Abstract

We present an optimized design for a 10G- differential-phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) receiver based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) unbalanced tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) switch in sequence with a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer (MZDI). The proposed design eliminates the limitation in sensitivity of the device produced by the waveguide propagation losses in the delay line. A 2.3 dB increase in receiver sensitivity at a bit-error-rate (BER) of 10−9 is experimentally measured over a standard implementation. The enhanced sensitivity is achieved with zero power consumption by tuning the operating wavelength or with less than 5mW for a fixed wavelength using microheaters. Also the foot-print of the device is minimized to 0.11mm2 by the use of compact spirals.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, and L. Buhl, “PDM DQPSK silicon receiver with integrated monitor and minimum number of controls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 697–699 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, H. C. Nguyen, T. Tamanuki, F. Shinobu, Y. Saito, Y. Sakai, and T. Baba, “Slow-light-based variable symbol-rate silicon photonics DQPSK receiver,” Opt. Express20(4), 4796–4804 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2009

L. Xu, C. Li, C. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, “Optical differential-phase-shift-keying demodulation using a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 295–297 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2005

2004

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. Paloczi, Y. Huang, and A. Yariv, “Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Express12(1), 90–103 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

Baets, R.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, J.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Hüttl, and C. Schubert, “Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 614–616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L.

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, and L. Buhl, “PDM DQPSK silicon receiver with integrated monitor and minimum number of controls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 697–699 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Ding, Y.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, and L. Buhl, “PDM DQPSK silicon receiver with integrated monitor and minimum number of controls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 697–699 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N.

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, and L. Buhl, “PDM DQPSK silicon receiver with integrated monitor and minimum number of controls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 697–699 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Hashizume, Y.

Huang, D.

Huang, Y.

Hüttl, B.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Hüttl, and C. Schubert, “Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 614–616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Itoh, M.

Kohtoku, M.

Li, C.

L. Xu, C. Li, C. Y. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, “DQPSK demodulation using integrated silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 172–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, C. Li, C. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, “Optical differential-phase-shift-keying demodulation using a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 295–297 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lipson, M.

Liu, L.

Luyssaert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitze, T.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Hüttl, and C. Schubert, “Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 614–616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mookherjea, S.

Nasu, Y.

Nguyen, H. C.

Ou, H.

Paloczi, G.

Petermann, K.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Hüttl, and C. Schubert, “Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 614–616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peucheret, C.

Poon, J.

Pu, M.

Saito, Y.

Sakai, Y.

Scheuer, J.

Schubert, C.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Hüttl, and C. Schubert, “Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 614–616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seoane, J.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Shinobu, F.

Song, M.

Suzuki, K.

Taillaert, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamanuki, T.

Tsang, H. K.

L. Xu, C. Li, C. Y. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, “DQPSK demodulation using integrated silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 172–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, C. Li, C. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, “Optical differential-phase-shift-keying demodulation using a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 295–297 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, K.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Hüttl, and C. Schubert, “Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 614–616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Winzer, G.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Hüttl, and C. Schubert, “Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 614–616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Wong, C.

L. Xu, C. Li, C. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, “Optical differential-phase-shift-keying demodulation using a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 295–297 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. Y.

L. Xu, C. Li, C. Y. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, “DQPSK demodulation using integrated silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 172–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Xu, L.

L. Xu, C. Li, C. Y. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, “DQPSK demodulation using integrated silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 172–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, C. Li, C. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, “Optical differential-phase-shift-keying demodulation using a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 295–297 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-Y.

Yariv, A.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

Zimmermann, L.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Hüttl, and C. Schubert, “Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 614–616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, and L. Buhl, “PDM DQPSK silicon receiver with integrated monitor and minimum number of controls,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(8), 697–699 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Hüttl, and C. Schubert, “Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 614–616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, C. Li, C. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, “Optical differential-phase-shift-keying demodulation using a silicon microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 295–297 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Commun.

L. Xu, C. Li, C. Y. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, “DQPSK demodulation using integrated silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 172–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2008).

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, B. Labs, and H. Road, “Monolithic PDM-DQPSK receiver in silicon,” in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2010), paper PD3.6.

S. Park, K. Yamada, R. Kou, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Nishi, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Demodulation of 10-Gbps DPSK signals with silicon micro-ring resonators,” in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (2010), 264–265.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed DPSK demodulator. Each square represent 100 × 100μm2. From left to right in the figure: Two input TE grating couplers with waveguide tapers, 2x2 unbalanced MZI switch, MZDI with a 10GHz delay-line, a 2x1 MMI, taper, and an output grating coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated spectral response at the MZDI inputs (green-dotted, red-dashed) and at the demodulator output (blue-solid).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical photo of the MZI-MZDI structure. Below the left and right inset show a SEM image of the MZI with and MZDI spirals, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spectral response at the DPSK demodulator. (a) Transmission spectrum of the full experimental wavelength band. The arrows mark the different states of the MZI switch at the input of the MZDI. (b) A zoom with 1pm resolution on the wavelength range where resonances have higher ER ratio. Two resonances are marked in the figure R1 for 16dB ER and R2 with optimized 28dB ER.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ER variation for different powers applied to the micro-heater on the MZI switch. The inset shows an optical image of the microheaters on top of the MZI switch.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental set-up used for the BER measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

System measurements at 10 Gb/s of the DPSK demodulator. (a) The graph shows the BER for the two studied resonances, R1 (red) and R2 (blue), marked in Fig. 4. (b-c) The corresponding eye diagram for R1 and R2 respectively.

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