Abstract

In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave adapter designed by transformation optics, which can control the propagation of SPP waves on un-even surfaces. The proposed plasmonic device is constructed using homogeneously tunable materials (e.g. liquid crystals) so that the corresponding SPP wave transmission can be reconfigured by applying different voltages. Additionally, modified designs optimized for practical fabrication parameters are investigated. Their performance is verified by full-wave simulations. The proposed devices will pave the way towards developing tunable plasmonic devices.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Efficient coupling between dielectric and hybrid plasmonic waveguides by multimode interference power splitter,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 321–328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Surface plasmon wave adapter designed with transformation optics,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4359–4364 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, X. Guan, Y. He, Y. Shi, Z. Wang, S. He, P. Holmstrom, L. Wosinski, L. Thylen, and D. Dai, “Sub-um2 power splitters by using silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 838–847 (2011).

H. Lu, X. Liu, L. Wang, Y. Gong, and D. Mao, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in nanoplasmonic waveguide with Kerr nonlinear resonator,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2910–2915 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. He, L. Yang, and T. Yang, “Optical nanofocusing by tapering coupled photonic-plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(14), 12865–12872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (12)

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yang, R. A. Wahsheh, Z. Lu, and M. A. G. Abushagur, “Efficient light coupling between dielectric slot waveguide and plasmonic slot waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 649–651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pannipitiya, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, H. T. Hattori, and G. P. Agrawal, “Improved transmission model for metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides with stub structure,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6191–6204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kadic, S. Guenneau, and S. Enoch, “Transformational plasmonics: cloak, concentrator and rotator for SPPs,” Opt. Express 18(11), 12027–12032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Song, J. Wang, Q. Li, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband coupler between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13173–13179 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Renger, M. Kadic, G. Dupont, S. S. Aćimović, S. Guenneau, R. Quidant, and S. Enoch, “Hidden progress: broadband plasmonic invisibility,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15757–15768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle and S. Longhi, “Graded index surface-plasmon-polariton devices for subwavelength light management,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Transformation optics for plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1985–1990 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (11)

G. Veronis, S. E. Kocabas, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modeling of plasmonic waveguide components and networks,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6(8), 1808–1826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baumeier, T. A. Leskova, and A. A. Maradudin, “Cloaking from Surface Plasmon Polaritons by a Circular Array of Point Scatterers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 246803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Kinzel and X. Xu, “High efficiency excitation of plasmonic waveguides with vertically integrated resonant bowtie apertures,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8036–8045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Mei and T. J. Cui, “Experimental realization of a broadband bend structure using gradient index metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18354–18363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Wahsheh, Z. Lu, and M. A. G. Abushagur, “Nanoplasmonic couplers and splitters,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19033–19040 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu and S. C. Chen, “Direct-write of microlens array using digital projection photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2003 (1)

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, “High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(6A), 3463–3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of a surface polariton in a wedge-like structure,” Phys. Lett. A 237(1-2), 103–105 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abushagur, M. A. G.

Acimovic, S. S.

Agrawal, G. P.

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baumeier, B.

B. Baumeier, T. A. Leskova, and A. A. Maradudin, “Cloaking from Surface Plasmon Polaritons by a Circular Array of Point Scatterers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 246803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. C.

Y. Lu and S. C. Chen, “Direct-write of microlens array using digital projection photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Mei and T. J. Cui, “Experimental realization of a broadband bend structure using gradient index metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18354–18363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1 doi:.
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, R.

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, “High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(6A), 3463–3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Della Valle, G.

G. Della Valle and S. Longhi, “Graded index surface-plasmon-polariton devices for subwavelength light management,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dupont, G.

Elezzabi, A. Y.

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

Ergin, T.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Veronis, S. E. Kocabas, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modeling of plasmonic waveguide components and networks,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6(8), 1808–1826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Modes of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(9), 2511–2521 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fox, D. W.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Transformation optics for plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1985–1990 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, “High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(6A), 3463–3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
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Guenneau, S.

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He, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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He, S.

He, X.

He, Y.

Holmstrom, P.

Huidobro, P. A.

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Transformation optics for plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1985–1990 (2010).
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Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kadic, M.

Kinzel, E. C.

Kocabas, S. E.

G. Veronis, S. E. Kocabas, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modeling of plasmonic waveguide components and networks,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6(8), 1808–1826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leskova, T. A.

B. Baumeier, T. A. Leskova, and A. A. Maradudin, “Cloaking from Surface Plasmon Polaritons by a Circular Array of Point Scatterers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 246803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
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J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

Li, X.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 321–328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
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G. Della Valle and S. Longhi, “Graded index surface-plasmon-polariton devices for subwavelength light management,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153411 (2010).
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Y. Lu and S. C. Chen, “Direct-write of microlens array using digital projection photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041109 (2008).
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Ma, H. F.

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1 doi:.
[CrossRef]

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, D.

Maradudin, A. A.

B. Baumeier, T. A. Leskova, and A. A. Maradudin, “Cloaking from Surface Plasmon Polaritons by a Circular Array of Point Scatterers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 246803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Transformation optics for plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1985–1990 (2010).
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Mei, Z. L.

