Abstract

In proton therapy dosimetry, a fiber-optic radiation sensor incorporating a scintillator must undergo complicated correction processes due to the quenching effect of the scintillator. To overcome the drawbacks of the fiber-optic radiation sensor, we proposed an innovative method using the Cerenkov radiation generated in plastic optical fibers. In this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor without an organic scintillator to measure Cerenkov radiation induced by therapeutic proton beams. Bragg peaks and spread-out Bragg peaks of proton beams were measured using the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor and the results were compared with those of an ionization chamber and a fiber-optic radiation sensor incorporating an organic scintillator. From the results, we could obtain the Bragg peak and the spread-out Bragg peak of proton beams without quenching effects induced by the scintillator, and these results were in good agreement with those of the ionization chamber. We also measured the Cerenkov radiation generated from the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor as a function of the dose rate of the proton beam.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for High-energy beam dosimetry: I. Physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1583–1592 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. C. Konnoff, T. K. Plant, and E. Shiner, “SSPM based radiation sensing: Preliminary laboratory and clinical results,” Radiat. Meas. 46(1), 76–87 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, and A. S. Beddar, “X-ray imaging and detection using plastic scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442(1-3), 428–432 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Mouatassim, G. J. Costa, G. Guillaume, B. Heusch, A. Huck, and M. Moszynski, “The light yield response of NE213 organic scintillators to charged particles resulting from neutron interactions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359(3), 530–536 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. V. O’Rielly, N. R. Kolb, and R. E. Pywell, “The response of plastic scintillator to protons and deuterons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 368(3), 745–749 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Torrisi, “Plastic scintillator investigations for relative dosimetry in proton-therapy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 170(3-4), 523–530 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sensor Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Lee, W. Y. Choi, and J. K. Walker, “Polymer-polymer miscibility study for plastic gradient index optical fiber,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40(9), 1996–1999 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. H. Law, N. Suchowerska, D. R. McKenzie, S. C. Fleming, and T. Lin, “Transmission of Cerenkov radiation in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1205–1207 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. Lee, D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, S. C. Chung, J. W. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and characterizations of Cerenkov light in fiber-optic radiation sensor irradiated by high energy electron beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7980–7982 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, G. R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and elimination of Cherenkov light in fiber-optic scintillating detector for electron beam therapy dosimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 579(1), 344–348 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Guillot, L. Gingras, L. Archambault, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “Spectral method for the correction of the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors: a comparison study of calibration procedures and validation in Cerenkov light-dominated situations,” Med. Phys. 38(4), 2140–2150 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. M. Protopopov and V. G. Vasil’chenko, “Radiation damage in plastic scintillators and optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95(4), 496–500 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. S. Beddar, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry and its application to radiotherapy,” Radiat. Meas. 41, S124–S133 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Broggio, R. Barillon, J.-M. Jung, N. Yasuda, T. Yamauchi, H. Kitamura, and P. Bischoff, “Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with helium, carbon and neon beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 254(1), 3–9 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

D. C. Konnoff, T. K. Plant, and E. Shiner, “SSPM based radiation sensing: Preliminary laboratory and clinical results,” Radiat. Meas. 46(1), 76–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Guillot, L. Gingras, L. Archambault, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “Spectral method for the correction of the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors: a comparison study of calibration procedures and validation in Cerenkov light-dominated situations,” Med. Phys. 38(4), 2140–2150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sensor Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1583–1592 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Law, N. Suchowerska, D. R. McKenzie, S. C. Fleming, and T. Lin, “Transmission of Cerenkov radiation in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1205–1207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, G. R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and elimination of Cherenkov light in fiber-optic scintillating detector for electron beam therapy dosimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 579(1), 344–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Broggio, R. Barillon, J.-M. Jung, N. Yasuda, T. Yamauchi, H. Kitamura, and P. Bischoff, “Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with helium, carbon and neon beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 254(1), 3–9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. S. Beddar, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry and its application to radiotherapy,” Radiat. Meas. 41, S124–S133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, S. C. Chung, J. W. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and characterizations of Cerenkov light in fiber-optic radiation sensor irradiated by high energy electron beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7980–7982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, and A. S. Beddar, “X-ray imaging and detection using plastic scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442(1-3), 428–432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, W. Y. Choi, and J. K. Walker, “Polymer-polymer miscibility study for plastic gradient index optical fiber,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40(9), 1996–1999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Torrisi, “Plastic scintillator investigations for relative dosimetry in proton-therapy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 170(3-4), 523–530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. V. O’Rielly, N. R. Kolb, and R. E. Pywell, “The response of plastic scintillator to protons and deuterons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 368(3), 745–749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. Mouatassim, G. J. Costa, G. Guillaume, B. Heusch, A. Huck, and M. Moszynski, “The light yield response of NE213 organic scintillators to charged particles resulting from neutron interactions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359(3), 530–536 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Protopopov and V. G. Vasil’chenko, “Radiation damage in plastic scintillators and optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95(4), 496–500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for High-energy beam dosimetry: I. Physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Shamma’a, A. I.

