Abstract

A new scheme is proposed to measure the electro-optical (EO) and converse-piezoelectric (CPE) coefficients of the PMN-PT ceramics simultaneously, in which the PMN-PT ceramics acts as the guiding layer of a symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. As the applied electric field exerts on the waveguide, the effective refractive index (RI) (or synchronous angle) can be effectively tuned from a selected mode to another adjacent mode owing to the high sensitivity and the small spacing of the ultra-high order modes. Subsequently, a correlation between EO and CPE coefficients is established. With this correlation and the measurement of the effective RI change to the applied voltage, the quadratic EO and CPE coefficients of PMN-PT ceramics are obtained simultaneously. The obtained results are further checked by fitting the variations of effective RI to a quadratic function. Our measurement method can be extended to a wide range of other materials.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

L. Qiao, Q. Ye, J. L. Gan, H. W. Cai, and R. H. Qu, “Optical characteristics of transparent PMNT ceramic and its application at high speed electro-optic switch,” Opt. Commun. 284(16-17), 3886–3890 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, A. Bellemain, and F. Bridou, “Simulatneous characterization of the electro-optic, converse-piezoelectirc, and electroabsorptive effects in epitaxial (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. T. Lin, B. Ren, X. Y. Zhao, D. Zhou, J. Chen, X. B. Li, H. Q. Xu, D. Lin, and H. S. Luo, “Large quadratic electro-optic properties of ferroelectric base 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 single crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 507(2), 425–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Y. L. Lu and C. Gao, “Optical limiting in lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Lim, P. B. Phua, W. J. Lai, and M. H. Hong, “Fast switchable electro-optic radial polarization retarder,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 950–952 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Q. Cao, and Q. S. Shen, “An intensity measurement refractometer based on a symmetric metal-clad waveguide structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. J. He, W. W. Ge, X. Y. Zhao, H. Q. Xu, H. S. Luo, and Z. X. Zhou, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic effect in tetragonal lead magnesium niobate lead titanate single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. He, Z. X. Zhou, D. J. Liu, X. Y. Zhao, and H. S. Luo, “Photorefractive effect in relaxor ferroelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

H. F. Lu, Z. Q. Cao, H. G. Li, and Q. S. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4579–4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. G. Li, Z. Q. Cao, H. F. Lu, and Q. S. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2757–2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

B. Noheda, D. E. Cox, G. Shirane, J. Gao, and Z. G. Ye, “Phase diagram of the ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 66(5), 054104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kurihara and K. Suzuki, “Theoretical understanding of an absorption-based surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Kretchmann’s theory,” Anal. Chem. 74(3), 696–701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Zhang, B. Jiang, and W. Cao, “Elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of multidomain 0.67 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(7), 3471–3475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamura, K. Matsuura, H. Ashida, K. Kondo, and S. Otani, “Hysteresis variations of (Pb, La)(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors baked in a hydrogen atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3395–3397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. E. Park and T. R. Shrout, “Ultrahigh strain and piezoelectric behavior in relaxor based ferroelectric single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(4), 1804–1811 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

O. Noblanc, P. Gaucher, and G. Calvarin, “Structural and dielectric studies of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ferroelectric solid solutions around the morphotropic boundary,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4291–4297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. W. Choi, T. R. Shrout, S. J. Jang, and A. S. Bhalla, “Morphotropic phase boundary in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 system,” Mater. Lett. 8(6-7), 253–255 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

G. H. Haertling, “PLZT electro-optic materials and applications – a review,” Ferroelectrics 75(1), 25–55 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Ashida, H.

T. Tamura, K. Matsuura, H. Ashida, K. Kondo, and S. Otani, “Hysteresis variations of (Pb, La)(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors baked in a hydrogen atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3395–3397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bellemain, A.

M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, A. Bellemain, and F. Bridou, “Simulatneous characterization of the electro-optic, converse-piezoelectirc, and electroabsorptive effects in epitaxial (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhalla, A. S.

S. W. Choi, T. R. Shrout, S. J. Jang, and A. S. Bhalla, “Morphotropic phase boundary in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 system,” Mater. Lett. 8(6-7), 253–255 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bridou, F.

M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, A. Bellemain, and F. Bridou, “Simulatneous characterization of the electro-optic, converse-piezoelectirc, and electroabsorptive effects in epitaxial (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cai, H. W.

L. Qiao, Q. Ye, J. L. Gan, H. W. Cai, and R. H. Qu, “Optical characteristics of transparent PMNT ceramic and its application at high speed electro-optic switch,” Opt. Commun. 284(16-17), 3886–3890 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Calvarin, G.

