Abstract

Ultraviolet absorption measurements and laser excitation spectroscopy in the vicinity of 248 nm provide compelling evidence for linkages between the oxygen deficiency center (ODC) and rare earth concentrations in Yb and Er-doped glass optical fibers. Investigations of YAG-derived and solution-doped glass fibers are described. For both Yb and Er-doped fibers, the dependence of Type II ODC absorption on the rare earth number density is approximately linear, but the magnitude of the effect is greater for Yb-doped fibers. Furthermore, laser excitation spectra demonstrate unambiguously the existence of an energy transfer mechanism coupling an ODC with Yb3+. Photopumping glass fibers with a Ti:sapphire laser/optical parametric amplifier system, tunable over the 225-265 nm region, or with a KrF laser at 248.4 nm show: 1) emission features in the 200-1100 nm interval attributable only to the ODC (Type II) defect or Yb3+, and 2) the excitation spectra for ODC (II) emission at ~280 nm and Yb3+ fluorescence (λ ~1.03 μm) to be, within experimental uncertainty, identical. The latter demonstrates that, when irradiating Yb-doped silica fibers between ~240 and 255 nm, the ODC (II) defect is at least the primary precursor to Yb3+ emission. Consistent with previous reports in the literature, the data show the ODC (II) absorption spectrum to have a peak wavelength and breadth of ~246 nm and ~19 nm (FWHM). Experiments also reveal that, in the absence of Yb, incorporating either Al2O3 or Y2O3 into glass fibers has a negligible impact on the ODC concentration. Not only do the data reported here demonstrate the relationship between the ODC (II) number density and the Yb doping concentration, but they also suggest that the appearance of ODC defects in the fiber is associated with the introduction of Yb and the process by which the fiber is formed.

© 2012 OSA

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2010

2009

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

2003

C. Pare, “Influence of inner cladding shape and stress-applying parts on the pump absorption of a double-clad fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 5260, 272–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 1, 15–24 (1998).

D. L. Griscom and M. Mizuguchi, “Determination of the visible range optical absorption spectrum of peroxy radicals in gamma-irradiated fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 66–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, “Processing-induced defects in optical waveguide materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. V. Amossov and A. O. Rybaltovsky, “Oxygen deficient centers in silica glasses: a review of their properties and structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 75–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

H. Hosono and R. A. Weeks, “Bleaching of peroxy radical in SiO2 glass with 5 eV light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 116(2-3), 289–292 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Åberg, D.

Amossov, A. V.

A. V. Amossov and A. O. Rybaltovsky, “Oxygen deficient centers in silica glasses: a review of their properties and structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 75–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arai, K.

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basu, C.

Bello Doua, R.

Boullet, J.

Boyland, A. J.

Cardinal, T.

Carlson, C. G.

Croteau, A.

Daw, M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dragic, P. D.

Druetta, M.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eden, J. G.

Engholm, M.

Ermeneux, S.

Ferdinand, P.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Foy, P.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goure, J. P.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom and M. Mizuguchi, “Determination of the visible range optical absorption spectrum of peroxy radicals in gamma-irradiated fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 66–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guillen, F.

Handa, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, T.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 1, 15–24 (1998).

Hoffman, H. J.

Honda, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 1, 15–24 (1998).

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hosono and R. A. Weeks, “Bleaching of peroxy radical in SiO2 glass with 5 eV light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 116(2-3), 289–292 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imagawa, H.

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, H.

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, Y.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Isoya, J.

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jetschke, S.

Kajihara, K.

L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 1, 15–24 (1998).

Keister, K. E.

Kirchhof, J.

Kokuoz, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koponen, J. J.

Kumata, K.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, “Processing-induced defects in optical waveguide materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leich, M.

Li, J.

J. W. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, “Processing-induced defects in optical waveguide materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Magne, S.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manek-Hönninger, I.

Matthewson, M. J.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, C.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mizuguchi, M.

D. L. Griscom and M. Mizuguchi, “Determination of the visible range optical absorption spectrum of peroxy radicals in gamma-irradiated fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 66–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Namikawa, H.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Norin, L.

Ouerdane, Y.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pare, C.

C. Pare, “Influence of inner cladding shape and stress-applying parts on the pump absorption of a double-clad fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 5260, 272–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D.

Podgorski, M.

Rybaltovsky, A. O.

A. V. Amossov and A. O. Rybaltovsky, “Oxygen deficient centers in silica glasses: a review of their properties and structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 75–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

Salin, F.

Sanamyan, T.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

Sigel, G. H.

J. W. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, “Processing-induced defects in optical waveguide materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Skuja, L.

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 1, 15–24 (1998).

Söderlund, M. J.

Sones, C.

Stolen, R.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Su, Z.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tammela, S. K. T.

Tritt, T. M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Unger, S.