S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sensor Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, L.

M. Guillot, L. Gingras, L. Archambault, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “Spectral method for the correction of the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors: a comparison study of calibration procedures and validation in Cerenkov light-dominated situations,” Med. Phys. 38(4), 2140–2150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1583–1592 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attix, F. H.

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for High-energy beam dosimetry: I. Physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barillon, R.

D. Broggio, R. Barillon, J.-M. Jung, N. Yasuda, T. Yamauchi, H. Kitamura, and P. Bischoff, “Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with helium, carbon and neon beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 254(1), 3–9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartesaghi, G.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beaulieu, L.

M. Guillot, L. Gingras, L. Archambault, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “Spectral method for the correction of the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors: a comparison study of calibration procedures and validation in Cerenkov light-dominated situations,” Med. Phys. 38(4), 2140–2150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1583–1592 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beddar, A. S.

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1583–1592 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Beddar, “Plastic scintillation dosimetry and its application to radiotherapy,” Radiat. Meas. 41, S124–S133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, and A. S. Beddar, “X-ray imaging and detection using plastic scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442(1-3), 428–432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for High-energy beam dosimetry: I. Physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beddar, S.

M. Guillot, L. Gingras, L. Archambault, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “Spectral method for the correction of the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors: a comparison study of calibration procedures and validation in Cerenkov light-dominated situations,” Med. Phys. 38(4), 2140–2150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, R.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, P.

D. Broggio, R. Barillon, J.-M. Jung, N. Yasuda, T. Yamauchi, H. Kitamura, and P. Bischoff, “Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with helium, carbon and neon beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 254(1), 3–9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brichard, B.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Broggio, D.

D. Broggio, R. Barillon, J.-M. Jung, N. Yasuda, T. Yamauchi, H. Kitamura, and P. Bischoff, “Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with helium, carbon and neon beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 254(1), 3–9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cappelletti, P.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D. H.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, G. R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and elimination of Cherenkov light in fiber-optic scintillating detector for electron beam therapy dosimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 579(1), 344–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, S. C. Chung, J. W. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and characterizations of Cerenkov light in fiber-optic radiation sensor irradiated by high energy electron beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7980–7982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, G. R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and elimination of Cherenkov light in fiber-optic scintillating detector for electron beam therapy dosimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 579(1), 344–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, S. C. Chung, J. W. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and characterizations of Cerenkov light in fiber-optic radiation sensor irradiated by high energy electron beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7980–7982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. Y.

B. Lee, W. Y. Choi, and J. K. Walker, “Polymer-polymer miscibility study for plastic gradient index optical fiber,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40(9), 1996–1999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. C.

B. Lee, D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, S. C. Chung, J. W. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and characterizations of Cerenkov light in fiber-optic radiation sensor irradiated by high energy electron beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7980–7982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S.-C.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, G. R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and elimination of Cherenkov light in fiber-optic scintillating detector for electron beam therapy dosimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 579(1), 344–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Conti, V.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Costa, G. J.

S. Mouatassim, G. J. Costa, G. Guillaume, B. Heusch, A. Huck, and M. Moszynski, “The light yield response of NE213 organic scintillators to charged particles resulting from neutron interactions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359(3), 530–536 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dusseau, L.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

El-Rabii, H.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, A. F.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fitzpatrick, C.

S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sensor Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, S. C.

Frigerio, M.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gelosa, S.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giannini, G.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gingras, L.

M. Guillot, L. Gingras, L. Archambault, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “Spectral method for the correction of the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors: a comparison study of calibration procedures and validation in Cerenkov light-dominated situations,” Med. Phys. 38(4), 2140–2150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1583–1592 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glaser, M.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guillaume, G.

S. Mouatassim, G. J. Costa, G. Guillaume, B. Heusch, A. Huck, and M. Moszynski, “The light yield response of NE213 organic scintillators to charged particles resulting from neutron interactions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359(3), 530–536 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, M.

M. Guillot, L. Gingras, L. Archambault, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “Spectral method for the correction of the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors: a comparison study of calibration procedures and validation in Cerenkov light-dominated situations,” Med. Phys. 38(4), 2140–2150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heusch, B.