O. Noblanc, P. Gaucher, and G. Calvarin, “Structural and dielectric studies of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ferroelectric solid solutions around the morphotropic boundary,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4291–4297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

R. Zhang, B. Jiang, and W. Cao, “Elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of multidomain 0.67 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(7), 3471–3475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z. Q.

J. H. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Q. Cao, and Q. S. Shen, “An intensity measurement refractometer based on a symmetric metal-clad waveguide structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Z. Q. Cao, Q. S. Shen, X. X. Deng, B. M. Duan, W. Yuan, M. H. Sang, and S. Q. Wang, “Picometer displacement sensing using the ultrahigh-order modes in a submillimeter scale optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10061–10065 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Lu, Z. Q. Cao, H. G. Li, and Q. S. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4579–4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Li, Z. Q. Cao, H. F. Lu, and Q. S. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2757–2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Chen, G.

J. H. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Q. Cao, and Q. S. Shen, “An intensity measurement refractometer based on a symmetric metal-clad waveguide structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Y. T. Lin, B. Ren, X. Y. Zhao, D. Zhou, J. Chen, X. B. Li, H. Q. Xu, D. Lin, and H. S. Luo, “Large quadratic electro-optic properties of ferroelectric base 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 single crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 507(2), 425–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. M.

Chen, Q.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Transparent electro-optic ceramics and devices,” Proc. SPIE 5644, 380–394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. P.

Choi, S. W.

S. W. Choi, T. R. Shrout, S. J. Jang, and A. S. Bhalla, “Morphotropic phase boundary in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 system,” Mater. Lett. 8(6-7), 253–255 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cox, D. E.

B. Noheda, D. E. Cox, G. Shirane, J. Gao, and Z. G. Ye, “Phase diagram of the ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 66(5), 054104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cuniot-Ponsard, M.

M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, A. Bellemain, and F. Bridou, “Simulatneous characterization of the electro-optic, converse-piezoelectirc, and electroabsorptive effects in epitaxial (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deng, X. X.

Desvignes, J. M.

M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, A. Bellemain, and F. Bridou, “Simulatneous characterization of the electro-optic, converse-piezoelectirc, and electroabsorptive effects in epitaxial (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Drehman, A. J.

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duan, B. M.

Gan, J. L.

L. Qiao, Q. Ye, J. L. Gan, H. W. Cai, and R. H. Qu, “Optical characteristics of transparent PMNT ceramic and its application at high speed electro-optic switch,” Opt. Commun. 284(16-17), 3886–3890 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

Y. L. Lu and C. Gao, “Optical limiting in lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

B. Noheda, D. E. Cox, G. Shirane, J. Gao, and Z. G. Ye, “Phase diagram of the ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 66(5), 054104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gaucher, P.

O. Noblanc, P. Gaucher, and G. Calvarin, “Structural and dielectric studies of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ferroelectric solid solutions around the morphotropic boundary,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4291–4297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaynor, B.

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ge, W. W.

C. J. He, W. W. Ge, X. Y. Zhao, H. Q. Xu, H. S. Luo, and Z. X. Zhou, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic effect in tetragonal lead magnesium niobate lead titanate single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, J. H.

J. H. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Q. Cao, and Q. S. Shen, “An intensity measurement refractometer based on a symmetric metal-clad waveguide structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haertling, G. H.

G. H. Haertling, “PLZT electro-optic materials and applications – a review,” Ferroelectrics 75(1), 25–55 (1987).
[CrossRef]

He, C. J.

C. J. He, W. W. Ge, X. Y. Zhao, H. Q. Xu, H. S. Luo, and Z. X. Zhou, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic effect in tetragonal lead magnesium niobate lead titanate single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. He, Z. X. Zhou, D. J. Liu, X. Y. Zhao, and H. S. Luo, “Photorefractive effect in relaxor ferroelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. H.

Hsu, C.

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. J.

S. W. Choi, T. R. Shrout, S. J. Jang, and A. S. Bhalla, “Morphotropic phase boundary in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 system,” Mater. Lett. 8(6-7), 253–255 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, B.

R. Zhang, B. Jiang, and W. Cao, “Elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of multidomain 0.67 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(7), 3471–3475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Transparent electro-optic ceramics and devices,” Proc. SPIE 5644, 380–394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

T. Tamura, K. Matsuura, H. Ashida, K. Kondo, and S. Otani, “Hysteresis variations of (Pb, La)(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors baked in a hydrogen atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3395–3397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, K.

