Abstract

A high speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed based on interleaved PN junctions. This doping profile enabled both high modulation efficiency of VπLπ = 1.5~2.0 V·cm and low doping-induced loss of ~10 dB/cm by applying a relatively low doping concentration of 2 × 1017 cm−3. High speed operation up to 40 Gbit/s with 7.01 dB extinction ratio was experimentally demonstrated with a short phase shifter of only 750 μm.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
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  4. G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
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2012

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express20(S2Suppl 2), A293–A308 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon chip with 10 modulator channels at 25 Gbps and 100-GHz spacing,” Opt. Express19(26), B946–B951 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. M. Mangan, S. P. Voinigescu, M. T. Yang, and M. Tazlauanu, “De-embedding transmission line measurements for accurate modeling of IC designs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.53(2), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987

Y. R. Kwon, V. M. Hietala, and K. S. Champlin, “Quasi-TEM analysis of‘slow-wave’ mode propagation on coplanar microstructure MIS transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.35(6), 545–551 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alloatti, L.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Champlin, K. S.

Y. R. Kwon, V. M. Hietala, and K. S. Champlin, “Quasi-TEM analysis of‘slow-wave’ mode propagation on coplanar microstructure MIS transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.35(6), 545–551 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon chip with 10 modulator channels at 25 Gbps and 100-GHz spacing,” Opt. Express19(26), B946–B951 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. K.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon chip with 10 modulator channels at 25 Gbps and 100-GHz spacing,” Opt. Express19(26), B946–B951 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chi, H. K.

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, M. H.

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, T.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, R.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeGroot, D. C.

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon chip with 10 modulator channels at 25 Gbps and 100-GHz spacing,” Opt. Express19(26), B946–B951 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, P.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon chip with 10 modulator channels at 25 Gbps and 100-GHz spacing,” Opt. Express19(26), B946–B951 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.-M.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, D.

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, N. N.

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaitan, M.

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, P.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hietala, V. M.

Y. R. Kwon, V. M. Hietala, and K. S. Champlin, “Quasi-TEM analysis of‘slow-wave’ mode propagation on coplanar microstructure MIS transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.35(6), 545–551 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hillerkuss, D.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, M. S.

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K. S.

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janz, S.

Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jargon, J. A.

V. Milanovic, M. Ozgur, D. C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, M. Gaitan, and M. E. Zaghloul, “Characterization of broad-band transmission for coplanar waveguides on CMOS silicon substrates,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.46(5), 632–640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, D. K.

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joo, J.

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. W.

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, G.

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H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
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X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
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X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
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M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
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Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
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Oh, J. H.

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
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A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
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H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
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G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
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G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
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G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, S. Kim, J. M. Lee, G. S. Park, J. Joo, K. S. Jang, J. H. Oh, S. A. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. M. Park, D. W. Kim, D. K. Jeong, M. S. Hwang, J. K. Kim, K. S. Park, H. K. Chi, H. C. Kim, D. W. Kim, and M. H. Cho, “Low-voltage high-performance silicon photonic devices and photonic integrated circuits operating up to 30 Gb/s,” Opt. Express19(27), 26936–26947 (2011).
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M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.23(6), 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafiiha, R.

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.

X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. M. Mangan, S. P. Voinigescu, M. T. Yang, and M. Tazlauanu, “De-embedding transmission line measurements for accurate modeling of IC designs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.53(2), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, X.

X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Campenhout, J.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voinigescu, S. P.

A. M. Mangan, S. P. Voinigescu, M. T. Yang, and M. Tazlauanu, “De-embedding transmission line measurements for accurate modeling of IC designs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.53(2), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, K.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, D. X.

Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, M. T.

A. M. Mangan, S. P. Voinigescu, M. T. Yang, and M. Tazlauanu, “De-embedding transmission line measurements for accurate modeling of IC designs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.53(2), 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J. Z.

Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Microscope image of the MZM. (b)Schematic view of the phase shifter with periodically interleaved PN junctions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized transmission spectra of the MZM and MZI. (b) Comparison of the VπLπ of the MZM based on interleaved PN junctions and lateral PN junctions with offset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Equivalent circuit model of the depletion-mode MZM. (b)–(c) Curve-fitting of the measured transmission-line parameters of the MZM based on the lateral PN junction at −3V bias.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission parameters S21 of the MZM at different bias voltages. (b) Junction capacitance CJ of the MZM at different bias voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eye diagrams measured at (a) 30 Gbit/s, (b) 40 Gbit/s and (c) 44 Gbit/s.

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