgarten, “Doppler Rayleigh Mie Raman lidar for wind and temperature measurements in the middle atmosphere up to 80 km,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.3(6), 1509–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Xia and C. Zhang, “Ultrafast and Doppler-free femtosecond optical ranging based on dispersive frequency-modulated interferometry,” Opt. Express18(5), 4118–4129 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-4118 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

F. Shen, H. Hyunki Cha, J. Dong, D. Kim, D. Sun, and S. O. Kwon, “Design and performance simulation of a molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(7), 593–597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Xia and C. Zhang, “Ultrafast ranging lidar based on real-time Fourier transformation,” Opt. Lett.34(14), 2108–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xia and J. Yao, “Characterization of sub-picosecond pulses based on temporal interferometry with real-time tracking of higher-order dispersion and optical time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(22), 5029–5037 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Cézard, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, J. P. Huignard, and P. H. Flamant, “Performance evaluation of a dual fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer for air parameter measurements with a 355 nm Rayleigh-Mie lidar,” Appl. Opt.48(12), 2321–2332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Reitebuch, C. Lemmerz, E. Nagel, U. Paffrath, Y. Durand, M. Endemann, F. Fabre, and M. Chaloupy, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part I: Instrument design and comparison to satellite instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2501–2515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Paffrath, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, B. Witschas, I. Nikolaus, and V. Freudenthaler, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part II: Simulations and Rayleigh Receiver Radiometric performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2516–2530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Dabas, M. Denneulin, P. Flamant, C. Loth, A. Garnier, and A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, “Correcting winds measured with a Rayleigh Doppler lidar from pressure and temperature effects,” Tellus A60(2), 206–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Weissmann and C. Cardinali, “Impact of airborne Doppler lidar observations on ECMWF forecasts,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.133(622), 107–116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, “Frequency stabilization of Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillators for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE6451, 1–12 (2007).

H. Xia, D. Sun, Y. Yang, F. Shen, J. Dong, and T. Kobayashi, “Fabry-Perot interferometer based Mie Doppler lidar for low tropospheric wind observation,” Appl. Opt.46(29), 7120–7131 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Bruneau, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, and J. Porteneuve, “Wind-velocity lidar measurements by use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, comparison with a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 173–182 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

Z. S. Liu, D. Wu, J. T. Liu, K. L. Zhang, W. B. Chen, X. Q. Song, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter,” Appl. Opt.41(33), 7079–7086 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. McKay, “Assessment of a multibeam Fizeau wedge interferometer for Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Opt.41(9), 1760–1767 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, and S. X. Li, “Wind measurements with 355-nm molecular Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.25(17), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, G. Nelke, G. Baumgarten, D. Rees, A. Hauchecorne, and K. Adolfsen, “The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: Objectives, configuration, and performance,” Ann. Geophys.18, 815–833 (2000).

1999

C. Flesia and C. L. Korb, “Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt.38(3), 432–440 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, and A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2422–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, S. X. Li, and C. Flesia, “Theory of the double-edge technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt.37(15), 3097–3104 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, P. A. Castleberg, and H. Roe, “Middle-atmospheric Doppler lidar using an iodine-vapor edge filter,” Opt. Lett.22(21), 1648–1650 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, and Y. Chaxell, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.58(16), 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Huffaker and R. M. Hardesty, “Remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems,” Proc. IEEE84(2), 181–204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. A. Tepley, “Neutral winds of the middle atmosphere observed at Arecibo using a Doppler Rayleigh lidar,” J. Geophys. Res.99(D12), 25781–25790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Garnier and M. L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh LIDAR for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B55(1), 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: Toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A45(7), 4911–4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.16(11), 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

L. A. Rahn, “Feedback stabilization of an injection-seeded Nd: YAG laser,” Appl. Opt.24(7), 940–942 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

A. T. Young and G. W. Kattawar, “Rayleigh-scattering line profiles,” Appl. Opt.22(23), 3668–3670 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adolfsen, K.