K. Kurihara and K. Suzuki, “Theoretical understanding of an absorption-based surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Kretchmann’s theory,” Anal. Chem. 74(3), 696–701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, W. J.

Li, H. G.

H. F. Lu, Z. Q. Cao, H. G. Li, and Q. S. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4579–4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Li, Z. Q. Cao, H. F. Lu, and Q. S. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2757–2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. K.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Transparent electro-optic ceramics and devices,” Proc. SPIE 5644, 380–394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. B.

Y. T. Lin, B. Ren, X. Y. Zhao, D. Zhou, J. Chen, X. B. Li, H. Q. Xu, D. Lin, and H. S. Luo, “Large quadratic electro-optic properties of ferroelectric base 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 single crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 507(2), 425–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, B. C.

Lin, D.

Y. T. Lin, B. Ren, X. Y. Zhao, D. Zhou, J. Chen, X. B. Li, H. Q. Xu, D. Lin, and H. S. Luo, “Large quadratic electro-optic properties of ferroelectric base 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 single crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 507(2), 425–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. T.

Y. T. Lin, B. Ren, X. Y. Zhao, D. Zhou, J. Chen, X. B. Li, H. Q. Xu, D. Lin, and H. S. Luo, “Large quadratic electro-optic properties of ferroelectric base 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 single crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 507(2), 425–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D. J.

C. J. He, Z. X. Zhou, D. J. Liu, X. Y. Zhao, and H. S. Luo, “Photorefractive effect in relaxor ferroelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. F.

H. F. Lu, Z. Q. Cao, H. G. Li, and Q. S. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4579–4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Li, Z. Q. Cao, H. F. Lu, and Q. S. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2757–2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. L.

Y. L. Lu and C. Gao, “Optical limiting in lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H. S.

Y. T. Lin, B. Ren, X. Y. Zhao, D. Zhou, J. Chen, X. B. Li, H. Q. Xu, D. Lin, and H. S. Luo, “Large quadratic electro-optic properties of ferroelectric base 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 single crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 507(2), 425–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. J. He, W. W. Ge, X. Y. Zhao, H. Q. Xu, H. S. Luo, and Z. X. Zhou, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic effect in tetragonal lead magnesium niobate lead titanate single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. He, Z. X. Zhou, D. J. Liu, X. Y. Zhao, and H. S. Luo, “Photorefractive effect in relaxor ferroelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, K.

T. Tamura, K. Matsuura, H. Ashida, K. Kondo, and S. Otani, “Hysteresis variations of (Pb, La)(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors baked in a hydrogen atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3395–3397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noblanc, O.

O. Noblanc, P. Gaucher, and G. Calvarin, “Structural and dielectric studies of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ferroelectric solid solutions around the morphotropic boundary,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4291–4297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noheda, B.

B. Noheda, D. E. Cox, G. Shirane, J. Gao, and Z. G. Ye, “Phase diagram of the ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 66(5), 054104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Otani, S.

T. Tamura, K. Matsuura, H. Ashida, K. Kondo, and S. Otani, “Hysteresis variations of (Pb, La)(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors baked in a hydrogen atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3395–3397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. E.

S. E. Park and T. R. Shrout, “Ultrahigh strain and piezoelectric behavior in relaxor based ferroelectric single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(4), 1804–1811 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phua, P. B.

Qiao, L.

L. Qiao, Q. Ye, J. L. Gan, H. W. Cai, and R. H. Qu, “Optical characteristics of transparent PMNT ceramic and its application at high speed electro-optic switch,” Opt. Commun. 284(16-17), 3886–3890 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qu, R. H.

L. Qiao, Q. Ye, J. L. Gan, H. W. Cai, and R. H. Qu, “Optical characteristics of transparent PMNT ceramic and its application at high speed electro-optic switch,” Opt. Commun. 284(16-17), 3886–3890 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, B.

Y. T. Lin, B. Ren, X. Y. Zhao, D. Zhou, J. Chen, X. B. Li, H. Q. Xu, D. Lin, and H. S. Luo, “Large quadratic electro-optic properties of ferroelectric base 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 single crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 507(2), 425–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sang, M. H.

Shen, Q. S.

J. H. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Q. Cao, and Q. S. Shen, “An intensity measurement refractometer based on a symmetric metal-clad waveguide structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Z. Q. Cao, Q. S. Shen, X. X. Deng, B. M. Duan, W. Yuan, M. H. Sang, and S. Q. Wang, “Picometer displacement sensing using the ultrahigh-order modes in a submillimeter scale optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10061–10065 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Lu, Z. Q. Cao, H. G. Li, and Q. S. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4579–4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Li, Z. Q. Cao, H. F. Lu, and Q. S. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2757–2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shirane, G.

