Abstract

Group-IV materials for monolithic integration with silicon optoelectronic systems are being extensively studied. As a part of efforts, light emission from germanium has been pursued with the objective of evolving germanium into an efficient light source for optical communication systems. In this study, we demonstrate room-temperature electroluminescence from germanium in an Al0.3Ga0.7As/Ge heterojunction light-emitting diode without any complicated manipulation for alternating material properties of germanium. Electroluminescence peaks were observed near 1550 nm and the energy around this wavelength corresponds to that emitted from direct recombination at the Γ-valley of germanium.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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  2. A. Mekis, “Silicon photonics: Lighting up the chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 389–390 (2008).
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  3. H. J. Osten and P. Gaworzewski, “Charge transport in strained Si1-yCy and Si1-x-yGexCy alloys on Si (001),” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 4977–4981 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Ragan, K. S. Min, and H. A. Atwater, “Direct energy gap group IV semiconductor alloys and quantum dot arrays in SnxGe1-x/Ge and SnxSi1-x/Si alloy systems,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87(3), 204–213 (2001).
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  5. S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. N. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Overton, S. Vetter, M. Azadeh, B. H. Olson, and N. E. Naga, “Optically Controlled Silicon MESFET Fabrication and Characterizations for Optical Modulator/Demodulator,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 10(3), 213–224 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K.-Y. Park, W.-S. Oh, J.-C. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, “Design of 250-Mb/s Low-Power Fiber Optic Transmitter and Receiver ICs for POF Applications,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 11(3), 221–228 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-Bandwidth Germanium-on-Silicon Photodiode Using Thin SiGe Buffer Layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, “Back-side-illuminated high-speed Ge photodetector fabricated on Si substrate using this SiGe buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3286–3288 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vučković, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1-x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(8), 4384–4388 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Ternary SiGeSn alloys: New opportunities for strain and bandgap engineering using group IV semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 518(9), 2531–2537 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Lin, R. Chen, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Raman study of strained Ge1-xSnx alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261917 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vučković, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vučković, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Cheng, B. G. Park, S. Kim, and J. S. Harris, “The X-valley transport in GaAs/AlAs triple barrier structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(12), 5199–5201 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Arnold, K. Hess, and G. J. Iafrate, “Electron transport in heterostructure hot-electron diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(5), 373–375 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. K. Saxena, “The conduction band structure and deep levels in Ga1-xAlxAs alloys from a high-pressure experiment,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 13(23), 4323–4334 (1980).
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  24. T. G. Finstad, “The annealing behavior of Ge-Au-Ni, Ge-Au-Pt and Ge-Au-Pd trilayered films,” Thin Solid Films 47(3), 279–290 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. S. Kuan, P. E. Batson, T. N. Jackson, H. Rupprecht, and E. L. Wilkie, “Electron microscope studies of an alloyed Au/Ni/Au-Ge ohmic contact to GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 6952–6957 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Mak and H. M. van Driel; “Femtosecond transmission spectroscopy at the direct band edge of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(23), 16817–16820 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Ménendez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205307 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Wagner and L. Viňa, “Radiative recombination in heavily doped p-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30(12), 7030–7036 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Kettle, R. M. Perks, and P. Dunstan, “Localised joule heating in AlGaInP light emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1122–1123 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (5)

K.-Y. Park, W.-S. Oh, J.-C. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, “Design of 250-Mb/s Low-Power Fiber Optic Transmitter and Receiver ICs for POF Applications,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 11(3), 221–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vučković, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, R. Chen, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Raman study of strained Ge1-xSnx alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261917 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Ménendez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Ternary SiGeSn alloys: New opportunities for strain and bandgap engineering using group IV semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 518(9), 2531–2537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vučković, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Overton, S. Vetter, M. Azadeh, B. H. Olson, and N. E. Naga, “Optically Controlled Silicon MESFET Fabrication and Characterizations for Optical Modulator/Demodulator,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 10(3), 213–224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

A. Mekis, “Silicon photonics: Lighting up the chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 389–390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-Bandwidth Germanium-on-Silicon Photodiode Using Thin SiGe Buffer Layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kettle, R. M. Perks, and P. Dunstan, “Localised joule heating in AlGaInP light emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1122–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, “Back-side-illuminated high-speed Ge photodetector fabricated on Si substrate using this SiGe buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3286–3288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. J. Choi, S. Y. Han, J.-L. Lee, J. K. Moon, M. Park, and H. Kim, “Au/Ge/Ni/Au and Pd/Ge/Ti/Au Ohmic Contacts to AlxGa1-xAs/InGaAs (x = 0.75) Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 43, 253–258 (2003).

