Abstract

We present systematic investigations of harmonic generation in Argon, driven in the vicinity of a five-photon resonance by intense, tunable picosecond radiation pulses. When properly matching the laser frequency with the Stark-shifted multi-photon resonance, we observe a pronounced enhancement not only of the 5th, but also the 7th and 9th harmonic of the driving laser (i.e. at orders higher than the involved multi-photon resonance). We study the harmonic yield at different intensities and wavelengths of the driving laser to determine optimal conditions for resonantly-enhanced harmonic generation.

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  1. E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: Evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(4), 406–409 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).
  3. A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, and L. A. Lompré, “Coherence and resonance effects in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(2), 166–169 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. S. Toma, P. Antoine, A. Bohan, and H. G. Muller, “Resonance-enhanced high-harmonic generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(24), 5843–5852 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Barkauskas, F. Brandi, F. Giammanco, D. Neshev, A. Pirri, and W. Ubachs, “A novel-type tunable and narrowband extreme ultraviolet radiation source based on high-harmonic conversion of picosecond laser pulses,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1151–1155 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Ganeev, “Generation of high-order harmonics of high-power lasers in plasmas produced under irradiation of solid target surfaces by a prepulse,“Phys.- Usp. 52(1), 55–77 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Taïeb, V. Véniard, J. Wassaf, and A. Maquet, “Roles of resonances and recollisions in strong-field atomic phenomena. II. High-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(3), 033403 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Plummer and C. J. Noble, “Resonant enhancement of harmonic generation in argon at 248 nm,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(2), L51–L58 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Enhancement of many high-order harmonics via a single multiphoton resonance,” Phys. Rev. A 64(1), 013820 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitation (Wiley, 1990).

2009 (1)

R. Ganeev, “Generation of high-order harmonics of high-power lasers in plasmas produced under irradiation of solid target surfaces by a prepulse,“Phys.- Usp. 52(1), 55–77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Barkauskas, F. Brandi, F. Giammanco, D. Neshev, A. Pirri, and W. Ubachs, “A novel-type tunable and narrowband extreme ultraviolet radiation source based on high-harmonic conversion of picosecond laser pulses,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1151–1155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Taïeb, V. Véniard, J. Wassaf, and A. Maquet, “Roles of resonances and recollisions in strong-field atomic phenomena. II. High-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(3), 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Plummer and C. J. Noble, “Resonant enhancement of harmonic generation in argon at 248 nm,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(2), L51–L58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Enhancement of many high-order harmonics via a single multiphoton resonance,” Phys. Rev. A 64(1), 013820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. S. Toma, P. Antoine, A. Bohan, and H. G. Muller, “Resonance-enhanced high-harmonic generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(24), 5843–5852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: Evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(4), 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, and L. A. Lompré, “Coherence and resonance effects in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(2), 166–169 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

Agostini, P.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: Evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(4), 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, P.

E. S. Toma, P. Antoine, A. Bohan, and H. G. Muller, “Resonance-enhanced high-harmonic generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(24), 5843–5852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: Evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(4), 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, and L. A. Lompré, “Coherence and resonance effects in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(2), 166–169 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barkauskas, M.

M. Barkauskas, F. Brandi, F. Giammanco, D. Neshev, A. Pirri, and W. Ubachs, “A novel-type tunable and narrowband extreme ultraviolet radiation source based on high-harmonic conversion of picosecond laser pulses,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1151–1155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

C. de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bohan, A.

E. S. Toma, P. Antoine, A. Bohan, and H. G. Muller, “Resonance-enhanced high-harmonic generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(24), 5843–5852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brandi, F.

M. Barkauskas, F. Brandi, F. Giammanco, D. Neshev, A. Pirri, and W. Ubachs, “A novel-type tunable and narrowband extreme ultraviolet radiation source based on high-harmonic conversion of picosecond laser pulses,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1151–1155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: Evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(4), 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambaret, J.-P.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: Evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(4), 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Morisson Faria, C.

C. de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gaarde, M.

M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Enhancement of many high-order harmonics via a single multiphoton resonance,” Phys. Rev. A 64(1), 013820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R.

R. Ganeev, “Generation of high-order harmonics of high-power lasers in plasmas produced under irradiation of solid target surfaces by a prepulse,“Phys.- Usp. 52(1), 55–77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giammanco, F.

M. Barkauskas, F. Brandi, F. Giammanco, D. Neshev, A. Pirri, and W. Ubachs, “A novel-type tunable and narrowband extreme ultraviolet radiation source based on high-harmonic conversion of picosecond laser pulses,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1151–1155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

Kopold, R.

C. de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, and L. A. Lompré, “Coherence and resonance effects in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(2), 166–169 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lompré, L. A.

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, and L. A. Lompré, “Coherence and resonance effects in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(2), 166–169 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maquet, A.