B. Noheda, D. E. Cox, G. Shirane, J. Gao, and Z. G. Ye, “Phase diagram of the ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 66(5), 054104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shrout, T. R.

S. E. Park and T. R. Shrout, “Ultrahigh strain and piezoelectric behavior in relaxor based ferroelectric single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(4), 1804–1811 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Choi, T. R. Shrout, S. J. Jang, and A. S. Bhalla, “Morphotropic phase boundary in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 system,” Mater. Lett. 8(6-7), 253–255 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

K. Kurihara and K. Suzuki, “Theoretical understanding of an absorption-based surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Kretchmann’s theory,” Anal. Chem. 74(3), 696–701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, T.

T. Tamura, K. Matsuura, H. Ashida, K. Kondo, and S. Otani, “Hysteresis variations of (Pb, La)(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors baked in a hydrogen atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3395–3397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Q.

Wang, S.-Q.

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Transparent electro-optic ceramics and devices,” Proc. SPIE 5644, 380–394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. Q.

Y. T. Lin, B. Ren, X. Y. Zhao, D. Zhou, J. Chen, X. B. Li, H. Q. Xu, D. Lin, and H. S. Luo, “Large quadratic electro-optic properties of ferroelectric base 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 single crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 507(2), 425–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. J. He, W. W. Ge, X. Y. Zhao, H. Q. Xu, H. S. Luo, and Z. X. Zhou, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic effect in tetragonal lead magnesium niobate lead titanate single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Q.

L. Qiao, Q. Ye, J. L. Gan, H. W. Cai, and R. H. Qu, “Optical characteristics of transparent PMNT ceramic and its application at high speed electro-optic switch,” Opt. Commun. 284(16-17), 3886–3890 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z. G.

B. Noheda, D. E. Cox, G. Shirane, J. Gao, and Z. G. Ye, “Phase diagram of the ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 66(5), 054104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yip, P.

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, W.

Zhang, R.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Transparent electro-optic ceramics and devices,” Proc. SPIE 5644, 380–394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhang, B. Jiang, and W. Cao, “Elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of multidomain 0.67 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(7), 3471–3475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. Y.

Y. T. Lin, B. Ren, X. Y. Zhao, D. Zhou, J. Chen, X. B. Li, H. Q. Xu, D. Lin, and H. S. Luo, “Large quadratic electro-optic properties of ferroelectric base 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 single crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 507(2), 425–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. J. He, W. W. Ge, X. Y. Zhao, H. Q. Xu, H. S. Luo, and Z. X. Zhou, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic effect in tetragonal lead magnesium niobate lead titanate single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. He, Z. X. Zhou, D. J. Liu, X. Y. Zhao, and H. S. Luo, “Photorefractive effect in relaxor ferroelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

Y. T. Lin, B. Ren, X. Y. Zhao, D. Zhou, J. Chen, X. B. Li, H. Q. Xu, D. Lin, and H. S. Luo, “Large quadratic electro-optic properties of ferroelectric base 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 single crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 507(2), 425–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z. X.

C. J. He, Z. X. Zhou, D. J. Liu, X. Y. Zhao, and H. S. Luo, “Photorefractive effect in relaxor ferroelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. He, W. W. Ge, X. Y. Zhao, H. Q. Xu, H. S. Luo, and Z. X. Zhou, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic effect in tetragonal lead magnesium niobate lead titanate single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y. K.

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Transparent electro-optic ceramics and devices,” Proc. SPIE 5644, 380–394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

K. Kurihara and K. Suzuki, “Theoretical understanding of an absorption-based surface plasmon resonance sensor based on Kretchmann’s theory,” Anal. Chem. 74(3), 696–701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

H. G. Li, Z. Q. Cao, H. F. Lu, and Q. S. Shen, “Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2757–2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Lu, Z. Q. Cao, H. G. Li, and Q. S. Shen, “Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4579–4581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamura, K. Matsuura, H. Ashida, K. Kondo, and S. Otani, “Hysteresis variations of (Pb, La)(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors baked in a hydrogen atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3395–3397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y.-L. Lu, B. Gaynor, C. Hsu, G. Jin, M. Cronin-Golomb, F. Wang, J. Zhao, S.-Q. Wang, P. Yip, and A. J. Drehman, “Structural and electro-optic properties in lead magnesium niobate titanate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(20), 3038–3040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lu and C. Gao, “Optical limiting in lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. He, Z. X. Zhou, D. J. Liu, X. Y. Zhao, and H. S. Luo, “Photorefractive effect in relaxor ferroelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