2001 (1)

R. Ragan, K. S. Min, and H. A. Atwater, “Direct energy gap group IV semiconductor alloys and quantum dot arrays in SnxGe1-x/Ge and SnxSi1-x/Si alloy systems,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87(3), 204–213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. J. Osten and P. Gaworzewski, “Charge transport in strained Si1-yCy and Si1-x-yGexCy alloys on Si (001),” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 4977–4981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1-x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(8), 4384–4388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Mak and H. M. van Driel; “Femtosecond transmission spectroscopy at the direct band edge of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(23), 16817–16820 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

P. Cheng, B. G. Park, S. Kim, and J. S. Harris, “The X-valley transport in GaAs/AlAs triple barrier structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(12), 5199–5201 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. Arnold, K. Hess, and G. J. Iafrate, “Electron transport in heterostructure hot-electron diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(5), 373–375 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Wagner and L. Viňa, “Radiative recombination in heavily doped p-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30(12), 7030–7036 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

T. S. Kuan, P. E. Batson, T. N. Jackson, H. Rupprecht, and E. L. Wilkie, “Electron microscope studies of an alloyed Au/Ni/Au-Ge ohmic contact to GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 6952–6957 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. K. Saxena, “The conduction band structure and deep levels in Ga1-xAlxAs alloys from a high-pressure experiment,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 13(23), 4323–4334 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

T. G. Finstad, “The annealing behavior of Ge-Au-Ni, Ge-Au-Pt and Ge-Au-Pd trilayered films,” Thin Solid Films 47(3), 279–290 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, D.

D. Arnold, K. Hess, and G. J. Iafrate, “Electron transport in heterostructure hot-electron diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(5), 373–375 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

R. Ragan, K. S. Min, and H. A. Atwater, “Direct energy gap group IV semiconductor alloys and quantum dot arrays in SnxGe1-x/Ge and SnxSi1-x/Si alloy systems,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87(3), 204–213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1-x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(8), 4384–4388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Azadeh, M.

S. N. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Overton, S. Vetter, M. Azadeh, B. H. Olson, and N. E. Naga, “Optically Controlled Silicon MESFET Fabrication and Characterizations for Optical Modulator/Demodulator,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 10(3), 213–224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, N.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, S. K.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-Bandwidth Germanium-on-Silicon Photodiode Using Thin SiGe Buffer Layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. E.

T. S. Kuan, P. E. Batson, T. N. Jackson, H. Rupprecht, and E. L. Wilkie, “Electron microscope studies of an alloyed Au/Ni/Au-Ge ohmic contact to GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 6952–6957 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Beck, A. L.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-Bandwidth Germanium-on-Silicon Photodiode Using Thin SiGe Buffer Layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beeler, R. T.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Ménendez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-Bandwidth Germanium-on-Silicon Photodiode Using Thin SiGe Buffer Layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, “Back-side-illuminated high-speed Ge photodetector fabricated on Si substrate using this SiGe buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3286–3288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S. N.

S. N. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Overton, S. Vetter, M. Azadeh, B. H. Olson, and N. E. Naga, “Optically Controlled Silicon MESFET Fabrication and Characterizations for Optical Modulator/Demodulator,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 10(3), 213–224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vučković, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, R. Chen, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Raman study of strained Ge1-xSnx alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261917 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, P.

P. Cheng, B. G. Park, S. Kim, and J. S. Harris, “The X-valley transport in GaAs/AlAs triple barrier structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(12), 5199–5201 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.-L.

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vučković, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vučković, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S.

S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-C.

