Abstract

Glasses containing metallic nanoparticles are promising materials for technological applications in optics and photonics. Although several methods are available to generate nanoparticles in glass, only femtosecond lasers allow controlling it three-dimensionally. In this direction, the present work investigates the generation of copper nanoparticles on the surface and in the bulk of a borosilicate glass by fs-laser irradiation. We verified the formation of copper nanoparticles, after heat treatment, by UV-Vis absorption, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. A preferential growth of copper nanoparticles was observed in the bottom of the irradiated region, which was attributed to self-focusing in the glass.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

L. De Boni, E. C. Barbano, T. A. de Assumpção, L. Misoguti, L. R. P. Kassab, and S. C. Zilio, “Femtosecond third-order nonlinear spectra of lead-germanium oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6844–6850 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Correa, M. R. Cardoso, V. Tribuzi, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Femtosecond laser in polymeric materials: microfabrication of doped structures and micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 176–186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (3)

N. Srinivasa Rao, L. Srinivasa Rao, Y. Gandhi, V. Ravikumar, and N. Veeraiah, “Copper ion as a structural probe in lead bismuth arsenate glasses by means of dielectric and spectroscopic studies,” Physica B 405(19), 4092–4100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu(2+)-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Silva, J. M. P. Coelho, A. Ruivo, and A. P. de Matos, “Infrared nanosecond laser effects on the formation of copper nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 64(6), 705–707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced voidlike structures in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

D. M. Krol, “Femtosecond laser modification of glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 416–424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Shin, K. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, Y.-C. Noh, and J. Lee, “Formation and control of Au and Ag nanoparticles inside borate glasses using femtosecond laser and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 93, 923–927 (2008).

2007 (2)

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Cu2+-doped germano-silicate glass fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3665–3672 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hua, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Nishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micro-modification of metal-doped glasses by a femtosecond laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng  2(1), 36–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. D. Schreiber, M. A. Stone, and A. M. Swink, “Novel red-blue dichroic glass containing copper nanocrystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 534–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Lakshminarayana and S. Buddhudu, “Spectral analysis of Cu2+: B2O3–ZnO–PbO glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A. 62(1-3), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Lakshmana Rao, G. Sivaramaiah, and N. O. Gopal, “EPR and optical absorption spectral studies of Cu2+ ions doped in alkali lead tetraborate glasses,” Physica B 349(1-4), 206–213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Qiu, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, “Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(17), 2230–2234 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. L. Qu, Y. C. Gao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, Y. L. Song, H. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in gold-precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 224(4-6), 321–327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. R. Qiu, M. Shirai, T. Nakaya, J. H. Si, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of metal nanoparticles inside glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 3040–3042 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. El Sherif, O. A. Bayoumi, and T. Z. N. Sokkar, “Prediction of absorbance from reflectance for an absorbing-scattering fabric,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 32–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Shareefuddin, M. Jamal, and M. Narasimha Chary, “Electron spin resonance and optical absorption spectra of Cu2+ ions in xNaI-(30 - x)Na2O¸70B2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 201(1-2), 95–101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high-concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(7), 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. Bishay, “Radiation induced color centers in multicomponent glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 3(1), 54–114 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, J. M. P.

Asahara, Y.

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high-concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(7), 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced voidlike structures in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbano, E. C.

Bayoumi, O. A.

M. El Sherif, O. A. Bayoumi, and T. Z. N. Sokkar, “Prediction of absorbance from reflectance for an absorbing-scattering fabric,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 32–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bishay, A.

A. Bishay, “Radiation induced color centers in multicomponent glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 3(1), 54–114 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced voidlike structures in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buddhudu, S.

G. Lakshminarayana and S. Buddhudu, “Spectral analysis of Cu2+: B2O3–ZnO–PbO glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A. 62(1-3), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bulgakova, N. M.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced voidlike structures in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Canioni, L.

Cardoso, M. R.

D. S. Correa, M. R. Cardoso, V. Tribuzi, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Femtosecond laser in polymeric materials: microfabrication of doped structures and micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 176–186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Coelho, J. M. P.

C. Silva, J. M. P. Coelho, A. Ruivo, and A. P. de Matos, “Infrared nanosecond laser effects on the formation of copper nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 64(6), 705–707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Correa, D. S.

D. S. Correa, M. R. Cardoso, V. Tribuzi, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Femtosecond laser in polymeric materials: microfabrication of doped structures and micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 176–186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, Y.

Y. Dai, G. Yu, M. He, H. Ma, X. Yan, and G. Ma, “High repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation-induced elements redistribution in Ag-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B  103(3), 663–667 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Assumpção, T. A.

