Abstract

We report a novel approach for deposition of amorphous chalcogenide glass films inside the cylindrical air channels of photonic crystal fiber (PCF). In particular, we demonstrate the formation of nanocolloidal solution-based As2S3 films inside the air channels of PCFs of different glass-solvent concentrations for two fibers with cladding-hole diameter 3.5 and 1.3μm. Scanning electron microscopy is used to observe the formed chalcogenide layers and Raman scattering is employed to verify the existence and the structural features of the amorphous As2S3 layers. Optical transmission measurements reveal strong photonic bandgaps over a range covering visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The transmittance spectra and the corresponding losses were recorded in the wavelength range 500–1750 nm. The main advantage of the proposed technique is the simplicity of the deposition of amorphous chalcogenide layers inside the holes of PCF and constitutes an efficient route to the development of fiber-based devices combined with sophisticated glasses for supercontinuum generation as well as other non-linear applications.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (6)

2010 (7)

C. Tsay, Y. Zha, and C. B. Arnold, “Solution-processed chalcogenide glass for integrated single-mode mid-infrared waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26744–26753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15523–15530 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Markos, K. Vlachos, and G. Kakarantzas, “Bending loss and thermo-optic effect of a hybrid PDMS/silica photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24344–24351 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, W. Margulis, and S. Pissadakis, “A spectrally tunable microstructured optical fibre Bragg grating utilizing an infiltrated ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24654–24660 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5472–5480 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26655–26665 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

K. S. Andrikopoulos, A. G. Kalampounias, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Rounding effects on doped sulfur’s living polymerization: The case of As and Se,” Phys. Rev. B 72(1), 014203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Chalcogenide holey fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36(24), 1998–2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, and G. L. Burdge, “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstrucutred optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 495–497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 6–16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Smektala, C. Quémard, L. LeNeindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

T. A. Guiton and C. G. Pantano, “Solution/gelation of arsenic trisulfide in amine solvents,” Chem. Mater. 1(5), 558–563 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Structural characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(5), 2701–2705 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. J. Kobliska and S. A. Solin, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum and the depolarization spectrum of amorphous As2S3,” Phys. Rev. B 8(2), 756–768 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Abeeluck, A. K.

Adam, A. J.

Adam, J. L.

C. Conseil, Q. Coulombier, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, D. Mechin, B. Bureau, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide step index and microstructured single mode fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2480–2483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J.-L.

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 6–16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Andrikopoulos, K. S.

K. S. Andrikopoulos, A. G. Kalampounias, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Rounding effects on doped sulfur’s living polymerization: The case of As and Se,” Phys. Rev. B 72(1), 014203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

Arnold, C. B.

Atkin, D. M.

Bang, O.

Barthélémy, A.

F. Smektala, C. Quémard, L. LeNeindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bassett, I.

Bennet, F. H.

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

Boussard-Pledel, C.

C. Conseil, Q. Coulombier, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, D. Mechin, B. Bureau, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide step index and microstructured single mode fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2480–2483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brilland, L.

C. Conseil, Q. Coulombier, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, D. Mechin, B. Bureau, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide step index and microstructured single mode fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2480–2483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26655–26665 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Brilland, F. Smektala, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, J. Troles, T. Nguyen, N. Traynor, and A. Monteville, “Fabrication of complex structures of holey fibers in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1280–1285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broderick, N. G. R.

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Chalcogenide holey fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36(24), 1998–2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Burdge, G. L.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, and G. L. Burdge, “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstrucutred optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 495–497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bureau, B.

C. Conseil, Q. Coulombier, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, D. Mechin, B. Bureau, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide step index and microstructured single mode fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2480–2483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Candiani, A.

Carlie, N.

Chartier, T.

Chern, G. C.

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Structural characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(5), 2701–2705 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chochliouros, I. P.

Chrissanthopoulos, A.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conseil, C.

C. Conseil, Q. Coulombier, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, D. Mechin, B. Bureau, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide step index and microstructured single mode fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2480–2483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coulombier, Q.

C. Conseil, Q. Coulombier, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, D. Mechin, B. Bureau, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide step index and microstructured single mode fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2480–2483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quémard, L. LeNeindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C.

de Sterke, C. M.

Désévédavy, F.

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26655–26665 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dua, J.

Dufva, M.

Dunn, S.

Eggleton, B.

Eggleton, B. J.

El-Amraoui, M.

Elliott, S. R.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fatome, J.

Fleming, S.

Fortier, C.

Frumar, M.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L. B.

Gadret, G.

Gao, W.

Gmachl, C. F.

Granzow, N.

Guiton, T. A.

T. A. Guiton and C. G. Pantano, “Solution/gelation of arsenic trisulfide in amine solvents,” Chem. Mater. 1(5), 558–563 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, and G. L. Burdge, “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstrucutred optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 495–497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Headley, C.

Hermann, D.

Hewak, D. W.

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Chalcogenide holey fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36(24), 1998–2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Høiby, P. E.

Houizot, P.

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Issa, N. A.

Jensen, J. B.

Jepsen, P. U.