U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, G. Nelke, G. Baumgarten, D. Rees, A. Hauchecorne, and K. Adolfsen, “The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: Objectives, configuration, and performance,” Ann. Geophys.18, 815–833 (2000).

Andersson, E.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baumgarten, G.

G. Baumgarten, “Doppler Rayleigh Mie Raman lidar for wind and temperature measurements in the middle atmosphere up to 80 km,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.3(6), 1509–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, G. Nelke, G. Baumgarten, D. Rees, A. Hauchecorne, and K. Adolfsen, “The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: Objectives, configuration, and performance,” Ann. Geophys.18, 815–833 (2000).

Bruneau, D.

D. Bruneau, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, and J. Porteneuve, “Wind-velocity lidar measurements by use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, comparison with a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 173–182 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnham, R. L.

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cardinali, C.

M. Weissmann, R. H. Langland, P. M. Pauley, S. Rahm, and C. Cardinali, “Influence of airborne Doppler wind lidar profiles near Typhoon Sinlaku on ECMWF and NOGAPS forecasts,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.138, 118–130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Weissmann and C. Cardinali, “Impact of airborne Doppler lidar observations on ECMWF forecasts,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.133(622), 107–116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Castleberg, P. A.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, P. A. Castleberg, and H. Roe, “Middle-atmospheric Doppler lidar using an iodine-vapor edge filter,” Opt. Lett.22(21), 1648–1650 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cézard, N.

N. Cézard, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, J. P. Huignard, and P. H. Flamant, “Performance evaluation of a dual fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer for air parameter measurements with a 355 nm Rayleigh-Mie lidar,” Appl. Opt.48(12), 2321–2332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaloupy, M.

O. Reitebuch, C. Lemmerz, E. Nagel, U. Paffrath, Y. Durand, M. Endemann, F. Fabre, and M. Chaloupy, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part I: Instrument design and comparison to satellite instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2501–2515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chanin, M. L.

A. Garnier and M. L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh LIDAR for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B55(1), 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.16(11), 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chaxell, Y.

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, and Y. Chaxell, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.58(16), 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, and S. X. Li, “Wind measurements with 355-nm molecular Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.25(17), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. B.

Z. S. Liu, D. Wu, J. T. Liu, K. L. Zhang, W. B. Chen, X. Q. Song, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter,” Appl. Opt.41(33), 7079–7086 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: Toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A45(7), 4911–4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, X.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

Cook, A. L.

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Culoma, A.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dabas, A.

A. Dabas, M. Denneulin, P. Flamant, C. Loth, A. Garnier, and A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, “Correcting winds measured with a Rayleigh Doppler lidar from pressure and temperature effects,” Tellus A60(2), 206–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: Toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A45(7), 4911–4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denneulin, M.

A. Dabas, M. Denneulin, P. Flamant, C. Loth, A. Garnier, and A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, “Correcting winds measured with a Rayleigh Doppler lidar from pressure and temperature effects,” Tellus A60(2), 206–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi-Bouteyre, A.

N. Cézard, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, J. P. Huignard, and P. H. Flamant, “Performance evaluation of a dual fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer for air parameter measurements with a 355 nm Rayleigh-Mie lidar,” Appl. Opt.48(12), 2321–2332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dabas, M. Denneulin, P. Flamant, C. Loth, A. Garnier, and A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, “Correcting winds measured with a Rayleigh Doppler lidar from pressure and temperature effects,” Tellus A60(2), 206–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

F. Shen, H. Hyunki Cha, J. Dong, D. Kim, D. Sun, and S. O. Kwon, “Design and performance simulation of a molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(7), 593–597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Xia, D. Sun, Y. Yang, F. Shen, J. Dong, and T. Kobayashi, “Fabry-Perot interferometer based Mie Doppler lidar for low tropospheric wind observation,” Appl. Opt.46(29), 7120–7131 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durand, Y.

O. Reitebuch, C. Lemmerz, E. Nagel, U. Paffrath, Y. Durand, M. Endemann, F. Fabre, and M. Chaloupy, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part I: Instrument design and comparison to satellite instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2501–2515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, G.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Endemann, M.