G. H. Haertling, “PLZT electro-optic materials and applications – a review,” Ferroelectrics 75(1), 25–55 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

Y. T. Lin, B. Ren, X. Y. Zhao, D. Zhou, J. Chen, X. B. Li, H. Q. Xu, D. Lin, and H. S. Luo, “Large quadratic electro-optic properties of ferroelectric base 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 single crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 507(2), 425–428 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

C. J. He, W. W. Ge, X. Y. Zhao, H. Q. Xu, H. S. Luo, and Z. X. Zhou, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic effect in tetragonal lead magnesium niobate lead titanate single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Park and T. R. Shrout, “Ultrahigh strain and piezoelectric behavior in relaxor based ferroelectric single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(4), 1804–1811 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhang, B. Jiang, and W. Cao, “Elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of multidomain 0.67 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(7), 3471–3475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Noblanc, P. Gaucher, and G. Calvarin, “Structural and dielectric studies of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ferroelectric solid solutions around the morphotropic boundary,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4291–4297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Cuniot-Ponsard, J. M. Desvignes, A. Bellemain, and F. Bridou, “Simulatneous characterization of the electro-optic, converse-piezoelectirc, and electroabsorptive effects in epitaxial (Sr, Ba)Nb2O6 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

J. H. Gu, G. Chen, Z. Q. Cao, and Q. S. Shen, “An intensity measurement refractometer based on a symmetric metal-clad waveguide structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(18), 185105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

S. W. Choi, T. R. Shrout, S. J. Jang, and A. S. Bhalla, “Morphotropic phase boundary in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 system,” Mater. Lett. 8(6-7), 253–255 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Qiao, Q. Ye, J. L. Gan, H. W. Cai, and R. H. Qu, “Optical characteristics of transparent PMNT ceramic and its application at high speed electro-optic switch,” Opt. Commun. 284(16-17), 3886–3890 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. Noheda, D. E. Cox, G. Shirane, J. Gao, and Z. G. Ye, “Phase diagram of the ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 66(5), 054104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Jiang, Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, K. K. Li, R. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Transparent electro-optic ceramics and devices,” Proc. SPIE 5644, 380–394 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. K. Zou, Q. S. Chen, R. Zhang, K. K. Li, and H. Jiang, “Low voltage, high repetition rate electro-optic Q-switch,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CTuZ5.

K. K. Li, Y. Lu, and Q. Wang, “Electro-optic ceramic material and device,” U.S. patent 6, 890, 874B1 (2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of SMCW. The PMN-PT ceramics is sandwiched by two sliver films which act as the cladding and the electrodes to supply electric field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Theoretical variation of synchronous angles in response to the applied voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experiment arrangement for simultaneously measuring the EO and CPE coefficients of PMN-PT ceramics. PD: photodiode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Measured resonance dips as a function of the angle of incidence for various applied voltages.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The variation of effective RI related to various applied voltages. The quadratic curve was obtained by fitting the experiment data to Eq. (6). The red closed triangles and the blue open triangles coresspond to the left and right shift of synchronous angles in Fig. 4, respectively.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

κ 2 m h 2 =mπ, m=0,1,2 ,
β m = k 0 n air sin θ m ,
ΔN= n 2 N Δ n 2 + n 2 2 N 2 N h 2 Δ h 2 ,
Δ n 2 =Δ n 20 n 2 3 2 [ γ( V h 2 )+S ( V h 2 ) 2 ],
Δ n 2 = 1 2 n 2 3 S 33 ( V h 2 ) 2 ,
Δ h 2 = d 33 h 2 ( V h 2 ),
ΔN=A V 2 +BV,
{ A= 1 2 n 2 4 N h 2 2 S 33 B= n 2 2 N 2 N h 2 d 33
κ 2 m+1 ( h 2 +Δ h 2 )=( m+1 )π,
( κ 2 m+1 κ 2 m ) h 2 + κ 2 m+1 Δ h 2 =π,
κ 2 m+1 κ 2 m = n 2 k 0 2 Δ n 2 κ 2 ,
k 0 2 2 κ 2 n 2 4 h 2 ( V c h 2 ) 2 S 33 + κ 2 h 2 ( V c h 2 ) d 33 =π,

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