Abstract

A high speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed based on interleaved PN junctions. This doping profile enabled both high modulation efficiency of VπLπ = 1.5~2.0 V·cm and low doping-induced loss of ~10 dB/cm by applying a relatively low doping concentration of 2 × 1017 cm−3. High speed operation up to 40 Gbit/s with 7.01 dB extinction ratio was experimentally demonstrated with a short phase shifter of only 750 μm.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon chip with 10 modulator channels at 25 Gbps and 100-GHz spacing,” Opt. Express 19(26), B946–B951 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D.Feng, D. Zheng, and T. Smith, “Traveling-wave high-speed silicon modulator,” Integrated Photon. Res. Appl. (IPRA), ITUB4 (2006).
  13. Y. R. Kwon, V. M. Hietala, and K. S. Champlin, “Quasi-TEM analysis of‘slow-wave’ mode propagation on coplanar microstructure MIS transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 35(6), 545–551 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46(5), 632–640 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Reinhold and B. Pavel, RF Circuit Design: Theory and Applications(PrenticeHall, 2000).
  16. A. M. Mangan, S. P. Voinigescu, M. T. Yang, and M. Tazlauanu, “De-embedding transmission line measurements for accurate modeling of IC designs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(2), 235–241 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. http://www.silvaco.com/
  18. D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(S2Suppl 2), A293–A308 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

2010 (3)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. M. Mangan, S. P. Voinigescu, M. T. Yang, and M. Tazlauanu, “De-embedding transmission line measurements for accurate modeling of IC designs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(2), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Y. R. Kwon, V. M. Hietala, and K. S. Champlin, “Quasi-TEM analysis of‘slow-wave’ mode propagation on coplanar microstructure MIS transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 35(6), 545–551 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

Alloatti, L.

Asghari, M.

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Cassan, E.

Champlin, K. S.

Y. R. Kwon, V. M. Hietala, and K. S. Champlin, “Quasi-TEM analysis of‘slow-wave’ mode propagation on coplanar microstructure MIS transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 35(6), 545–551 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y. K.

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chi, H. K.

Cho, M. H.

Chu, T.

Cohen, R.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J. E.

DeGroot, D. C.

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Gaitan, M.

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, P.

Hietala, V. M.

Y. R. Kwon, V. M. Hietala, and K. S. Champlin, “Quasi-TEM analysis of‘slow-wave’ mode propagation on coplanar microstructure MIS transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 35(6), 545–551 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hillerkuss, D.

Hu, Y.

Hwang, M. S.

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K. S.

Janz, S.

Jargon, J. A.

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, D. K.

Joo, J.

Kim, D. W.

Kim, G.

Kim, H. C.

Kim, I. G.

Kim, J. H.

Kim, J. K.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. A.

Komorowska, K.

Korn, D.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kwon, Y. R.

Y. R. Kwon, V. M. Hietala, and K. S. Champlin, “Quasi-TEM analysis of‘slow-wave’ mode propagation on coplanar microstructure MIS transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 35(6), 545–551 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M.

Lee, J. Y.

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Li, G.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Li, Z. Y.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Liow, T. Y.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Mangan, A. M.

A. M. Mangan, S. P. Voinigescu, M. T. Yang, and M. Tazlauanu, “De-embedding transmission line measurements for accurate modeling of IC designs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(2), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, W. R.

Milanovic, V.

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. H.

Ozgur, M.

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pantouvaki, M.

Park, G. S.

Park, J. M.

Park, J. W.

Park, K. S.

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Shafiiha, R.

Song, J.

Tazlauanu, M.

A. M. Mangan, S. P. Voinigescu, M. T. Yang, and M. Tazlauanu, “De-embedding transmission line measurements for accurate modeling of IC designs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(2), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, X.

Van Campenhout, J.

Verheyen, P.

Vivien, L.

Voinigescu, S. P.

A. M. Mangan, S. P. Voinigescu, M. T. Yang, and M. Tazlauanu, “De-embedding transmission line measurements for accurate modeling of IC designs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(2), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

Xiong, K.

Xu, D. X.

Xu, H.

Yang, M. T.

A. M. Mangan, S. P. Voinigescu, M. T. Yang, and M. Tazlauanu, “De-embedding transmission line measurements for accurate modeling of IC designs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(2), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

Yu, J. Z.

Yu, M.

Yu, Y.

Zaghloul, M. E.

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Ziebell, M.

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

A. M. Mangan, S. P. Voinigescu, M. T. Yang, and M. Tazlauanu, “De-embedding transmission line measurements for accurate modeling of IC designs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(2), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

Y. R. Kwon, V. M. Hietala, and K. S. Champlin, “Quasi-TEM analysis of‘slow-wave’ mode propagation on coplanar microstructure MIS transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 35(6), 545–551 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon chip with 10 modulator channels at 25 Gbps and 100-GHz spacing,” Opt. Express 19(26), B946–B951 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(S2Suppl 2), A293–A308 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D.Feng, D. Zheng, and T. Smith, “Traveling-wave high-speed silicon modulator,” Integrated Photon. Res. Appl. (IPRA), ITUB4 (2006).

L. Reinhold and B. Pavel, RF Circuit Design: Theory and Applications(PrenticeHall, 2000).

http://www.silvaco.com/

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Microscope image of the MZM. (b)Schematic view of the phase shifter with periodically interleaved PN junctions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized transmission spectra of the MZM and MZI. (b) Comparison of the VπLπ of the MZM based on interleaved PN junctions and lateral PN junctions with offset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Equivalent circuit model of the depletion-mode MZM. (b)–(c) Curve-fitting of the measured transmission-line parameters of the MZM based on the lateral PN junction at −3V bias.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission parameters S21 of the MZM at different bias voltages. (b) Junction capacitance CJ of the MZM at different bias voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eye diagrams measured at (a) 30 Gbit/s, (b) 40 Gbit/s and (c) 44 Gbit/s.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C J (v)= A L ε r ε 0 q N A N D 2( N A + N D )( V T v)
Z 0 = Z Re +j Z Im = Z/Y
γ=α+jβ= ZY
Z= 1 1 R L + 1 R S +jωL
Y= 1 1 jω C SG ( 1 jω C SS + 1 jω C Si + G Si )( R J + 1 jω C J )

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