O. Reitebuch, C. Lemmerz, E. Nagel, U. Paffrath, Y. Durand, M. Endemann, F. Fabre, and M. Chaloupy, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part I: Instrument design and comparison to satellite instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2501–2515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, F.

O. Reitebuch, C. Lemmerz, E. Nagel, U. Paffrath, Y. Durand, M. Endemann, F. Fabre, and M. Chaloupy, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part I: Instrument design and comparison to satellite instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2501–2515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fee, M. S.

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: Toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A45(7), 4911–4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiedler, J.

U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, G. Nelke, G. Baumgarten, D. Rees, A. Hauchecorne, and K. Adolfsen, “The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: Objectives, configuration, and performance,” Ann. Geophys.18, 815–833 (2000).

Fix, A.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P.

A. Dabas, M. Denneulin, P. Flamant, C. Loth, A. Garnier, and A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, “Correcting winds measured with a Rayleigh Doppler lidar from pressure and temperature effects,” Tellus A60(2), 206–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P. H.

N. Cézard, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, J. P. Huignard, and P. H. Flamant, “Performance evaluation of a dual fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer for air parameter measurements with a 355 nm Rayleigh-Mie lidar,” Appl. Opt.48(12), 2321–2332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flesia, C.

C. Flesia and C. L. Korb, “Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt.38(3), 432–440 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, S. X. Li, and C. Flesia, “Theory of the double-edge technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt.37(15), 3097–3104 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Force, J. D.

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthaler, V.

U. Paffrath, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, B. Witschas, I. Nikolaus, and V. Freudenthaler, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part II: Simulations and Rayleigh Receiver Radiometric performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2516–2530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fricke, K. H.

U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, G. Nelke, G. Baumgarten, D. Rees, A. Hauchecorne, and K. Adolfsen, “The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: Objectives, configuration, and performance,” Ann. Geophys.18, 815–833 (2000).

Friedman, J. S.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, P. A. Castleberg, and H. Roe, “Middle-atmospheric Doppler lidar using an iodine-vapor edge filter,” Opt. Lett.22(21), 1648–1650 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garnier, A.

A. Dabas, M. Denneulin, P. Flamant, C. Loth, A. Garnier, and A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, “Correcting winds measured with a Rayleigh Doppler lidar from pressure and temperature effects,” Tellus A60(2), 206–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, and J. Porteneuve, “Wind-velocity lidar measurements by use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, comparison with a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 173–182 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, and A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2422–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Garnier and M. L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh LIDAR for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B55(1), 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.16(11), 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gentry, B. M.

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, and S. X. Li, “Wind measurements with 355-nm molecular Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.25(17), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, S. X. Li, and C. Flesia, “Theory of the double-edge technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt.37(15), 3097–3104 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffin, E.

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, and Y. Chaxell, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.58(16), 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hair, J. W.

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Liu, D. Wu, J. T. Liu, K. L. Zhang, W. B. Chen, X. Q. Song, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter,” Appl. Opt.41(33), 7079–7086 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardesty, R. M.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

R. M. Huffaker and R. M. Hardesty, “Remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems,” Proc. IEEE84(2), 181–204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harrell, S. D.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

Hauchecorne, A.

U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, G. Nelke, G. Baumgarten, D. Rees, A. Hauchecorne, and K. Adolfsen, “The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: Objectives, configuration, and performance,” Ann. Geophys.18, 815–833 (2000).

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.16(11), 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hertzog, A.

D. Bruneau, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, and J. Porteneuve, “Wind-velocity lidar measurements by use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, comparison with a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 173–182 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, and A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2422–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoefer, M.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, “Frequency stabilization of Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillators for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE6451, 1–12 (2007).

Hoffmann, D.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, “Frequency stabilization of Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillators for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE6451, 1–12 (2007).

Höffner, J.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, “Frequency stabilization of Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillators for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE6451, 1–12 (2007).

Hostetler, C. A.

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hovis, F. E.

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

Huffaker, R. M.