K.-Y. Park, W.-S. Oh, J.-C. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, “Design of 250-Mb/s Low-Power Fiber Optic Transmitter and Receiver ICs for POF Applications,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 11(3), 221–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. J.

K. J. Choi, S. Y. Han, J.-L. Lee, J. K. Moon, M. Park, and H. Kim, “Au/Ge/Ni/Au and Pd/Ge/Ti/Au Ohmic Contacts to AlxGa1-xAs/InGaAs (x = 0.75) Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 43, 253–258 (2003).

Choi, W.-Y.

K.-Y. Park, W.-S. Oh, J.-C. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, “Design of 250-Mb/s Low-Power Fiber Optic Transmitter and Receiver ICs for POF Applications,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 11(3), 221–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D’Costa, V. R.

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Ternary SiGeSn alloys: New opportunities for strain and bandgap engineering using group IV semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 518(9), 2531–2537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duan, N.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-Bandwidth Germanium-on-Silicon Photodiode Using Thin SiGe Buffer Layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunstan, P.

J. Kettle, R. M. Perks, and P. Dunstan, “Localised joule heating in AlGaInP light emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1122–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.-Y.

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Ternary SiGeSn alloys: New opportunities for strain and bandgap engineering using group IV semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 518(9), 2531–2537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Finstad, T. G.

T. G. Finstad, “The annealing behavior of Ge-Au-Ni, Ge-Au-Pt and Ge-Au-Pd trilayered films,” Thin Solid Films 47(3), 279–290 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gaworzewski, P.

H. J. Osten and P. Gaworzewski, “Charge transport in strained Si1-yCy and Si1-x-yGexCy alloys on Si (001),” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 4977–4981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzybowski, G.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Ménendez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-Bandwidth Germanium-on-Silicon Photodiode Using Thin SiGe Buffer Layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. Y.

K. J. Choi, S. Y. Han, J.-L. Lee, J. K. Moon, M. Park, and H. Kim, “Au/Ge/Ni/Au and Pd/Ge/Ti/Au Ohmic Contacts to AlxGa1-xAs/InGaAs (x = 0.75) Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 43, 253–258 (2003).

Harris, J. S.

S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, R. Chen, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Raman study of strained Ge1-xSnx alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261917 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vučković, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheng, B. G. Park, S. Kim, and J. S. Harris, “The X-valley transport in GaAs/AlAs triple barrier structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(12), 5199–5201 (1989).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1-x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(8), 4384–4388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hess, K.

D. Arnold, K. Hess, and G. J. Iafrate, “Electron transport in heterostructure hot-electron diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(5), 373–375 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-Bandwidth Germanium-on-Silicon Photodiode Using Thin SiGe Buffer Layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, “Back-side-illuminated high-speed Ge photodetector fabricated on Si substrate using this SiGe buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3286–3288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

H. Lin, R. Chen, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Raman study of strained Ge1-xSnx alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261917 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vučković, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iafrate, G. J.

D. Arnold, K. Hess, and G. J. Iafrate, “Electron transport in heterostructure hot-electron diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(5), 373–375 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, T. N.

T. S. Kuan, P. E. Batson, T. N. Jackson, H. Rupprecht, and E. L. Wilkie, “Electron microscope studies of an alloyed Au/Ni/Au-Ge ohmic contact to GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 6952–6957 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Ménendez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vučković, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, R. Chen, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Raman study of strained Ge1-xSnx alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261917 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kettle, J.

J. Kettle, R. M. Perks, and P. Dunstan, “Localised joule heating in AlGaInP light emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1122–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

K. J. Choi, S. Y. Han, J.-L. Lee, J. K. Moon, M. Park, and H. Kim, “Au/Ge/Ni/Au and Pd/Ge/Ti/Au Ohmic Contacts to AlxGa1-xAs/InGaAs (x = 0.75) Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 43, 253–258 (2003).

Kim, S.

P. Cheng, B. G. Park, S. Kim, and J. S. Harris, “The X-valley transport in GaAs/AlAs triple barrier structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(12), 5199–5201 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kong, N.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-Bandwidth Germanium-on-Silicon Photodiode Using Thin SiGe Buffer Layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koo, S.