Jordan-Sweet, J.

D. J. Milliron, S. Raoux, R. M. Shelby, and J. Jordan-Sweet, “Solution-phase deposition and nanopatterning of GeSbSe phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 352–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jules, J. C.

Kakarantzas, G.

Kalampounias, A. G.

K. S. Andrikopoulos, A. G. Kalampounias, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Rounding effects on doped sulfur’s living polymerization: The case of As and Se,” Phys. Rev. B 72(1), 014203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Knight, J. C.

Kobliska, R. J.

R. J. Kobliska and S. A. Solin, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum and the depolarization spectrum of amorphous As2S3,” Phys. Rev. B 8(2), 756–768 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kohoutek, T.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, A.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

Kostadinova, O.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Kyriazis, F.

Lamont, M. R.

Large, M. C. J.

Larsen, T.

Lauks, I.

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Structural characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(5), 2701–2705 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

LeNeindre, L.

F. Smektala, C. Quémard, L. LeNeindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Litchinitser, N.

Litchinitser, N. M.

Lucas, J.

C. Conseil, Q. Coulombier, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, D. Mechin, B. Bureau, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide step index and microstructured single mode fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2480–2483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Smektala, C. Quémard, L. LeNeindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Madsen, C. K.

Mägi, E. C.

Manos, S.

Margulis, W.

Markos, C.

McPhedran, R.

McPhedran, R. C.

Mechin, D.

C. Conseil, Q. Coulombier, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, D. Mechin, B. Bureau, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide step index and microstructured single mode fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2480–2483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

Milliron, D. J.

D. J. Milliron, S. Raoux, R. M. Shelby, and J. Jordan-Sweet, “Solution-phase deposition and nanopatterning of GeSbSe phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 352–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Chalcogenide holey fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36(24), 1998–2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monteville, A.

Mujagic, E.

Neshev, D. N.

Nguyen, H. C.

Nguyen, T.

Nicorovici, N. A. P.

Nielsen, K.

Ohishi, Y.

Pantano, C. G.

T. A. Guiton and C. G. Pantano, “Solution/gelation of arsenic trisulfide in amine solvents,” Chem. Mater. 1(5), 558–563 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Petit, L.

Pissadakis, S.

Planken, P. C.

Quémard, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quémard, L. LeNeindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raoux, S.

D. J. Milliron, S. Raoux, R. M. Shelby, and J. Jordan-Sweet, “Solution-phase deposition and nanopatterning of GeSbSe phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 352–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, H. K.

Rasmussen, P. D.

Renversez, G.

C. Conseil, Q. Coulombier, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, D. Mechin, B. Bureau, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide step index and microstructured single mode fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2480–2483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Brilland, F. Smektala, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, J. Troles, T. Nguyen, N. Traynor, and A. Monteville, “Fabrication of complex structures of holey fibers in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1280–1285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Chalcogenide holey fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36(24), 1998–2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Rindorf, L.

Rosberg, C. R.

Russell, P. S. J.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 6–16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

Sempere, L. P.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. M.

D. J. Milliron, S. Raoux, R. M. Shelby, and J. Jordan-Sweet, “Solution-phase deposition and nanopatterning of GeSbSe phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 352–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimakawa, K.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Skripatchev, I.

Smektala, F.

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26655–26665 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Brilland, F. Smektala, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, J. Troles, T. Nguyen, N. Traynor, and A. Monteville, “Fabrication of complex structures of holey fibers in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1280–1285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Smektala, C. Quémard, L. LeNeindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solin, S. A.

R. J. Kobliska and S. A. Solin, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum and the depolarization spectrum of amorphous As2S3,” Phys. Rev. B 8(2), 756–768 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Song, S.

Stark, S. P.

Steinvurzel, P.

Strasser, T. A.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, and G. L. Burdge, “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstrucutred optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 495–497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Tarasov, V.

Town, G. E.

Traynor, N.

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Brilland, F. Smektala, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, J. Troles, T. Nguyen, N. Traynor, and A. Monteville, “Fabrication of complex structures of holey fibers in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1280–1285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troles, J.

C. Conseil, Q. Coulombier, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, D. Mechin, B. Bureau, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide step index and microstructured single mode fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2480–2483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26655–26665 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Brilland, F. Smektala, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, J. Troles, T. Nguyen, N. Traynor, and A. Monteville, “Fabrication of complex structures of holey fibers in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1280–1285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsay, C.

Tverjanovich, A. S.

Tyagi, H. K.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uebel, P.

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Vasilief, I.

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vlachos, K.

Wagner, T.

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

West, Y. D.

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Chalcogenide holey fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36(24), 1998–2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, and G. L. Burdge, “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstrucutred optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 495–497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, T.

Windeler, R. S.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, and G. L. Burdge, “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstrucutred optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 495–497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

Wu, D. K. C.

Yannopoulos, S. N.

S. N. Yannopoulos, F. Kyriazis, and I. P. Chochliouros, “Composition-dependent photosensitivity in As-S glasses induced by bandgap light: Structural origin by Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 534–536 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Andrikopoulos, A. G. Kalampounias, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Rounding effects on doped sulfur’s living polymerization: The case of As and Se,” Phys. Rev. B 72(1), 014203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, D. I.