R. M. Huffaker and R. M. Hardesty, “Remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems,” Proc. IEEE84(2), 181–204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

N. Cézard, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, J. P. Huignard, and P. H. Flamant, “Performance evaluation of a dual fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer for air parameter measurements with a 355 nm Rayleigh-Mie lidar,” Appl. Opt.48(12), 2321–2332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyunki Cha, H.

F. Shen, H. Hyunki Cha, J. Dong, D. Kim, D. Sun, and S. O. Kwon, “Design and performance simulation of a molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(7), 593–597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ingmann, P.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Isaksen, L.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Källen, E.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

A. T. Young and G. W. Kattawar, “Rayleigh-scattering line profiles,” Appl. Opt.22(23), 3668–3670 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

F. Shen, H. Hyunki Cha, J. Dong, D. Kim, D. Sun, and S. O. Kwon, “Design and performance simulation of a molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(7), 593–597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

H. Xia, D. Sun, Y. Yang, F. Shen, J. Dong, and T. Kobayashi, “Fabry-Perot interferometer based Mie Doppler lidar for low tropospheric wind observation,” Appl. Opt.46(29), 7120–7131 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korb, C. L.

C. Flesia and C. L. Korb, “Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt.38(3), 432–440 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, S. X. Li, and C. Flesia, “Theory of the double-edge technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt.37(15), 3097–3104 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S. O.

F. Shen, H. Hyunki Cha, J. Dong, D. Kim, D. Sun, and S. O. Kwon, “Design and performance simulation of a molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(7), 593–597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langland, R. H.

M. Weissmann, R. H. Langland, P. M. Pauley, S. Rahm, and C. Cardinali, “Influence of airborne Doppler wind lidar profiles near Typhoon Sinlaku on ECMWF and NOGAPS forecasts,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.138, 118–130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lemmerz, C.

O. Reitebuch, C. Lemmerz, E. Nagel, U. Paffrath, Y. Durand, M. Endemann, F. Fabre, and M. Chaloupy, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part I: Instrument design and comparison to satellite instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2501–2515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Paffrath, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, B. Witschas, I. Nikolaus, and V. Freudenthaler, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part II: Simulations and Rayleigh Receiver Radiometric performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2516–2530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, “Frequency stabilization of Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillators for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE6451, 1–12 (2007).

Li, S. X.

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, and S. X. Li, “Wind measurements with 355-nm molecular Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.25(17), 1231–1233 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, S. X. Li, and C. Flesia, “Theory of the double-edge technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt.37(15), 3097–3104 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. T.

Z. S. Liu, D. Wu, J. T. Liu, K. L. Zhang, W. B. Chen, X. Q. Song, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter,” Appl. Opt.41(33), 7079–7086 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. S.

Z. S. Liu, D. Wu, J. T. Liu, K. L. Zhang, W. B. Chen, X. Q. Song, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter,” Appl. Opt.41(33), 7079–7086 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loth, C.

A. Dabas, M. Denneulin, P. Flamant, C. Loth, A. Garnier, and A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, “Correcting winds measured with a Rayleigh Doppler lidar from pressure and temperature effects,” Tellus A60(2), 206–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luttmann, J.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, “Frequency stabilization of Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillators for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE6451, 1–12 (2007).

Mahnke, P.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McKay, J. A.

J. A. McKay, “Assessment of a multibeam Fizeau wedge interferometer for Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Opt.41(9), 1760–1767 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meredith, N. P.

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, and Y. Chaxell, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.58(16), 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meynart, R.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morasch, V.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, “Frequency stabilization of Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillators for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE6451, 1–12 (2007).

Nagel, E.

O. Reitebuch, C. Lemmerz, E. Nagel, U. Paffrath, Y. Durand, M. Endemann, F. Fabre, and M. Chaloupy, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part I: Instrument design and comparison to satellite instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2501–2515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nelke, G.

U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, G. Nelke, G. Baumgarten, D. Rees, A. Hauchecorne, and K. Adolfsen, “The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: Objectives, configuration, and performance,” Ann. Geophys.18, 815–833 (2000).

