Abstract

We propose the collinear balanced detection (CBD) technique for noise suppression in fiber laser (FL)-based stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. This technique reduces the effect of laser intensity noise at a specific frequency by means of pulse splitting and recombination with a time delay difference. We experimentally confirm that CBD can suppress the intensity noise of second harmonic (SH) of Er-FL pulses by 13dB.The measured noise level including the thermal noise is higher by only ~1.4 dB than the shot noise limit. To demonstrate SRS imaging, we use 4-ps SH pulses and 3-ps Yb-FL pulses, which are synchronized subharmonically with a jitter of 227 fs. The effectiveness of the CBD technique is confirmed through SRS imaging of a cultured HeLa cell.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (4)

W. Umemura, K. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, K. Goto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Subharmonic synchronization of picosecond Yb fiber laser to picosecond Ti:sapphirelaser for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 022702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman hyperspectral imaging based on spectral filtering of broadband fiber laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 431–433 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lefrancois, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, L. Kong, W. J. Wadsworth, P. Schneider, R. Herda, A. Zach, X. Sunney Xie, and F. W. Wise, “Fiber four-wave mixing source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1652–1654 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

E. R. Andresen, P. Berto, and H. Rigneault, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy by spectral focusing and fiber-generated soliton as Stokes pulse,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2387–2389 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (6)

2008 (2)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Heinrich, A. Hofer, A. Ritsch, C. Ciardi, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Selective imaging of saturated and unsaturated lipids by wide-field CARS-microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2699–2708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2001 (2)

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. Sunney Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, and J. P. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Owyoung, “Sensitivity limitations for CW stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 22(3), 323–328 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M.

Andresen, E. R.

Araki, T.

Baumann, E.

Bernet, S.

Berto, P.

Book, L. D.

Cerullo, G.

Cheng, J.-X.

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. Sunney Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciardi, C.

Coddington, I.

Côté, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

Dake, F.

Evans, C. L.

Freudiger, C.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lefrancois, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, L. Kong, W. J. Wadsworth, P. Schneider, R. Herda, A. Zach, X. Sunney Xie, and F. W. Wise, “Fiber four-wave mixing source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1652–1654 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, K.

W. Umemura, K. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, K. Goto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Subharmonic synchronization of picosecond Yb fiber laser to picosecond Ti:sapphirelaser for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 022702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, K.

Gambetta, A.

Ganikhanov, F.

Giorgetta, F. R.

Goto, K.

W. Umemura, K. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, K. Goto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Subharmonic synchronization of picosecond Yb fiber laser to picosecond Ti:sapphirelaser for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 022702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grancini, G.

Hamaguchi, H. O.

Hanke, T.

Hashimoto, M.

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinrich, C.

Herda, R.

Heritage, J. P.

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, and J. P. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, A.

Holman, K. W.

Holtom, G.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtom, G. R.

S. Lefrancois, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, L. Kong, W. J. Wadsworth, P. Schneider, R. Herda, A. Zach, X. Sunney Xie, and F. W. Wise, “Fiber four-wave mixing source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1652–1654 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

Itoh, K.

Jones, D. J.

Jones, R. J.

Kajiyama, S.

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kano, H.

Kawata, S.

Keiding, S. R.

Kieu, K.

Kitagawa, Y.

Kobayashi, M.

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kong, L.

Kovalev, A.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys. 11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, G.

Kukura, P.

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, V.

Lefrancois, S.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, and J. P. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, F.-K.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangoni, M.

Mathies, R. A.

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCamant, D. W.

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, W.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minamikawa, T.

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nandakumar, P.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys. 11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Nielsen, C. K.

Nishizawa, N.

Owyoung, A.

A. Owyoung, “Sensitivity limitations for CW stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 22(3), 323–328 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, Y.

Pernik, D. R.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polli, D.

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puoris’haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramponi, R.

Reichman, J.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigneault, H.

Ritsch, A.

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Saar, B. G.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, P.

Sell, A.

Selm, R.

Shank, C. V.

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, and J. P. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. M.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumimura, K.

Sunney Xie, X.

Swann, W. C.

Tanimoto, N.

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thøgersen, J.

Träutlein, D.

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umemura, W.

Volkmer, A.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys. 11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Winterhalder, M.

Wise, F. W.

Xie, X. S.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Zach, A.

Zhang, X.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zumbusch, A.