S. Mouatassim, G. J. Costa, G. Guillaume, B. Heusch, A. Huck, and M. Moszynski, “The light yield response of NE213 organic scintillators to charged particles resulting from neutron interactions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359(3), 530–536 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huck, A.

S. Mouatassim, G. J. Costa, G. Guillaume, B. Heusch, A. Huck, and M. Moszynski, “The light yield response of NE213 organic scintillators to charged particles resulting from neutron interactions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359(3), 530–536 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ikhlef, A.

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, and A. S. Beddar, “X-ray imaging and detection using plastic scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442(1-3), 428–432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K. W.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, G. R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and elimination of Cherenkov light in fiber-optic scintillating detector for electron beam therapy dosimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 579(1), 344–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, S. C. Chung, J. W. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and characterizations of Cerenkov light in fiber-optic radiation sensor irradiated by high energy electron beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7980–7982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.-M.

D. Broggio, R. Barillon, J.-M. Jung, N. Yasuda, T. Yamauchi, H. Kitamura, and P. Bischoff, “Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with helium, carbon and neon beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 254(1), 3–9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, G. R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and elimination of Cherenkov light in fiber-optic scintillating detector for electron beam therapy dosimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 579(1), 344–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, S. C. Chung, J. W. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and characterizations of Cerenkov light in fiber-optic radiation sensor irradiated by high energy electron beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7980–7982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kinsella, T. J.

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, H.

D. Broggio, R. Barillon, J.-M. Jung, N. Yasuda, T. Yamauchi, H. Kitamura, and P. Bischoff, “Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with helium, carbon and neon beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 254(1), 3–9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, N. R.

G. V. O’Rielly, N. R. Kolb, and R. E. Pywell, “The response of plastic scintillator to protons and deuterons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 368(3), 745–749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Konnoff, D. C.

D. C. Konnoff, T. K. Plant, and E. Shiner, “SSPM based radiation sensing: Preliminary laboratory and clinical results,” Radiat. Meas. 46(1), 76–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, F.

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1583–1592 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, S. H.

Lee, B.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, G. R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and elimination of Cherenkov light in fiber-optic scintillating detector for electron beam therapy dosimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 579(1), 344–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, S. C. Chung, J. W. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and characterizations of Cerenkov light in fiber-optic radiation sensor irradiated by high energy electron beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7980–7982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, W. Y. Choi, and J. K. Walker, “Polymer-polymer miscibility study for plastic gradient index optical fiber,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40(9), 1996–1999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

B. Lee, D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, S. C. Chung, J. W. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and characterizations of Cerenkov light in fiber-optic radiation sensor irradiated by high energy electron beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7980–7982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, E.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sensor Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.

Mackie, T. R.

A. S. Beddar, T. R. Mackie, and F. H. Attix, “Water-equivalent plastic scintillation detectors for High-energy beam dosimetry: I. Physical characteristics and theoretical consideration,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(10), 1883–1900 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mascagna, V.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, D. R.

Monti, A.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. H.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moszynski, M.

S. Mouatassim, G. J. Costa, G. Guillaume, B. Heusch, A. Huck, and M. Moszynski, “The light yield response of NE213 organic scintillators to charged particles resulting from neutron interactions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359(3), 530–536 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mouatassim, S.

S. Mouatassim, G. J. Costa, G. Guillaume, B. Heusch, A. Huck, and M. Moszynski, “The light yield response of NE213 organic scintillators to charged particles resulting from neutron interactions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 359(3), 530–536 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mozzanica, A.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Keeffe, S.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sensor Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Rielly, G. V.

G. V. O’Rielly, N. R. Kolb, and R. E. Pywell, “The response of plastic scintillator to protons and deuterons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 368(3), 745–749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ostinelli, A.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. G.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Plant, T. K.

D. C. Konnoff, T. K. Plant, and E. Shiner, “SSPM based radiation sensing: Preliminary laboratory and clinical results,” Radiat. Meas. 46(1), 76–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prest, M.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Protopopov, Y. M.

Y. M. Protopopov and V. G. Vasil’chenko, “Radiation damage in plastic scintillators and optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95(4), 496–500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pywell, R. E.

G. V. O’Rielly, N. R. Kolb, and R. E. Pywell, “The response of plastic scintillator to protons and deuterons,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 368(3), 745–749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ravotti, F.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1583–1592 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scazzi, S.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. H.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shiner, E.

D. C. Konnoff, T. K. Plant, and E. Shiner, “SSPM based radiation sensing: Preliminary laboratory and clinical results,” Radiat. Meas. 46(1), 76–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sibata, C. H.

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skowronek, M.