Nicklaus, K.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, “Frequency stabilization of Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillators for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE6451, 1–12 (2007).

Nikolaus, I.

U. Paffrath, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, B. Witschas, I. Nikolaus, and V. Freudenthaler, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part II: Simulations and Rayleigh Receiver Radiometric performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2516–2530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ostermeyer, M.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, “Frequency stabilization of Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillators for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE6451, 1–12 (2007).

Paffrath, U.

O. Reitebuch, C. Lemmerz, E. Nagel, U. Paffrath, Y. Durand, M. Endemann, F. Fabre, and M. Chaloupy, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part I: Instrument design and comparison to satellite instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2501–2515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Paffrath, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, B. Witschas, I. Nikolaus, and V. Freudenthaler, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part II: Simulations and Rayleigh Receiver Radiometric performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2516–2530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pailleux, J.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pauley, P. M.

M. Weissmann, R. H. Langland, P. M. Pauley, S. Rahm, and C. Cardinali, “Influence of airborne Doppler wind lidar profiles near Typhoon Sinlaku on ECMWF and NOGAPS forecasts,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.138, 118–130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Porteneuve, J.

D. Bruneau, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, and J. Porteneuve, “Wind-velocity lidar measurements by use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, comparison with a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 173–182 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.16(11), 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, S.

M. Weissmann, R. H. Langland, P. M. Pauley, S. Rahm, and C. Cardinali, “Influence of airborne Doppler wind lidar profiles near Typhoon Sinlaku on ECMWF and NOGAPS forecasts,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.138, 118–130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, L. A.

L. A. Rahn, “Feedback stabilization of an injection-seeded Nd: YAG laser,” Appl. Opt.24(7), 940–942 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rees, D.

U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, G. Nelke, G. Baumgarten, D. Rees, A. Hauchecorne, and K. Adolfsen, “The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: Objectives, configuration, and performance,” Ann. Geophys.18, 815–833 (2000).

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, and Y. Chaxell, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.58(16), 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reitebuch, O.

U. Paffrath, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, B. Witschas, I. Nikolaus, and V. Freudenthaler, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part II: Simulations and Rayleigh Receiver Radiometric performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2516–2530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Reitebuch, C. Lemmerz, E. Nagel, U. Paffrath, Y. Durand, M. Endemann, F. Fabre, and M. Chaloupy, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part I: Instrument design and comparison to satellite instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2501–2515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rhoades, M.

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roe, H.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, P. A. Castleberg, and H. Roe, “Middle-atmospheric Doppler lidar using an iodine-vapor edge filter,” Opt. Lett.22(21), 1648–1650 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrandt, F.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, T.

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schum, T.

F. E. Hovis, M. Rhoades, R. L. Burnham, J. D. Force, T. Schum, B. M. Gentry, H. Chen, S. X. Li, J. W. Hair, A. L. Cook, and C. A. Hostetler, “Single-frequency lasers for remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE5332, 263–270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzer, H.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schyberg, H.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

She, C. Y.

Z. S. Liu, D. Wu, J. T. Liu, K. L. Zhang, W. B. Chen, X. Q. Song, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter,” Appl. Opt.41(33), 7079–7086 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

She, C.-Y.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

Shen, F.

F. Shen, H. Hyunki Cha, J. Dong, D. Kim, D. Sun, and S. O. Kwon, “Design and performance simulation of a molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(7), 593–597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Xia, D. Sun, Y. Yang, F. Shen, J. Dong, and T. Kobayashi, “Fabry-Perot interferometer based Mie Doppler lidar for low tropospheric wind observation,” Appl. Opt.46(29), 7120–7131 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, X. Q.

Z. S. Liu, D. Wu, J. T. Liu, K. L. Zhang, W. B. Chen, X. Q. Song, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter,” Appl. Opt.41(33), 7079–7086 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souprayen, C.

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, and A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2422–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoffelen, A.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, D.