Weeks, R. A.

H. Hosono and R. A. Weeks, “Bleaching of peroxy radical in SiO2 glass with 5 eV light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 116(2-3), 289–292 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

Zhang, J.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

H. Hosono and R. A. Weeks, “Bleaching of peroxy radical in SiO2 glass with 5 eV light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 116(2-3), 289–292 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of experimental arrangements for the following measurements: (a) Fiber absorption in the ~230-265 nm region, obtained with a UV LED (λpeak ~243 nm); (b) Photoluminescence or excitation spectra acquired with an ultrafast Ti:sapphire laser and optical parametric amplifier (OPA) system in which β-BaB2O4 (BBO) frequency-doubles blue pulses into the ultraviolet. Several experiments were also conducted with a KrF excimer laser (248 nm) as the excitation source; (c) Apparatus for Yb3+ lifetime measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the cladding absorption coefficients (dB/m) on fiber length for Fibers D and E (cf. Table 1). For clarity, data for Fiber D were intentionally reduced uniformly by 100 dB/m. All measurements were recorded for a probe wavelength of nominally 243 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured cladding absorption spectra for Fiber C (green) and Fiber E (red). The least-squares fit of a Gaussian to the Fiber E spectrum yields the dashed black curve having a peak wavelength and spectral breadth of λ0 = 245 nm and Δλ = 19 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of fiber core absorption on the rare earth number density. All of the data were recorded with the LED source operating with a peak emission wavelength of ~243 nm [see text]. Linear least-squares fits to both the Yb and Er data of Table 1 are shown, as are estimated uncertainties for several of the measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectrum recorded over the 200-1100 nm region when a Yb-doped fiber (Fiber C, cf. Table 1) is pumped by a KrF excimer laser (λL = 248.4 nm, ħω ≈5 eV). Representative of the emission observed when any of the Yb-doped silica fibers of this study are photoexcited at 248 nm, this spectrum comprises fluorescence generated by optically-active defects in silica (such as ODC (II)) and Yb3+. Faint emission from NBOHC defects is detected, and all of the prominent features in the spectrum are identified. Note that the λ > 380 nm portion of the spectrum has been magnified in intensity by a factor of two.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra representative of those recorded when the wavelength of the Ti:sapphire/OPA laser system is scanned from 225 nm to 265 nm. Key features in the spectra (including artifacts such as the weak pump signal in second order and Ti:sapphire laser leakage at ~780 nm) are identified. All of the spectra shown were acquired with Fiber C (cf. Table 1).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Laser excitation data acquired in the ~225 - 265 nm wavelength range by monitoring the relative ODC (II) (a) or Yb3+ (panel (b)) fluorescence intensity at ~282 nm and 978 nm, respectively, as the UV laser source (Ti:sapphire/OPA/BBO) wavelength was scanned. The solid curves represent best fits of Eq. (1) to the data and both spectra are normalized to the peak intensity (at ~248 nm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spontaneous emission generated in a Yb-doped fiber (Fiber C, Table 1): (a) the near-infrared (~950 – 1100 nm), and (b) the blue-green region of the spectrum (460-560 nm) by photoexcitation of a Yb-doped fiber (Fiber E, Table 1) at 975 nm. Both spectra were recorded at 90° to the fiber axis and, as a reference, the spectrum of the 975 nm pump for these experiments is shown in red in panel (a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temporal decay of Yb3+ fluorescence following the photoexcitation of three fibers at 975 nm (cf. Figure 1 (c)). Measurements of the Yb3+ spontaneous emission at ~1.06 µm are indicated by the red profiles for Fibers A, D, and E of Table 1. The green curve reflects the temporal history of emission produced near 530 nm by cooperative ion processes (upconversion) in Fiber E. Note that the ordinate in logarithmic.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured dependence of the Yb3+ radiative lifetime τ on the Yb number density of Yb-doped silica fibers. The solid curve represents the best fit of Eq. (2) to the data, which yields the quenching number density, [Yb]q, of 4.1 × 1020 cm−3. Solid circles (●) represent data obtained for the Al/Yb co-doped fibers fabricated by a solution doping process (Fibers A-C, Table 1) whereas the two open circles (○) denote measurements for the Yb:YAG-derived fibers (Fibers D and E, Table 1).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical parameters for the Er or Yb-doped silica fibers investigated in these experiments. The measured peak wavelength (λp) and spectral breadth (FWHM) for the ODC (II) absorption band are also indicated for each fiber. The fluorescence decay constant τ is discussed in in Sect. IIIC.

Equations (2)

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S( λ )= 1 C ( Exp[ AExp[ ( λ λ 0 Δλ/2 2ln2 ) 2 ]L ]1 )
τ= τ 0 1+ ( [Yb]/ [Yb] q ) 2

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