A. Ikhlef, M. Skowronek, and A. S. Beddar, “X-ray imaging and detection using plastic scintillating fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 442(1-3), 428–432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suchowerska, N.

Tack, G. R.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, G. R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and elimination of Cherenkov light in fiber-optic scintillating detector for electron beam therapy dosimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 579(1), 344–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tack, G.-R.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torrisi, L.

L. Torrisi, “Plastic scintillator investigations for relative dosimetry in proton-therapy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 170(3-4), 523–530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Totaro, P.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaille, J.-R.

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vallazza, E.

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vasil’chenko, V. G.

Y. M. Protopopov and V. G. Vasil’chenko, “Radiation damage in plastic scintillators and optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 95(4), 496–500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. K.

B. Lee, W. Y. Choi, and J. K. Walker, “Polymer-polymer miscibility study for plastic gradient index optical fiber,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40(9), 1996–1999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, T.

D. Broggio, R. Barillon, J.-M. Jung, N. Yasuda, T. Yamauchi, H. Kitamura, and P. Bischoff, “Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with helium, carbon and neon beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 254(1), 3–9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, N.

D. Broggio, R. Barillon, J.-M. Jung, N. Yasuda, T. Yamauchi, H. Kitamura, and P. Bischoff, “Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with helium, carbon and neon beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 254(1), 3–9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J. H.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, W. J.

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, G. R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and elimination of Cherenkov light in fiber-optic scintillating detector for electron beam therapy dosimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 579(1), 344–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fusion Eng. Des. (1)

A. F. Fernandez, B. Brichard, S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, J.-R. Vaille, L. Dusseau, D. A. Jackson, F. Ravotti, M. Glaser, and H. El-Rabii, “Real-time fiber optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors,” Fusion Eng. Des. 83(1), 50–59 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (3)

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, G.-R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Characterization of one-dimensional fiber-optic scintillating detectors for electron-beam therapy dosimetry,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2627–2631 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, S. H. Shin, H. S. Kim, J. H. Yi, S. Kim, H. Cho, B. G. Park, J. H. Moon, and S. Kim, “Measurement of two-dimensional photon beam distributions using a fiber-optic radiation sensor for small field radiation therapy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(5), 2632–2636 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Beddar, T. J. Kinsella, A. Ikhlef, and C. H. Sibata, “A miniature ‘scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT’ detector system for the dosimetry of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48(3), 924–928 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Lee, D. H. Cho, K. W. Jang, S. C. Chung, J. W. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and characterizations of Cerenkov light in fiber-optic radiation sensor irradiated by high energy electron beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(10A), 7980–7982 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (2)

M. Guillot, L. Gingras, L. Archambault, S. Beddar, and L. Beaulieu, “Spectral method for the correction of the Cerenkov light effect in plastic scintillation detectors: a comparison study of calibration procedures and validation in Cerenkov light-dominated situations,” Med. Phys. 38(4), 2140–2150 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Archambault, A. S. Beddar, L. Gingras, F. Lacroix, R. Roy, and L. Beaulieu, “Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy,” Med. Phys. 34(5), 1583–1592 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Lee, K. W. Jang, D. H. Cho, W. J. Yoo, G. R. Tack, S.-C. Chung, S. Kim, and H. Cho, “Measurements and elimination of Cherenkov light in fiber-optic scintillating detector for electron beam therapy dosimetry,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 579(1), 344–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartesaghi, V. Conti, M. Prest, V. Mascagna, S. Scazzi, P. Cappelletti, M. Frigerio, S. Gelosa, A. Monti, A. Ostinelli, A. Mozzanica, R. Bevilacqua, G. Giannini, P. Totaro, and E. Vallazza, “A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 572(1), 228–230 (2007).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (3)

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Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

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S. O’Keeffe, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, and A. I. Al-Shamma’a, “A review of optical fibre radiation dosimeters,” Sensor Rev. 28(2), 136–142 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Subtraction method to limit the irradiated length of POF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linearity between scintillation yields of the FORS and outputs of the Marcus chamber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured relative depth doses for Bragg peak and SOBP of proton beams using scintillation yields generated from the FORS (a) Bragg peak, (b) SOBP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linearity between Cerenkov light yields of the FOCRS and outputs of the Marcus chamber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured relative depth doses for Bragg peak and SOBP of proton beams using Cerenkov light yields generated from the FOCRS (a) Bragg peak, (b) SOBP.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Responses of FOCRS according to dose rates of proton beam.

Equations (2)

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R 2 =1 ( y i f i ) 2 ( y i y m ) 2 .
dL dx = S× dE dx 1+kB dE dx .

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