F. Shen, H. Hyunki Cha, J. Dong, D. Kim, D. Sun, and S. O. Kwon, “Design and performance simulation of a molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(7), 593–597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Xia, D. Sun, Y. Yang, F. Shen, J. Dong, and T. Kobayashi, “Fabry-Perot interferometer based Mie Doppler lidar for low tropospheric wind observation,” Appl. Opt.46(29), 7120–7131 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, B.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

Tepley, C. A.

J. S. Friedman, C. A. Tepley, P. A. Castleberg, and H. Roe, “Middle-atmospheric Doppler lidar using an iodine-vapor edge filter,” Opt. Lett.22(21), 1648–1650 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Tepley, “Neutral winds of the middle atmosphere observed at Arecibo using a Doppler Rayleigh lidar,” J. Geophys. Res.99(D12), 25781–25790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Treichel, R.

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. M.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vierkötter, M.

K. Nicklaus, V. Morasch, M. Hoefer, J. Luttmann, M. Vierkötter, M. Ostermeyer, J. Höffner, C. Lemmerz, and D. Hoffmann, “Frequency stabilization of Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillators for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems,” Proc. SPIE6451, 1–12 (2007).

von Cossart, G.

U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, G. Nelke, G. Baumgarten, D. Rees, A. Hauchecorne, and K. Adolfsen, “The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: Objectives, configuration, and performance,” Ann. Geophys.18, 815–833 (2000).

von Zahn, U.

U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, G. Nelke, G. Baumgarten, D. Rees, A. Hauchecorne, and K. Adolfsen, “The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: Objectives, configuration, and performance,” Ann. Geophys.18, 815–833 (2000).

Vyssogorets, M.

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, and Y. Chaxell, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.58(16), 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weissmann, M.

M. Weissmann, R. H. Langland, P. M. Pauley, S. Rahm, and C. Cardinali, “Influence of airborne Doppler wind lidar profiles near Typhoon Sinlaku on ECMWF and NOGAPS forecasts,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.138, 118–130 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Weissmann and C. Cardinali, “Impact of airborne Doppler lidar observations on ECMWF forecasts,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.133(622), 107–116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wergen, W.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiig, J.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

Williams, B. P.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

Wirth, M.

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Witschas, B.

U. Paffrath, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, B. Witschas, I. Nikolaus, and V. Freudenthaler, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part II: Simulations and Rayleigh Receiver Radiometric performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2516–2530 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Z. S. Liu, D. Wu, J. T. Liu, K. L. Zhang, W. B. Chen, X. Q. Song, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter,” Appl. Opt.41(33), 7079–7086 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wührer, C.

T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 437–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H.

H. Xia and C. Zhang, “Ultrafast and Doppler-free femtosecond optical ranging based on dispersive frequency-modulated interferometry,” Opt. Express18(5), 4118–4129 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-4118 .
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H. Xia and C. Zhang, “Ultrafast ranging lidar based on real-time Fourier transformation,” Opt. Lett.34(14), 2108–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xia and J. Yao, “Characterization of sub-picosecond pulses based on temporal interferometry with real-time tracking of higher-order dispersion and optical time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(22), 5029–5037 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Xia, D. Sun, Y. Yang, F. Shen, J. Dong, and T. Kobayashi, “Fabry-Perot interferometer based Mie Doppler lidar for low tropospheric wind observation,” Appl. Opt.46(29), 7120–7131 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, C.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

Yang, Y.

H. Xia, D. Sun, Y. Yang, F. Shen, J. Dong, and T. Kobayashi, “Fabry-Perot interferometer based Mie Doppler lidar for low tropospheric wind observation,” Appl. Opt.46(29), 7120–7131 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

H. Xia and J. Yao, “Characterization of sub-picosecond pulses based on temporal interferometry with real-time tracking of higher-order dispersion and optical time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(22), 5029–5037 (2009).
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Young, A. T.

A. T. Young and G. W. Kattawar, “Rayleigh-scattering line profiles,” Appl. Opt.22(23), 3668–3670 (1983).
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Yuan, T.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

Yue, J.