Mikkelsen, M. H.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A. B.

G. Veronis, S. E. Kocabas, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modeling of plasmonic waveguide components and networks,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6(8), 1808–1826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Zhang, S. Xiao, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Surface plasmon wave adapter designed with transformation optics,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4359–4364 (2011).
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P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Transformation optics for plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1985–1990 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oulton, R. F.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 321–328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
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Pannipitiya, A.

Pendry, J. B.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Premaratne, M.

Qiu, M.

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Efficient coupling between dielectric and hybrid plasmonic waveguides by multimode interference power splitter,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, J. Wang, Q. Li, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband coupler between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13173–13179 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Ren, H.

Renger, J.

Rukhlenko, I. D.

Sederberg, S.

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seed, A. J.

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, “High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(6A), 3463–3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Shin, W.

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Y.

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Efficient coupling between dielectric and hybrid plasmonic waveguides by multimode interference power splitter,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, J. Wang, Q. Li, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband coupler between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13173–13179 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thylen, L.

Valentine, J.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van, V.

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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G. Veronis, S. E. Kocabas, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modeling of plasmonic waveguide components and networks,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6(8), 1808–1826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023902 (2008).
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G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Modes of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(9), 2511–2521 (2007).
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Wang, H.

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, “High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(6A), 3463–3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

Wang, Y.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011), doi:.
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J. Wang, X. Guan, Y. He, Y. Shi, Z. Wang, S. He, P. Holmstrom, L. Wosinski, L. Thylen, and D. Dai, “Sub-um2 power splitters by using silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 838–847 (2011).

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, C. H.

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, “High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(6A), 3463–3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Wu, B.

Wu, S. T.

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, “High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(6A), 3463–3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Wubs, M.

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Surface plasmon wave adapter designed with transformation optics,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4359–4364 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Surface plasmon wave adapter designed with transformation optics,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4359–4364 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Yan, M.

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Efficient coupling between dielectric and hybrid plasmonic waveguides by multimode interference power splitter,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, J. Wang, Q. Li, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband coupler between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13173–13179 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Yang, R.

Yang, T.

Yang, X.

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 321–328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, Z.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 321–328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Surface plasmon wave adapter designed with transformation optics,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4359–4364 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 321–328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Surface plasmon wave adapter designed with transformation optics,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4359–4364 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

W. Cai, W. Shin, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Elements for plasmonic nanocircuits with three-dimensional slot waveguides,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(45), 5120–5124 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu and S. C. Chen, “Direct-write of microlens array using digital projection photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. (1)

G. Veronis, S. E. Kocabas, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Modeling of plasmonic waveguide components and networks,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6(8), 1808–1826 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. (1)

Y. Song, J. Wang, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Efficient coupling between dielectric and hybrid plasmonic waveguides by multimode interference power splitter,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Gauza, H. Wang, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, A. J. Seed, and R. Dabrowski, “High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(6A), 3463–3466 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (5)

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Transformational plasmon optics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1991–1997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Huidobro, M. L. Nesterov, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Transformation optics for plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1985–1990 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 321–328 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

V. J. Sorger, Z. Ye, R. F. Oulton, Y. Wang, G. Bartal, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of low-loss optical waveguiding at deep sub-wavelength scales,” Nat. Commun. 2, 331 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ma and T. J. Cui, “Three-dimensional broadband ground-plane cloak made of metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 1 doi:.
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, M. H. Mikkelsen, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic Luneburg and Eaton lenses,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 151–155 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

E-field of SPP wave: (a) On even surface. (b) On un-even surface. (c) On un-even surface with transformation optics based SPP wave adapter. (d) Calculated refractive index distribution of the optic wave adapter shown in Fig. 1(c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) 2D side view of the proposed reconfigurable SPP device. (b) 3D view of the proposed reconfigurable SPP device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated refractive index distribution: (a) Originally proposed SPP wave adapter. (b) Truncated SPP wave adapter with refractive index 1.48< n ≤1.788. (c) Truncated SPP wave adapter with both refractive index and cell height confined within a certain range. (d) Modified SPP wave adapter with SSLF method applied to the design in (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated SPP wave propagation within the proposed 3D SPP devices: (a) Proposed SPP wave adapter with ideal parameters. (b) Modified SPP wave adapter with refractive index 1.48< n ≤1.788. (c) Modified SPP wave adapter with both refractive index and cell height confined within a certain range. (d) Modified SPP wave adapter with SSLF method applied.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated refractive index distribution of the proposed SPP device under different biasing voltages: (a) 25V. (b) 24V. (c) 22V. E-field of SPP wave propagation within the proposed device under different biasing voltages: (d) 25V. (e) 24V. (f) 22V.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distribution of scattered electric field intensity for different types of SPP devices.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Distribution of scattered electric field intensity for the proposed reconfigurable SPP device under different biasing voltages.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Heights and Refractive Indices of Top Row Cells Before and After the Application of SSLF Methoda

Equations (2)

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y=A× ( cos( π× x B ) cos( π× B w ) ) 8
D= V max /( E diff n diff ( n n min ) )

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