Abstract

We present a CMOS compatible mass manufacturable, compact Si/SiO2 multilayer GRIN lens mode size converter from standard single mode fiber to 300nm-thick Si waveguide. The fiber-to-GRIN lens coupling loss is 2.6 ± 0.3dB (coupling efficiency: 51~60%) with optimized focal length of 11.6~11.8μm and Si/SiO2 multilayer thickness of 7.4μm.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
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  13. A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(1), 148–161 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. R. G. Walker, “Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 21(13), 581–583 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2(6), 683–700 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Q. Wang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Design and analysis of optical coupling between silicon nanophotonics waveguide and standard single-mode fiber using an integrated asymmetric Super-GRIN lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 581–589 (2011).
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  26. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 1998), Chap. 4.

2011 (1)

Q. Wang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Design and analysis of optical coupling between silicon nanophotonics waveguide and standard single-mode fiber using an integrated asymmetric Super-GRIN lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 581–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(1), 148–161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. G. Walker, “Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 21(13), 581–583 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Anderson, M.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barela, M.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogdanov, A.

Daele, P. V.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

Delâge, A.

Dillon, T.

Du, Y.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 101–105 (2010).

Fathpour, S.

Fukasawa, M.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furuhashi, H.

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

Hong, C. Y.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hua, X.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Ikedo, H.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Irie, A.

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishimura, T.

Jalali, B.

Janz, S.

Karthe, W.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ketsuka, T.

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 101–105 (2010).

Laere, F. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laere, V.

Lai, Y. C.

Lamontagne, B.

Li, L.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Lipson, M.

Lo, G. Q.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 101–105 (2010).

Loh, T. H.

Mesel, K. D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

Ng, K. T.

Nguyen, V.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oehrlein, G. S.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, A.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Prather, D. W.

Pustai, D.

Richter, B.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Schrauwen, J.

Shiraishi, K.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shirashi, K.

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Shirashi and C. S. Tsai, “A micro light-beam spot-size converter using a hemispherical GRIN-slab tip with high index contrast,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(11), 3821–3826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sure, A.

Taillaert, D.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tan, C. W.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 101–105 (2010).

Thourhout, D. V.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittelbach, G.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. S.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Tsuchizawa, T.

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[CrossRef]

Vertuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. G. Walker, “Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 21(13), 581–583 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yap, K. P.

Yasaitis, J.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeoh, W. G.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 101–105 (2010).

Yoda, H.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 101–105 (2010).

Zhang, J.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 101–105 (2010).

Zhang, Q. X.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 101–105 (2010).

Zhu, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Walker, “Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 21(13), 581–583 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 101–105 (2010).

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D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fabrication process flow of integrating a-Si/SiO2 ML-GRIN lens to Si-wire waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the fabricated Si/SiO2 multilayer GRIN lens integrated to Si-waveguide. (b) SEM image of the front side view of the ML-GRIN lens, showing the etched output surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of MSC that consists of ML-GRIN lens in cascade with Si up-taper.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of cross-section of the ML-GRIN lens integrated to Si-waveguide tip.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Computed effective RI (solid curve) of the ML-GRIN lens medium, the computed thicknesses of a-Si (red-square) and SiO2 (blue triangle) against vertical distance from the bottom of the a-Si/SiO2 multilayer stack.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical micrograph of Si-waveguides with output butt-terminated with a-Si/SiO2 ML-GRIN lenses for LGRIN varying from 7μm to 15μm in steps of 0.5μm or 1μm. Objective lenses (magnification: 60X, NA: 0.65) were used for input optical coupling and output imaging.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Optical output image from 6μm-wide Si-waveguide with a butt-terminated ML-GRIN lens. (b) Optical output image from 6μm-wide Si-waveguide termination without ML-GRIN lens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) to (c) shows the coupling of SMF into ML-GRIN lenses for LGRIN of 11.6~11.8μm, 12~12.6μm and 10~10.5μm. The optical emission at the waveguide input-end was imaged by 60X lens. (d) Optical mode of single-mode fiber imaged by 30X objective lens with its output facet placed at the same object plane as the waveguide input-end. (e) Optical mode imaged at waveguide input-end by using 30X objective lens for LGRIN = 11.6~11.8μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fabry-Perot resonance spectra of straight 3μm-wide Si-waveguide without tapers at both ends using lens objectives to couple light into/out of the Si-waveguide.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Insertion loss spectra of 3μm-waveguide using lensed fiber-probes to couple light into/out of the Si-waveguide. (Insert: schematic of the experimental set-up).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Insertion-loss spectrum of 3μm-wide, 2228.5μm-long Si-waveguide, with 500μm-long Si up-taper at the output and butt-terminated with ML-GRIN lens. Lensed fiber-probe was used for input-coupling and standard SMF was used for output-coupling.

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