W. Huang, X. Chu, J. Wiig, B. Tan, C. Yamashita, T. Yuan, J. Yue, S. D. Harrell, C.-Y. She, B. P. Williams, J. S. Friedman, and R. M. Hardesty, “Field demonstration of simultaneous wind and temperature measurements from 5 to 50 km with a Na double-edge magneto-optic filter in a multi-frequency Doppler lidar,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1552–1554 (2009).
[PubMed]

Zhang, C.

H. Xia and C. Zhang, “Ultrafast and Doppler-free femtosecond optical ranging based on dispersive frequency-modulated interferometry,” Opt. Express18(5), 4118–4129 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-4118 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xia and C. Zhang, “Ultrafast ranging lidar based on real-time Fourier transformation,” Opt. Lett.34(14), 2108–2110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K. L.

Z. S. Liu, D. Wu, J. T. Liu, K. L. Zhang, W. B. Chen, X. Q. Song, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter,” Appl. Opt.41(33), 7079–7086 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Geophys.

U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, J. Fiedler, K. H. Fricke, G. Nelke, G. Baumgarten, D. Rees, A. Hauchecorne, and K. Adolfsen, “The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: Objectives, configuration, and performance,” Ann. Geophys.18, 815–833 (2000).

Appl. Opt.

L. A. Rahn, “Feedback stabilization of an injection-seeded Nd: YAG laser,” Appl. Opt.24(7), 940–942 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Young and G. W. Kattawar, “Rayleigh-scattering line profiles,” Appl. Opt.22(23), 3668–3670 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xia, D. Sun, Y. Yang, F. Shen, J. Dong, and T. Kobayashi, “Fabry-Perot interferometer based Mie Doppler lidar for low tropospheric wind observation,” Appl. Opt.46(29), 7120–7131 (2007).
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C. Flesia and C. L. Korb, “Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt.38(3), 432–440 (1999).
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Z. S. Liu, D. Wu, J. T. Liu, K. L. Zhang, W. B. Chen, X. Q. Song, J. W. Hair, and C. Y. She, “Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter,” Appl. Opt.41(33), 7079–7086 (2002).
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J. A. McKay, “Assessment of a multibeam Fizeau wedge interferometer for Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Opt.41(9), 1760–1767 (2002).
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D. Bruneau, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, and J. Porteneuve, “Wind-velocity lidar measurements by use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, comparison with a Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 173–182 (2004).
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N. Cézard, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, J. P. Huignard, and P. H. Flamant, “Performance evaluation of a dual fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer for air parameter measurements with a 355 nm Rayleigh-Mie lidar,” Appl. Opt.48(12), 2321–2332 (2009).
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C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, and A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt.38(12), 2422–2431 (1999).
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Appl. Phys. B

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar WALES: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B96(1), 201–213 (2009).
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A. Garnier and M. L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh LIDAR for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B55(1), 35–40 (1992).
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T. Schröder, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, M. Wirth, C. Wührer, and R. Treichel, “Frequency jitter and spectral width of an injection-seeded Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for a Doppler wind lidar,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 437–444 (2007).
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Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.

G. Baumgarten, “Doppler Rayleigh Mie Raman lidar for wind and temperature measurements in the middle atmosphere up to 80 km,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.3(6), 1509–1518 (2010).
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Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

A. Stoffelen, J. Pailleux, E. Källen, J. M. Vaughan, L. Isaksen, P. Flamant, W. Wergen, E. Andersson, H. Schyberg, A. Culoma, R. Meynart, M. Endemann, and P. Ingmann, “The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86(1), 73–87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett.