De Boni, L.

de Matos, A. P.

C. Silva, J. M. P. Coelho, A. Ruivo, and A. P. de Matos, “Infrared nanosecond laser effects on the formation of copper nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 64(6), 705–707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, G.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

El Sherif, M.

M. El Sherif, O. A. Bayoumi, and T. Z. N. Sokkar, “Prediction of absorbance from reflectance for an absorbing-scattering fabric,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 32–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gandhi, Y.

N. Srinivasa Rao, L. Srinivasa Rao, Y. Gandhi, V. Ravikumar, and N. Veeraiah, “Copper ion as a structural probe in lead bismuth arsenate glasses by means of dielectric and spectroscopic studies,” Physica B 405(19), 4092–4100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y. C.

S. L. Qu, Y. C. Gao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, Y. L. Song, H. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in gold-precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 224(4-6), 321–327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, N. O.

J. Lakshmana Rao, G. Sivaramaiah, and N. O. Gopal, “EPR and optical absorption spectral studies of Cu2+ ions doped in alkali lead tetraborate glasses,” Physica B 349(1-4), 206–213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-T.

Hata, C.

He, M.

Y. Dai, G. Yu, M. He, H. Ma, X. Yan, and G. Ma, “High repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation-induced elements redistribution in Ag-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B  103(3), 663–667 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hernandes, A. C.

Hertel, I. V.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced voidlike structures in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

B. Hua, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Nishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micro-modification of metal-doped glasses by a femtosecond laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng  2(1), 36–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Qiu, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, “Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(17), 2230–2234 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Qu, Y. C. Gao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, Y. L. Song, H. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in gold-precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 224(4-6), 321–327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Qiu, M. Shirai, T. Nakaya, J. H. Si, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of metal nanoparticles inside glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 3040–3042 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hua, B.

B. Hua, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Nishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micro-modification of metal-doped glasses by a femtosecond laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng  2(1), 36–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, A. J.

Jamal, M.

M. Shareefuddin, M. Jamal, and M. Narasimha Chary, “Electron spin resonance and optical absorption spectra of Cu2+ ions in xNaI-(30 - x)Na2O¸70B2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 201(1-2), 95–101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K.

J. Shin, K. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, Y.-C. Noh, and J. Lee, “Formation and control of Au and Ag nanoparticles inside borate glasses using femtosecond laser and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 93, 923–927 (2008).

Jiang, N.

Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu(2+)-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Qiu, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, “Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(17), 2230–2234 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, X. W.

J. R. Qiu, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, “Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(17), 2230–2234 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Qu, Y. C. Gao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, Y. L. Song, H. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in gold-precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 224(4-6), 321–327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Qiu, M. Shirai, T. Nakaya, J. H. Si, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of metal nanoparticles inside glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 3040–3042 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, S.

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high-concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(7), 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kassab, L. R. P.

Kim, B. H.

Krol, D. M.

D. M. Krol, “Femtosecond laser modification of glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(2-9), 416–424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lakshmana Rao, J.

J. Lakshmana Rao, G. Sivaramaiah, and N. O. Gopal, “EPR and optical absorption spectral studies of Cu2+ ions doped in alkali lead tetraborate glasses,” Physica B 349(1-4), 206–213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lakshminarayana, G.

G. Lakshminarayana and S. Buddhudu, “Spectral analysis of Cu2+: B2O3–ZnO–PbO glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A. 62(1-3), 364–371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. Shin, K. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, Y.-C. Noh, and J. Lee, “Formation and control of Au and Ag nanoparticles inside borate glasses using femtosecond laser and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 93, 923–927 (2008).

Lim, K.-S.

J. Shin, K. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, Y.-C. Noh, and J. Lee, “Formation and control of Au and Ag nanoparticles inside borate glasses using femtosecond laser and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 93, 923–927 (2008).

Lin, A.

Lin, G.

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, F. Luo, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, “Controllable space selective precipitation of copper nanoparticles in borosilicate glasses using ultrafast laser irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2380–2383 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu(2+)-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, F.

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, F. Luo, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, “Controllable space selective precipitation of copper nanoparticles in borosilicate glasses using ultrafast laser irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2380–2383 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu(2+)-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, G.

Y. Dai, G. Yu, M. He, H. Ma, X. Yan, and G. Ma, “High repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation-induced elements redistribution in Ag-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B  103(3), 663–667 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Y. Dai, G. Yu, M. He, H. Ma, X. Yan, and G. Ma, “High repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation-induced elements redistribution in Ag-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B  103(3), 663–667 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mendonca, C. R.