S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kouvetakis, J.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Ménendez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Ternary SiGeSn alloys: New opportunities for strain and bandgap engineering using group IV semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 518(9), 2531–2537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, T. S.

T. S. Kuan, P. E. Batson, T. N. Jackson, H. Rupprecht, and E. L. Wilkie, “Electron microscope studies of an alloyed Au/Ni/Au-Ge ohmic contact to GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 6952–6957 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D. L.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-L.

K. J. Choi, S. Y. Han, J.-L. Lee, J. K. Moon, M. Park, and H. Kim, “Au/Ge/Ni/Au and Pd/Ge/Ti/Au Ohmic Contacts to AlxGa1-xAs/InGaAs (x = 0.75) Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 43, 253–258 (2003).

Lee, S. J.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vučković, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vučković, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, R. Chen, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Raman study of strained Ge1-xSnx alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261917 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

Z. Huang, N. Kong, X. Guo, M. Liu, N. Duan, A. L. Beck, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “21-GHz-Bandwidth Germanium-on-Silicon Photodiode Using Thin SiGe Buffer Layers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1450–1454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loh, T. H.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. Y.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vučković, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vučković, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mak, G.

G. Mak and H. M. van Driel; “Femtosecond transmission spectroscopy at the direct band edge of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(23), 16817–16820 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makarova, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vučković, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mathews, J.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Ménendez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, “Silicon photonics: Lighting up the chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 389–390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Menéndez, J.

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Ternary SiGeSn alloys: New opportunities for strain and bandgap engineering using group IV semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 518(9), 2531–2537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ménendez, J.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Ménendez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, K. S.

R. Ragan, K. S. Min, and H. A. Atwater, “Direct energy gap group IV semiconductor alloys and quantum dot arrays in SnxGe1-x/Ge and SnxSi1-x/Si alloy systems,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87(3), 204–213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. K.

K. J. Choi, S. Y. Han, J.-L. Lee, J. K. Moon, M. Park, and H. Kim, “Au/Ge/Ni/Au and Pd/Ge/Ti/Au Ohmic Contacts to AlxGa1-xAs/InGaAs (x = 0.75) Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 43, 253–258 (2003).

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, R.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naga, N. E.

S. N. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Overton, S. Vetter, M. Azadeh, B. H. Olson, and N. E. Naga, “Optically Controlled Silicon MESFET Fabrication and Characterizations for Optical Modulator/Demodulator,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 10(3), 213–224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 11B), L1358–L1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. S.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, Y.

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vučković, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vučković, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, J.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, and J. C. Campbell, “Back-side-illuminated high-speed Ge photodetector fabricated on Si substrate using this SiGe buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3286–3288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh, W.-S.

K.-Y. Park, W.-S. Oh, J.-C. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, “Design of 250-Mb/s Low-Power Fiber Optic Transmitter and Receiver ICs for POF Applications,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 11(3), 221–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Olson, B. H.

S. N. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Overton, S. Vetter, M. Azadeh, B. H. Olson, and N. E. Naga, “Optically Controlled Silicon MESFET Fabrication and Characterizations for Optical Modulator/Demodulator,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 10(3), 213–224 (2010).
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H. J. Osten and P. Gaworzewski, “Charge transport in strained Si1-yCy and Si1-x-yGexCy alloys on Si (001),” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 4977–4981 (1997).
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Overton, C. B.

S. N. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Overton, S. Vetter, M. Azadeh, B. H. Olson, and N. E. Naga, “Optically Controlled Silicon MESFET Fabrication and Characterizations for Optical Modulator/Demodulator,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 10(3), 213–224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. G.

P. Cheng, B. G. Park, S. Kim, and J. S. Harris, “The X-valley transport in GaAs/AlAs triple barrier structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(12), 5199–5201 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.-G.

S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Park, W.-S. Oh, J.-C. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, “Design of 250-Mb/s Low-Power Fiber Optic Transmitter and Receiver ICs for POF Applications,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 11(3), 221–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, M.