R. Taïeb, V. Véniard, J. Wassaf, and A. Maquet, “Roles of resonances and recollisions in strong-field atomic phenomena. II. High-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(3), 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mevel, E.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: Evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(4), 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migus, A.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: Evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(4), 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

E. S. Toma, P. Antoine, A. Bohan, and H. G. Muller, “Resonance-enhanced high-harmonic generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(24), 5843–5852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neshev, D.

M. Barkauskas, F. Brandi, F. Giammanco, D. Neshev, A. Pirri, and W. Ubachs, “A novel-type tunable and narrowband extreme ultraviolet radiation source based on high-harmonic conversion of picosecond laser pulses,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1151–1155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noble, C. J.

M. Plummer and C. J. Noble, “Resonant enhancement of harmonic generation in argon at 248 nm,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(2), L51–L58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: Evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(4), 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pirri, A.

M. Barkauskas, F. Brandi, F. Giammanco, D. Neshev, A. Pirri, and W. Ubachs, “A novel-type tunable and narrowband extreme ultraviolet radiation source based on high-harmonic conversion of picosecond laser pulses,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1151–1155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Plummer, M.

M. Plummer and C. J. Noble, “Resonant enhancement of harmonic generation in argon at 248 nm,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(2), L51–L58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rost, J.

C. de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K.

M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Enhancement of many high-order harmonics via a single multiphoton resonance,” Phys. Rev. A 64(1), 013820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taïeb, R.

R. Taïeb, V. Véniard, J. Wassaf, and A. Maquet, “Roles of resonances and recollisions in strong-field atomic phenomena. II. High-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(3), 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toma, E. S.

E. S. Toma, P. Antoine, A. Bohan, and H. G. Muller, “Resonance-enhanced high-harmonic generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(24), 5843–5852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trainham, R.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: Evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(4), 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ubachs, W.

M. Barkauskas, F. Brandi, F. Giammanco, D. Neshev, A. Pirri, and W. Ubachs, “A novel-type tunable and narrowband extreme ultraviolet radiation source based on high-harmonic conversion of picosecond laser pulses,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1151–1155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Véniard, V.

R. Taïeb, V. Véniard, J. Wassaf, and A. Maquet, “Roles of resonances and recollisions in strong-field atomic phenomena. II. High-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(3), 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wassaf, J.

R. Taïeb, V. Véniard, J. Wassaf, and A. Maquet, “Roles of resonances and recollisions in strong-field atomic phenomena. II. High-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(3), 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

M. Barkauskas, F. Brandi, F. Giammanco, D. Neshev, A. Pirri, and W. Ubachs, “A novel-type tunable and narrowband extreme ultraviolet radiation source based on high-harmonic conversion of picosecond laser pulses,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144-147, 1151–1155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

E. S. Toma, P. Antoine, A. Bohan, and H. G. Muller, “Resonance-enhanced high-harmonic generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(24), 5843–5852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Plummer and C. J. Noble, “Resonant enhancement of harmonic generation in argon at 248 nm,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35(2), L51–L58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. Gaarde and K. Schafer, “Enhancement of many high-order harmonics via a single multiphoton resonance,” Phys. Rev. A 64(1), 013820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Taïeb, V. Véniard, J. Wassaf, and A. Maquet, “Roles of resonances and recollisions in strong-field atomic phenomena. II. High-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 68(3), 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. L’Huillier, P. Balcou, and L. A. Lompré, “Coherence and resonance effects in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(2), 166–169 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: Evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(4), 406–409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys.- Usp. (1)

R. Ganeev, “Generation of high-order harmonics of high-power lasers in plasmas produced under irradiation of solid target surfaces by a prepulse,“Phys.- Usp. 52(1), 55–77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

Other (1)

B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitation (Wiley, 1990).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coupling scheme in Argon atoms with relevant energy levels. The short designation (5p/5p’) indicates the manifold of closely spaced states 5p’ [3/2]2, 5p [1/2]0, 5p [3/2]2 and 5p [5/2]2. Full arrows depict the driving laser at 524 nm, dashed arrows indicate the 5th, 7th and 9th harmonics, as investigated in the experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the experimental setup with some details of the home-made, four stage (S1-S4) dye amplifier chain. (BS: beam sampler, VBS: variable beam splitter, CL: cylindrical lens, PM: power meter).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Yield of the fifth harmonic vs. driving laser wavelength for different laser intensities. Raw data after averaging 20 laser shots and low pass filtering. For better visibility, the harmonic yields for laser intensities at 5 TW/cm2 and 20 TW/cm2 are scaled up by factors of 80 and 10, respectively. The arrow in the graph for lowest intensity at 5 TW/cm2 indicates the spectral position of the five-photon resonance 3p6 1S0 → 4s’ [1/2]1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Harmonic spectra at different wavelengths of the driving laser, tuned in the vicinity of the Stark-shifted five-photon resonance 3p6 1S0 → 4s’ [1/2]1. Raw data after averaging 20 laser shots, but without filtering.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Harmonic spectra at different wavelengths of the driving laser, tuned in the vicinity of the Stark-shifted five-photon resonance 3p6 1S0 → 4s’ [1/2]1.

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