Yuan, W.

Zagari, J.

Zha, Y.

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

T. A. Guiton and C. G. Pantano, “Solution/gelation of arsenic trisulfide in amine solvents,” Chem. Mater. 1(5), 558–563 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. M. Monro, Y. D. West, D. W. Hewak, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Chalcogenide holey fibres,” Electron. Lett. 36(24), 1998–2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, and G. L. Burdge, “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstrucutred optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 495–497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Structural characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(5), 2701–2705 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Kohoutek, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, A. Chrissanthopoulos, O. Kostadinova, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of cluster size of chalcogenide glass nanocolloidal solutions on the surface morphology of spin-coated amorphous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 063511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

F. Smektala, C. Quémard, L. LeNeindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 6–16 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Conseil, Q. Coulombier, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, D. Mechin, B. Bureau, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide step index and microstructured single mode fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2480–2483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

D. J. Milliron, S. Raoux, R. M. Shelby, and J. Jordan-Sweet, “Solution-phase deposition and nanopatterning of GeSbSe phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 352–356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Opt. Express (18)

A. Candiani, M. Konstantaki, W. Margulis, and S. Pissadakis, “A spectrally tunable microstructured optical fibre Bragg grating utilizing an infiltrated ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24654–24660 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tsay, Y. Zha, and C. B. Arnold, “Solution-processed chalcogenide glass for integrated single-mode mid-infrared waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26744–26753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2307–2314 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15523–15530 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Litchinitser, S. Dunn, P. Steinvurzel, B. Eggleton, T. White, R. McPhedran, and C. de Sterke, “Application of an ARROW model for designing tunable photonic devices,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1540–1550 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5472–5480 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Granzow, S. P. Stark, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21003–21010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Mägi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, and B. J. Eggleton, “Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in sub-wavelength diameter As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber tapers,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10324–10329 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Brilland, F. Smektala, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, J. Troles, T. Nguyen, N. Traynor, and A. Monteville, “Fabrication of complex structures of holey fibers in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1280–1285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26655–26665 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, and J. Broeng, “Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2589–2596 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Rosberg, F. H. Bennet, D. N. Neshev, P. D. Rasmussen, O. Bang, W. Krolikowski, A. Bjarklev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tunable diffraction and self-defocusing in liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12145–12150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yuan, L. Wei, T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, and O. Bang, “Thermal tunability of photonic bandgaps in liquid crystal infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19356–19364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Markos, W. Yuan, K. Vlachos, G. E. Town, and O. Bang, “Label-free biosensing with high sensitivity in dual-core microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7790–7798 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8224–8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Markos, K. Vlachos, and G. Kakarantzas, “Bending loss and thermo-optic effect of a hybrid PDMS/silica photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24344–24351 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, “Microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 9(7), 319–327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Désévédavy, G. Renversez, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. Brilland, I. Vasilief, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, F. Smektala, and J.-L. Adam, “Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1532–1539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

K. S. Andrikopoulos, A. G. Kalampounias, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Rounding effects on doped sulfur’s living polymerization: The case of As and Se,” Phys. Rev. B 72(1), 014203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Kobliska and S. A. Solin, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum and the depolarization spectrum of amorphous As2S3,” Phys. Rev. B 8(2), 756–768 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, Optical nonlinearities in chalcogenide glasses and their applications (Berlin, Springer, 2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of (a) PCF with As2S3 layers in the holes. (b) Single hole demonstrating the formation of a thin As2S3 glass layer

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cross-section of the core of ESM-12-01 with As2S3 layers deposited. (b) Single hole with As2S3 layer and (c) Inclined by 20° image of the core, indicating the glass formation in all the holes around the core of the fiber. (d) Magnified image of a single hole showing the deposited film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross-section of the core of ESM-12-01 with As2S3 layers deposited. (b) Single hole with As2S3 layer and (c) Image of a hole next to the core obtained after inclining the fiber at an angle of 20°, indicating the formation of nanoscale chalcogenide glass “islands”.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cross-section of the core of LMA-5 with c2 concentration of As2S3 layers deposited. (b) Single hole with As2S3 layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raman spectra of (i) As2S3 solutions (denoted as As2S3/BA(c1) and As2S3/EDA(c2)), (ii) As2S3 layers inside PCF air-holes (denoted as As2S3/ESM(c1), As2S3/LMA(c2) and As2S3/ESM (c2)), (iii) of the solvents themselves (denoted as BA and EDA) and (iv) fused silica (denoted as SiO2 -magnified x50)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission output spectra of (a) As2S3/ESM(c1) and (b) As2S3/ESM(c2). (c),(d) Corresponding losses. Inset: Near-field image of the fundamental mode in As2S3/ESM(c2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission output spectra of (a) As2S3/LMA-5(c1) and (b) As2S3/LMA-5(c2). (c),(d) Corresponding losses. Inset: Near-field image of the fundamental mode in As2S3/LMA-5(c2).

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