D. S. Correa, M. R. Cardoso, V. Tribuzi, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Femtosecond laser in polymeric materials: microfabrication of doped structures and micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 176–186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mendonça, C. R.

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced voidlike structures in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meshcheryakov, Y. P.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced voidlike structures in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Misoguti, L.

D. S. Correa, M. R. Cardoso, V. Tribuzi, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Femtosecond laser in polymeric materials: microfabrication of doped structures and micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 176–186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. De Boni, E. C. Barbano, T. A. de Assumpção, L. Misoguti, L. R. P. Kassab, and S. C. Zilio, “Femtosecond third-order nonlinear spectra of lead-germanium oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6844–6850 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, K.

B. Hua, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Nishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micro-modification of metal-doped glasses by a femtosecond laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng  2(1), 36–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, A.

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high-concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(7), 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakaya, T.

J. R. Qiu, M. Shirai, T. Nakaya, J. H. Si, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of metal nanoparticles inside glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 3040–3042 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Narasimha Chary, M.

M. Shareefuddin, M. Jamal, and M. Narasimha Chary, “Electron spin resonance and optical absorption spectra of Cu2+ ions in xNaI-(30 - x)Na2O¸70B2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 201(1-2), 95–101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, M.

B. Hua, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Nishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micro-modification of metal-doped glasses by a femtosecond laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng  2(1), 36–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y.-C.

J. Shin, K. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, Y.-C. Noh, and J. Lee, “Formation and control of Au and Ag nanoparticles inside borate glasses using femtosecond laser and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 93, 923–927 (2008).

Omi, S.

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high-concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(7), 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Papazoglou, D. G.

Papon, G.

Petit, Y.

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qian, B.

Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu(2+)-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, H. R.

S. L. Qu, Y. C. Gao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, Y. L. Song, H. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in gold-precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 224(4-6), 321–327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, F. Luo, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, “Controllable space selective precipitation of copper nanoparticles in borosilicate glasses using ultrafast laser irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2380–2383 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu(2+)-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

J. R. Qiu, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, “Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(17), 2230–2234 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Qiu, M. Shirai, T. Nakaya, J. H. Si, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of metal nanoparticles inside glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 3040–3042 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S. L.

S. L. Qu, Y. C. Gao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, Y. L. Song, H. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in gold-precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 224(4-6), 321–327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ravikumar, V.

N. Srinivasa Rao, L. Srinivasa Rao, Y. Gandhi, V. Ravikumar, and N. Veeraiah, “Copper ion as a structural probe in lead bismuth arsenate glasses by means of dielectric and spectroscopic studies,” Physica B 405(19), 4092–4100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced voidlike structures in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Royon, A.

Ruivo, A.

C. Silva, J. M. P. Coelho, A. Ruivo, and A. P. de Matos, “Infrared nanosecond laser effects on the formation of copper nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 64(6), 705–707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, H. D.

H. D. Schreiber, M. A. Stone, and A. M. Swink, “Novel red-blue dichroic glass containing copper nanocrystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 534–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shareefuddin, M.

M. Shareefuddin, M. Jamal, and M. Narasimha Chary, “Electron spin resonance and optical absorption spectra of Cu2+ ions in xNaI-(30 - x)Na2O¸70B2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 201(1-2), 95–101 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

B. Hua, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Nishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micro-modification of metal-doped glasses by a femtosecond laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng  2(1), 36–39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

J. Shin, K. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, Y.-C. Noh, and J. Lee, “Formation and control of Au and Ag nanoparticles inside borate glasses using femtosecond laser and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 93, 923–927 (2008).

Shirai, M.

J. R. Qiu, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, “Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(17), 2230–2234 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Qiu, M. Shirai, T. Nakaya, J. H. Si, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of metal nanoparticles inside glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 3040–3042 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Si, J.

J. R. Qiu, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, “Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(17), 2230–2234 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Si, J. H.

J. R. Qiu, M. Shirai, T. Nakaya, J. H. Si, X. W. Jiang, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of metal nanoparticles inside glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 3040–3042 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Silva, C.

C. Silva, J. M. P. Coelho, A. Ruivo, and A. P. de Matos, “Infrared nanosecond laser effects on the formation of copper nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 64(6), 705–707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sivaramaiah, G.

J. Lakshmana Rao, G. Sivaramaiah, and N. O. Gopal, “EPR and optical absorption spectral studies of Cu2+ ions doped in alkali lead tetraborate glasses,” Physica B 349(1-4), 206–213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, I.-B.

