Abstract

The physics of high harmonics has led to the generation of attosecond pulses and to trains of attosecond pulses. Measurements that confirm the pulse duration are all performed in the far field. All pulse duration measurements tacitly assume that both the beam’s wavefront and intensity profile are independent of frequency. However, if one or both are frequency dependent, then the retrieved pulse duration depends on the location where the measurement is made. We measure that each harmonic is very close to a Gaussian, but we also find that both the intensity profile and the beam wavefront depend significantly on the harmonic order. Thus, our findings mean that the pulse duration will depend on where the pulse is observed. Measurement of spectrally resolved wavefronts along with temporal characterization at one single point in the beam would enable complete space-time reconstruction of attosecond pulses. Future attosecond science experiments need not be restricted to spatially averaged observables. Our approach paves the way to recovery of the single molecule response to the strong field.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2009

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Frumker, G. G. Paulus, H. Niikura, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Frequency-resolved high-harmonic wavefront characterization,” Opt. Lett.34, 3026–3028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

C. Valentin, J. Gautier, J Goddet, C. Hauri, T. Marchenko, E. Papalazarou, G. Rey, S. Sebban, O. Scrick, P. Zeitoun, G. Dovillaire, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, and M. Fajardo, “High-order harmonic wave fronts generated with controlled astigmatic infrared laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, B161–B166 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Guhr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N-2,” Science322, 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Lee, J. J. Park, J. H. Sung, and C. H. Nam, “Wave-front phase measurements of high-order harmonic beams by use of point-diffraction interferometry,” Opt. Lett.28, 480–482 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59, 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic-generation,” Phys. Rev. A52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arrell, C. A.

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Auge, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, D. R.

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Baik, M.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59, 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bellini, M.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Guhr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N-2,” Science322, 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucourt, S.

Carre, B.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christov, I. P.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Constant, E.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59, 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

E. Frumker, G. G. Paulus, H. Niikura, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Frequency-resolved high-harmonic wavefront characterization,” Opt. Lett.34, 3026–3028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Bohan, A.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, L. C.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dovillaire, G.

Drescher, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fajardo, M.

Farrell, J. P.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Guhr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N-2,” Science322, 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, F.

Frasinski, L. J.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frumker, E.

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59, 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, J.

Goddet, J

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2005).

Green, H.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Guhr, M.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Guhr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N-2,” Science322, 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C.

Heinzmann, U.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C. M.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. T.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovacev, M.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59, 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59, 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic-generation,” Phys. Rev. A52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, A. T.

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. G.

Levecq, X.

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic-generation,” Phys. Rev. A52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. D.

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. W.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lock, R.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucchese, R. R.

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lynga, C.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

Marchenko, T.

McFarland, B. K.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Guhr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N-2,” Science322, 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monchicourt, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morishita, T.

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Nam, C. H.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lee, J. J. Park, J. H. Sung, and C. H. Nam, “Wave-front phase measurements of high-order harmonic beams by use of point-diffraction interferometry,” Opt. Lett.28, 480–482 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niikura, H.

E. Frumker, G. G. Paulus, H. Niikura, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Frequency-resolved high-harmonic wavefront characterization,” Opt. Lett.34, 3026–3028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papalazarou, E.

Park, J. J.

Patchkovskii, S.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

Pepin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quéré, F.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rey, G.

Salières, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic-generation,” Phys. Rev. A52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59, 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59, 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scrick, O.

Scrinzi, A.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sebban, S.

Smirnova, O.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolow, A.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, J. H.

Taieb, R.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tisch, J. W.

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonzani, S.

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tozzi, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umesh, G.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valentin, C.

Villeneuve, D. M.

E. Frumker, G. G. Paulus, H. Niikura, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Frequency-resolved high-harmonic wavefront characterization,” Opt. Lett.34, 3026–3028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahlstrom, C. G.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Westerwalbesloh, T.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witting, T.

Wyatt, A. S.

Yakovlev, V.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitoun, P.

Zhou, X.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460, 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80, 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic-generation,” Phys. Rev. A52, 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A59, 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C. G. Wahlstrom, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carre, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302, 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Guhr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N-2,” Science322, 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimentally reconstructed spectral wavefront phase and amplitude at the slit position for different harmonics. The harmonics H15 (data points plotted as ’x’) and H21 (data points plotted as '◇') are shown in red and blue respectively. The phase data points are interpolated by the dashed line, and the measured amplitude data points are shown interpolated by solid line. The background signal arises from stray light. (b) The difference between the fitted parabolic phase and the measured phase.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Relative waist position (δZ) as a function of harmonic order. The error bar is shown within 95% confidence bounds. The insert illustrates that different harmonics “originate” from different positions in space. The meaning of the parameters δZ and Z13 is illustrated in the inset. (b) The beam waist size w0N as a function of harmonic order. The error bar is shown within 95% confidence bounds.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial-temporal coupling. Panel (e) shows the selected harmonics near their focal position assuming a focusing mirror of focal length f=100mm placed a the position of the scanning slit. We see that different harmonics focus at different positions and have different divergence. Panel (f) shows the Gouy phase of the same harmonics around the focus. Assuming transform limited pulse at the center of the focusing mirror (z = 0, R = 0 -panel (d)) we can determine the pulses temporal profile at any position. Panels (a), (b) and (c) show respective pulses at Z = 155mm, R = 0 (panel (a)); Z = 165mm, R = 0 (panel (b)) and Z = 0, R = 300μ (panel (c)). In (a)–(d) the field strength is normalized to unity. Red, green and blue colors show the results for 13, 19 and 23 harmonic respectively.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E h h g ( r , z , t ) = | E ( r , z , ω N ) | exp i [ φ N ( r 0 , z 0 ) + ϕ N ( r , z ) + N ω 0 t ]
ϕ N ( r , z jet ) = ϕ t ( I ( r , z jet ) , ω N ) | α N | I ( r , z jet ) + ϕ r ( ω N , z jet ) + N ϕ fund ( r , z jet )

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