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (2)

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimoto, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, and J. P. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Umemura, K. Fujita, Y. Ozeki, K. Goto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Subharmonic synchronization of picosecond Yb fiber laser to picosecond Ti:sapphirelaser for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 022702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys. 11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Owyoung, “Sensitivity limitations for CW stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 22(3), 323–328 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

H. Kano and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Vibrationally resonant imaging of a single living cell by supercontinuum-based multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1322–1327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, Y. Kitagawa, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, W. Umemura, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscope with shot noise limited sensitivity using subharmonically synchronized laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13708–13719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson and M. Andrejco, “A polarization maintaining, dispersion managed, femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8160–8167 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Andresen, C. K. Nielsen, J. Thøgersen, and S. R. Keiding, “Fiber laser-based light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4848–4856 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Heinrich, A. Hofer, A. Ritsch, C. Ciardi, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Selective imaging of saturated and unsaturated lipids by wide-field CARS-microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2699–2708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, F. Dake, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Analysis and experimental assessment of the sensitivity of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3651–3658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (12)

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Krauss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, D. Träutlein, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Selm, M. Winterhalder, and A. Zumbusch, “Compact coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope based on a picosecond two-color Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2847–2849 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gambetta, V. Kumar, G. Grancini, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, and M. Marangoni, “Fiber-format stimulated-Raman-scattering microscopy from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 226–228 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “High-performance, vibration-immune, fiber-laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 638–640 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Andresen, P. Berto, and H. Rigneault, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy by spectral focusing and fiber-generated soliton as Stokes pulse,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2387–2389 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman hyperspectral imaging based on spectral filtering of broadband fiber laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 431–433 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lefrancois, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, L. Kong, W. J. Wadsworth, P. Schneider, R. Herda, A. Zach, X. Sunney Xie, and F. W. Wise, “Fiber four-wave mixing source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1652–1654 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, K. W. Holman, R. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Mode-locked fiber laser frequency-controlled with an intracavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2948–2950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, and S. Kawata, “Molecular vibration imaging in the fingerprint region by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a collinear configuration,” Opt. Lett. 25(24), 1768–1770 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. Sunney Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic Press, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed CBD technique. (a) Principle of the CBD technique; DAL, delay and add line. (b) Arrangement of optical pulses in SRS microscopy with CBD; SRL, stimulated Raman loss.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the FL-based SRS microscopy. LD, laser diode; PZT, piezo-transducer; HWP, half wave plate; QWP, quarter wave plate; YDF, Yb doped fiber; PBS, polarization beam splitter; BPF, band pass filter; G, reflection grating; YDFA, Yb doped fiber amplifier; PD, photo-detector; FL, fiber laser; DM, dichroic mirror; OL, objective lens; OF, optical filter; PM, polarization maintain; EDFA, Er doped fiber amplifier; EDF, Er doped fiber; PPLN, periodically poled LiNbO3; CGF, color glass filter; DAL, delay and add line; EOM, electric-optical modulator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of synchronization experiment. (a) In-loop (upper) and out-of-loop (lower) error signal in time domain. (b) Solid line, spectral densities of in-loop (grey) and out-of-loop (red) error signal; dashed line, integrated error signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RF spectra of the photocurrent generated by the SH pulse train. Blue line, CBD is inactive; red line, CBD is active; grey line, circuit noise; dashed line, theoretical shot noise limit, difference in RF spectra; Green line. Average power of SH pulse, 3.9 mW; resolution bandwidth, 100 kHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SRS images of a cultured HeLa cell. Pixel dwell time, 3 ms; number of pixels, 151 × 151; image size, 30 μm × 30 μm; scale bar, 5 μm. (a)(b) SRS images in 2850 cm−1, which show lipid rich region. (c)(d) SRS images in 2950 cm−1, which show protein. Upper row and lower show the cases where CBD is inactive and active, respectively. (e)(f) Histograms of square areas indicated in (a)(c) and same areas in (c)(d). Red line: with CBD. Black line: without CBD.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i ref (t)= i sig (tτ).
i(t)= i sig (t)+ i ref (t)= i sig (t)+ i sig (tτ).
I(ω)= I sig (ω)+ I ref (ω)= I sig (ω)+ I sig (ω)exp(iωτ),
|I(ω) | 2 =2| I sig (ω) | 2 {1+cos( ωτ 2 )}.

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