J. Shin, K. Jang, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, Y.-C. Noh, and J. Lee, “Formation and control of Au and Ag nanoparticles inside borate glasses using femtosecond laser and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 93, 923–927 (2008).

Sokkar, T. Z. N.

M. El Sherif, O. A. Bayoumi, and T. Z. N. Sokkar, “Prediction of absorbance from reflectance for an absorbing-scattering fabric,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 32–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. L.

S. L. Qu, Y. C. Gao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, Y. L. Song, H. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in gold-precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 224(4-6), 321–327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasa Rao, L.

N. Srinivasa Rao, L. Srinivasa Rao, Y. Gandhi, V. Ravikumar, and N. Veeraiah, “Copper ion as a structural probe in lead bismuth arsenate glasses by means of dielectric and spectroscopic studies,” Physica B 405(19), 4092–4100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasa Rao, N.

N. Srinivasa Rao, L. Srinivasa Rao, Y. Gandhi, V. Ravikumar, and N. Veeraiah, “Copper ion as a structural probe in lead bismuth arsenate glasses by means of dielectric and spectroscopic studies,” Physica B 405(19), 4092–4100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser induced voidlike structures in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stone, M. A.

H. D. Schreiber, M. A. Stone, and A. M. Swink, “Novel red-blue dichroic glass containing copper nanocrystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 534–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swink, A. M.

H. D. Schreiber, M. A. Stone, and A. M. Swink, “Novel red-blue dichroic glass containing copper nanocrystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 534–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanji, H.

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high-concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(7), 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Teng, Y.

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, F. Luo, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, “Controllable space selective precipitation of copper nanoparticles in borosilicate glasses using ultrafast laser irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2380–2383 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu(2+)-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tokizaki, T.

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high-concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(7), 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tribuzi, V.

D. S. Correa, M. R. Cardoso, V. Tribuzi, L. Misoguti, and C. R. Mendonca, “Femtosecond laser in polymeric materials: microfabrication of doped structures and micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 176–186 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

D. G. Papazoglou and S. Tzortzakis, “Physical mechanisms of fused silica restructuring and densification after femtosecond laser excitation [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 625–632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, K.

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high-concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(7), 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Tokizaki, A. Nakamura, S. Kaneko, K. Uchida, S. Omi, H. Tanji, and Y. Asahara, “Subpicosecond time response of third-order optical nonlinearity of small copper particles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(8), 941–943 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Veeraiah, N.

N. Srinivasa Rao, L. Srinivasa Rao, Y. Gandhi, V. Ravikumar, and N. Veeraiah, “Copper ion as a structural probe in lead bismuth arsenate glasses by means of dielectric and spectroscopic studies,” Physica B 405(19), 4092–4100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

Y. Dai, G. Yu, M. He, H. Ma, X. Yan, and G. Ma, “High repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation-induced elements redistribution in Ag-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B  103(3), 663–667 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S.

Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu(2+)-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

Y. Dai, G. Yu, M. He, H. Ma, X. Yan, and G. Ma, “High repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation-induced elements redistribution in Ag-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B  103(3), 663–667 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu(2+)-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H. D.

S. L. Qu, Y. C. Gao, X. W. Jiang, H. D. Zeng, Y. L. Song, H. R. Qiu, C. S. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in gold-precipitated glasses induced by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 224(4-6), 321–327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, F. Luo, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, “Controllable space selective precipitation of copper nanoparticles in borosilicate glasses using ultrafast laser irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2380–2383 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu(2+)-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear absorption spectrum of the copper doped borosilicate glass as prepared (curve A), and after the fs-laser irradiation in the bulk using NA = 0.65, v = 100 μm/s, E = 90 μJ (curve B). The inset shows the absorption spectrum and a picture of the irradiated sample after the heat treatment (600° C for 1 h).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)TEM images obtained from the irradiated sample after the heat treatment. The electron diffraction pattern is shown in the inset; (b) size distribution histogram of the nanoparticles produced.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Kubelka-Munk function (K/S)spectra, obtained from diffuse reflectance measurements, of the as-prepared sample (curve A) and for the sample after irradiation(E = 260μJ, v = 1000 μm/s and NA = 0.25) and subsequent heat treatment 570°C/1h (curve B). The inset displays a picture of the sample corresponding to curves A and B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Top and bottom view images of the sample after irradiation (E = 100μJ, v = 100 μm/s, NA = 0.65 and 3 μm of spacing between lines) and heat treatment. (b) Lateral view of the sample after nanoparticles generation (70 μm of spacing between lines).

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