Abstract

Ultrashort pulsed laser photoinscription of Ti:Sapphire crystals may result in the self-organization of nanoscale material redistribution regions in regular patterns within the laser trace and stress-induced birefringence around the laser trace. We report on the formation of anisotropic optical waveguides in Ti:Sapphire by a procedure that involves femtosecond laser inscription of adjacent nonguiding birefringent traces with nanopatterned crosssections and the accumulation of stress birefringence in the region between. Double parallel line structures with a separation of 25μm with vertical and horizontal nanoscale arrangements were written with a choice of orthogonal polarizations. Due to anisotropic light scattering on periodic nanostructures and stress-induced birefringence in the central zone, remarkable polarization dependent guiding effects were observed as a function of the microscopic geometry of the structures. Building on this polarization sensitivity, several structure such as 3 × 3 waveguide arrays, diamond and hexagon patterns are also investigated.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express17(12), 9515–9525 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  22. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(5), 225–238 (2005).
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  24. M. Huang, “Stress effects on the performance of optical waveguides,” Int. J. Solids Struct.40(7), 1615–1632 (2003).
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  25. V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
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  26. S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal and optical properties of the femtosecond-laser-structured and stress-induced birefringent regions in sapphire,” Opt. Express18(8), 8300–8310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express17(12), 9515–9525 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express16(3), 1517–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tüennermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Hashimoto, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Void formation in glass,” New J. Phys.9(8), 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 507–512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huang, “Stress effects on the performance of optical waveguides,” Int. J. Solids Struct.40(7), 1615–1632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ancona, A.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tüennermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, V.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express17(12), 9515–9525 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beresna, M.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blewett, I. J.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blömer, D.

A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 507–512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boukenter, A.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandt, N.

D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express16(3), 1517–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulgakova, N. M.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burakov, I. M.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tüennermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 507–512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chahid-Erraji, A.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express17(12), 9515–9525 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ebisui, T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamaly, E. G.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstvolf, M.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express16(3), 1517–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hallo, L.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, T.

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal and optical properties of the femtosecond-laser-structured and stress-induced birefringent regions in sapphire,” Opt. Express18(8), 8300–8310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hashimoto, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Void formation in glass,” New J. Phys.9(8), 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, M.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tüennermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horn-Solle, H.

D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express16(3), 1517–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, “Stress effects on the performance of optical waveguides,” Int. J. Solids Struct.40(7), 1615–1632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huo, G.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husakou, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jarutis, V.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal and optical properties of the femtosecond-laser-structured and stress-induced birefringent regions in sapphire,” Opt. Express18(8), 8300–8310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hashimoto, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Void formation in glass,” New J. Phys.9(8), 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kar, A. K.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, S.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lancry, M.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laversenne, L.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mauclair, C.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express17(12), 9515–9525 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meshcheryakov, Y. P.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hashimoto, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Void formation in glass,” New J. Phys.9(8), 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishchik, K.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express17(12), 9515–9525 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizeikis, V.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, J.

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal and optical properties of the femtosecond-laser-structured and stress-induced birefringent regions in sapphire,” Opt. Express18(8), 8300–8310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nicolai, P.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, K.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tüennermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 507–512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orie, A.

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal and optical properties of the femtosecond-laser-structured and stress-induced birefringent regions in sapphire,” Opt. Express18(8), 8300–8310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osellame, R.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ouerdane, Y.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parriaux, O.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 507–512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J.

J. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, D. T.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saito, A.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J.

J. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express17(12), 9515–9525 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Surovtsev, N.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Szameit, A.

A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 507–512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tüennermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tüennermann, A.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tüennermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 507–512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H.

J. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Waki, R.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wortmann, D.

D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express16(3), 1517–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, J.

J. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 507–512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathé, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1122–1124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, “Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tüennermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Solids Struct.

M. Huang, “Stress effects on the performance of optical waveguides,” Int. J. Solids Struct.40(7), 1615–1632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, R. S. Taylor, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Transient nanoplasmonics inside dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40(11), S273–S282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Phys. Lett. B

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

T. Hashimoto, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Void formation in glass,” New J. Phys.9(8), 253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express16(3), 1517–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express17(12), 9515–9525 (2009).
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J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal and optical properties of the femtosecond-laser-structured and stress-induced birefringent regions in sapphire,” Opt. Express18(8), 8300–8310 (2010).
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Opt. Mater. Express

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express1(4), 711–723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the femtosecond laser waveguide writing arrangement indicating the irradiation geometry and crystal orientation: FM flip mirror, CCD charge-coupled camera, PCM phase contrast microcopy, WL white light source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase contrast, transmission and birefringence microscopy side/axial images of the waveguides in Ti:Sapphire crystal written by fs laser pulses. All the structures are written by horizontally polarized (parallel to Y) laser pulses at the scanning speed of 50μm/s. The length of all traces is 3 mm. (a) Top view PCM image of two waveguides written in XZ-plane (denoted structure 1). Note that due to the vertical arrangement second trace lying behind is not visible. (b) Top view PCM image of two waveguides written in YZ-plane (denoted structure 2). The distance between the double traces is 25μm. (c) and (d) End view transmission microscopy images of structure 1 and structure 2, respectively. (e) and (f) End view polarization/birefringence microscopy images of structure 1 and structure 2, respectively. White region in (e) and (f) shows strong stress-induced birefringence. Fast axis and slow axis are indicated in (e) and (f) according to the two orthogonal polarization guiding mode. The writing pulse energy was 50μJ and the pulse duration was 120fs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscopy and near-field mode images of structure 1 and structure 2 for injected 800 nm radiation with two orthogonal polarization directions respectively. In the letter “AB” on the top of each column the first letter represents the writing polarization, and the second letter represents the injection polarization. (a, f) Microscopy image of the structure 1 and 2. Polarization dependent optical guiding properties in the double line structure were observed (b-e, g-j). The guiding is sensitive to structure configuration and polarizations. Horizontal polarization can be guided only in structure 1 written with vertically polarized radiation (see Fig. 3(b)); the vertical polarization can be guided in horizontally polarized written structure 2 (see Fig. 3(j)).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of the cross section profile of a single line trace produced by the 120 fs, 800 nm, 50μJ pulses in sapphire after etching for 5 min in 10% aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. (a) is written by vertically and (b) is written by horizontally polarized ultrashort laser pulses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field mode images of 3 × 3 waveguide array. Two orthogonal polarizations of 800 nm radiation were injected at the center of each two neighboring traces, respectively. The letters on the left column indicate the polarization of the writing and injection laser. The red spots in the structure represent the guiding positions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near field mode images of the cross-sections of diamond structure (a) and hexagon structure (b) written by ultrashort laser pulses with horizontal and vertical polarization respectively. Two orthogonal polarizations were injected into the center of every structure respectively, but no guiding modes were observed for 800nm injected radiation. (c) and (d) show the orientation of the nanogratings in the rods of the diamond, respectively the hexagon structure. The length of all traces is 3 mm. (e) shows the particular polarization dependent light guiding properties of the hexagon and octagon structures in fused silica [3,6], The red spots in the structure represent the guiding positions, the arrows on the left column indicate the polarization of the writing laser, the arrows on the top of each column indicate the polarization of the injection laser.

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