F. Shen, H. Hyunki Cha, J. Dong, D. Kim, D. Sun, and S. O. Kwon, “Design and performance simulation of a molecular Doppler wind lidar,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(7), 593–597 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, and J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.16(11), 1273–1276 (1989).
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J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

O. Reitebuch, C. Lemmerz, E. Nagel, U. Paffrath, Y. Durand, M. Endemann, F. Fabre, and M. Chaloupy, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part I: Instrument design and comparison to satellite instrument,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2501–2515 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Paffrath, C. Lemmerz, O. Reitebuch, B. Witschas, I. Nikolaus, and V. Freudenthaler, “The airborne demonstrator for the direct-detection Doppler wind lidar ALADIN on ADM-Aeolus. Part II: Simulations and Rayleigh Receiver Radiometric performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.26(12), 2516–2530 (2009).
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J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.

D. Rees, M. Vyssogorets, N. P. Meredith, E. Griffin, and Y. Chaxell, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the ALOMAR lidar facility: overview and initial results,” J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys.58(16), 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

C. A. Tepley, “Neutral winds of the middle atmosphere observed at Arecibo using a Doppler Rayleigh lidar,” J. Geophys. Res.99(D12), 25781–25790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

H. Xia and J. Yao, “Characterization of sub-picosecond pulses based on temporal interferometry with real-time tracking of higher-order dispersion and optical time delay,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(22), 5029–5037 (2009).
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Opt. Express

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the double-edge technique adopted in the Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. The spectrum of backscattering is assumed to be the superimposition of Mie and Rayleigh spectrums. The impact of Brillouin backscattering is not considered in this figure. (a) Without Doppler shift ( υ D =0 MHz ). (b) With Doppler shift ( υ D =400 MHz ). υ D is the Doppler shift carried on the atmosphere backscattering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the Rayleigh Doppler Lidar with system-level optical frequency control, and interior view of the compact receiver (inset, lower right corner).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency stability of the seed laser. (a) A heterodyne signal and its FFT spectrum (inset, upper right corner). (b) Frequency centroid measured over 2 minutes and its histogram distribution (inset, upper right corner).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured transmission curves of the FPI. Solid lines are the Gaussian fit results. (b) Residual frequency drift of 532 nm pulse train. (c) Frequency locking accuracy of the FPI to the seed laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The USTC Rayleigh Doppler lidar in experiment

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profiles of backscattered signals on the two edge channels ( N 1 , N 2 ) and on the energy monitoring channel ( N e ). The height resolution is changed from 100 m (a) to 500 m (b) above 20 km.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Profiles of wind speed and direction measured by the Rayleigh Doppler lidar (solid line) compared with data measured by radiosonde (dashed line) and data from ECMWF (filled circle). In the altitude range where wind velocity is below the measurement error, wind direction from the lidar has no meaning, and its error bars are not plotted.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time-altitude plot of temperature detected using radiosonde. The tropopause is shown (dashed line with circles).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Statistics of the difference in wind measurements between the lidar and radiosonde (red lines are the Gaussian fit results to the data): (a) and (b) are histogram distributions of velocity difference and direction difference from 8 km to tropopause, (c) and (d) are histogram distributions of velocity difference and direction difference from tropopause to 20 km.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Time-altitude plot of semi-continuous observation of mid-altitude wind field in September and October, 2011. Local midnights are tagged. Time scale is plotted in the lower left corner. The altitude of the tropopause is shown (dashed line with circles) for reference. The data with velocity error larger than 10 m/s are not plotted. The wind direction in the quasi-zero wind layer has no meaning, since the error of velocity measurement is larger than the wind velocity. The minimum velocity error and the minimum direction error in this experiment are estimated to be 0.86 m/s and 3.6° , respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Key parameters of the mobile Rayleigh Doppler Lidar

Equations (4)

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R( υ D )= [ N 1 ( υ D ) N 2 ( υ D ) ] / [ N 1 ( υ D )+ N 2 ( υ D ) ] .
N i ( υ D )= a i + T i ( υ )I( υ υ D )dυ,
T( υ )=B+ T p { 1+2 n=1 M R e n cos[ 2πn( υ υ c ) υ FSR 1+cos θ 0 2 ]sinc( 2n υ 0 υ FSR 1cos θ 0 2 ) . exp[ ( πnΔ υ L υ FSR 1+cos θ 0 2 ) 2 ] }
V LOS = υ D λ /2 .

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