K. J. Choi, S. Y. Han, J.-L. Lee, J. K. Moon, M. Park, and H. Kim, “Au/Ge/Ni/Au and Pd/Ge/Ti/Au Ohmic Contacts to AlxGa1-xAs/InGaAs (x = 0.75) Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 43, 253–258 (2003).

Park, N.

S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Perks, R. M.

J. Kettle, R. M. Perks, and P. Dunstan, “Localised joule heating in AlGaInP light emitting diodes,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1122–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1-x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(8), 4384–4388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ragan, R.

R. Ragan, K. S. Min, and H. A. Atwater, “Direct energy gap group IV semiconductor alloys and quantum dot arrays in SnxGe1-x/Ge and SnxSi1-x/Si alloy systems,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 87(3), 204–213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, Y.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vučković, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roucka, R.

G. Grzybowski, R. Roucka, J. Mathews, L. Jiang, R. T. Beeler, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Ménendez, “Direct versus indirect optical recombination in Ge films grown on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rupprecht, H.

T. S. Kuan, P. E. Batson, T. N. Jackson, H. Rupprecht, and E. L. Wilkie, “Electron microscope studies of an alloyed Au/Ni/Au-Ge ohmic contact to GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 6952–6957 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K.

Saxena, A. K.

A. K. Saxena, “The conduction band structure and deep levels in Ga1-xAlxAs alloys from a high-pressure experiment,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 13(23), 4323–4334 (1980).
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Shambat, G.

S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vučković, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vučković, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, M. E.

M. E. Taylor, G. He, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Solid phase epitaxy of diamond cubic SnxGe1-x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(8), 4384–4388 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tolle, J.

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Ternary SiGeSn alloys: New opportunities for strain and bandgap engineering using group IV semiconductors,” Thin Solid Films 518(9), 2531–2537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

G. Mak and H. M. van Driel; “Femtosecond transmission spectroscopy at the direct band edge of germanium,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(23), 16817–16820 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varshni, Y.

Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Vetter, S.

S. N. Chattopadhyay, C. B. Overton, S. Vetter, M. Azadeh, B. H. Olson, and N. E. Naga, “Optically Controlled Silicon MESFET Fabrication and Characterizations for Optical Modulator/Demodulator,” J. Semicond. Technol. Sci. 10(3), 213–224 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vina, L.

J. Wagner and L. Viňa, “Radiative recombination in heavily doped p-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30(12), 7030–7036 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vučković, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, R. Chen, S. Koo, G. Shambat, H. Lin, N. Park, J. Vučković, T. I. Kamins, B.-G. Park, and J. S. Harris, “Fabrication and Analysis of Epitaxially Grown Ge1-xSnx Microdisk Resonator with 20-nm Free-Spectral Range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1535–1537 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Shambat, S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, Y. Nishi, and J. Vučković, “Direct band Ge photoluminescence near 1.6 μm coupled to Ge-on-Si microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vučković, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, J.

J. Wagner and L. Viňa, “Radiative recombination in heavily doped p-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 30(12), 7030–7036 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-band diagrams of the Al0.3Ga0.7As/Ge heterojunction. (a) Energy-band diagram obtained by numerical device simulation at a forward bias of 1 V. (b) Schematic view of the energy-band diagram conditions in terms of (E) and k near the heterojunction for Γ-Γ transport.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Process architecture for device fabrication. (a) Ge substrate preparation. (b) Epitaxial growths. (c) Active definition. (d) n-type and (e) p-type contacts. (f) Final critical dimensions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Material analyses. (a) HRXRD measurement and simulation results for analyzing the Al content. (b) ECV measurement results of doping profile versus depth (cathode). TEM images of (c) Heterostructure epitaxial layers on Ge substrate and (d) the Al0.3Ga0.7As/Ge interface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement results. (a) Optical measurement setup. (b) EL intensities with wavelength and (c) IR CCD camera image from the fabricated Al0.3Ga0.7As/Ge heterojunction LED.

Equations (2)

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χ Ge|Γ χ AlxGa1xAs = 3.86 ( 4.07 1.1x )0, for removing energy barrier
x0.4, for obtaining Al x Ga 1x As with directbandgap

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