Abstract

A high-speed silicon modulator based on cascaded double microring resonators is demonstrated in this paper. The proposed modulator experimentally achieved 40 Gbit/s modulation with an extinction ratio of 3.9 dB. Enhancement of the modulator achieves with an ultra-high optical bandwidth of 0.41 nm, corresponding to 51 GHz, was accomplished by using cascaded double ring structure. The described modulator can provides an ultra-high-speed optical modulation with a further improvement in electrical bandwidth of the device.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

Y. T. Hu, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “A large bandwidth photonic delay line using passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” Chin. Phys. B 20(7), 074208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (8)

S. Yoo, “Future prospects of silicon photonics in next generation communication and computing systems,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 584–588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher and J. K. S. Poon, “Characteristics of microring resonators with waveguide-resonator coupling modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(17), 3800–3811 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, “Silicon dual-ring modulator,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20783–20793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fedeli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22271–22280 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. Chen, T. Conway, D. Gill, M. Grove, and C. Hong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, D.

L. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. Chen, T. Conway, D. Gill, M. Grove, and C. Hong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A.

L. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. Chen, T. Conway, D. Gill, M. Grove, and C. Hong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Beals, M.

L. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. Chen, T. Conway, D. Gill, M. Grove, and C. Hong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Brimont, A.

Carothers, D.

L. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. Chen, T. Conway, D. Gill, M. Grove, and C. Hong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chen, Y.

L. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. Chen, T. Conway, D. Gill, M. Grove, and C. Hong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Conway, T.

L. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. Chen, T. Conway, D. Gill, M. Grove, and C. Hong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Fan, Z. C.

Y. T. Hu, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “A large bandwidth photonic delay line using passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” Chin. Phys. B 20(7), 074208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Feng, D.

Gardes, F. Y.

Gill, D.

L. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. Chen, T. Conway, D. Gill, M. Grove, and C. Hong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grove, M.

L. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. Chen, T. Conway, D. Gill, M. Grove, and C. Hong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. H.

Y. T. Hu, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “A large bandwidth photonic delay line using passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” Chin. Phys. B 20(7), 074208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

L. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. Chen, T. Conway, D. Gill, M. Grove, and C. Hong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Hu, Y. T.

Y. T. Hu, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “A large bandwidth photonic delay line using passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” Chin. Phys. B 20(7), 074208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Kim, G.

Kimerling, L.

L. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y. Chen, T. Conway, D. Gill, M. Grove, and C. Hong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kung, C. C.

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, G. L.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Li, Y. T.

Y. T. Hu, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “A large bandwidth photonic delay line using passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” Chin. Phys. B 20(7), 074208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Li, Z. Y.

Y. T. Hu, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “A large bandwidth photonic delay line using passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” Chin. Phys. B 20(7), 074208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L. R.

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Martí, J.

McKinnon, W. R.

O’Faolain, L.

Park, J. W.

Park, M.

Poon, J. K. S.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G. T.

Sacher, W. D.

Sanchis, P.

Schmid, J. H.

Schmidt, B.

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, M.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Hu, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “A large bandwidth photonic delay line using passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” Chin. Phys. B 20(7), 074208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, K.

Xu, D. X.

Xu, H.

Xu, Q.

Yang, J. Y.

Yoo, S.

S. Yoo, “Future prospects of silicon photonics in next generation communication and computing systems,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 584–588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

You, J. B.

Yu, J.

Yu, J. Z.

Y. T. Hu, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “A large bandwidth photonic delay line using passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” Chin. Phys. B 20(7), 074208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Yu, Y. D.

Y. T. Hu, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “A large bandwidth photonic delay line using passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” Chin. Phys. B 20(7), 074208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, L.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

Y. T. Hu, X. Xiao, Z. Y. Li, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu, “A large bandwidth photonic delay line using passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” Chin. Phys. B 20(7), 074208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Yoo, “Future prospects of silicon photonics in next generation communication and computing systems,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 584–588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, L. Zhang, M. Song, B. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, and P. D. Dapkus, “Coupled-ring-resonator-based silicon modulator for enhanced performance,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13342–13348 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher and J. K. S. Poon, “Dynamics of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15741–15753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. You, M. Park, J. W. Park, and G. Kim, “12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric pn diode,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18340–18344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Li, D. X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J. Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, “Silicon dual-ring modulator,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20783–20793 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fedeli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22271–22280 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

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Other (5)

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-Power 30 Gbps Silicon Microring Modulator,” in CLEO:2011- Applications and Technology, (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB9.

X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Misalignment-tolerant high-speed silicon microring modulator with interleaved pn junctions,” in Proceedings of 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP2011), 359–361.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, D. Zheng, and R. Shafiiha, “Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter,” in OFC/NFOEC:2010 (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMI2.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High speed carrier injection 18 Gb/s silicon micro-ring electro-optic modulator,” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP 2007), 537–538.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Single ring modulator scheme with a high Q factor micoring. (b) Single ring modulator scheme with a low Q factor micoring. (c) The proposed cascaded ring modulator scheme. In the simulation, the radius of the microring is 20 µm; the effective refractive index of the ring waveguide is 2.91; the amplitude loss in the ring is α = 0.995; the coupling coefficiencies at the through-port and drop-post are set to be t1 = 0.9615, t2 = 0.97 for (a), t1 = 0.903, t2 = 0.9167 for (b) and t1 = 0.9310, t2 = 0.9555.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top-view of microscopic picture of the fabricated cascaded microring modulator and the schematic 3D view of the interleaved PN junctions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized transmission of the fabricated single ring modulator (a) and cascaded double ring modulator (b) for different applied reverse bias from 0.5 V to – 8 V.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Effective index variation as a function of the reverse bias. (b) VπLπ as a function of the reverse bias. Both single ring and cascaded double ring modulator’s performances are included.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured S11 magnitude (red) and phase (blue) responses with corresponding fitting curves simulated from the equivalent circuit model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured (a) 20 Gbit/s, (b) 30 Gbit/s and (c) 40 Gbit/s eye diagrams of the cascaded ring modulator under the driving voltage of 5 V.

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