Abstract

A conformal phosphor coating can realize a phosphor layer with uniform thickness, which could enhance the angular color uniformity (ACU) of light-emitting diode (LED) packaging. In this study, a novel freeform lens was designed for simultaneous realization of LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating. The detailed algorithm of the design method, which involves an extended light source and double refractions, was presented. The packaging configuration of the LED modules and the modeling of the light-conversion process were also presented. Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations were conducted to validate the design method by comparisons with a conventional freeform lens. It is demonstrated that for the LED module with the present freeform lens, the illumination uniformity and ACU was 0.89 and 0.9283, respectively. The present freeform lens can realize equivalent illumination uniformity, but the angular color uniformity can be enhanced by 282.3% when compared with the conventional freeform lens.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

H. Zheng, X. B. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. M. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).

2011 (5)

2010 (7)

2009 (6)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).

S. Tonzani, “Lighting technology: Time to change the bulb,” Nature 459(7245), 312–314 (2009).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2, 119–140 (2009).

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illuminance quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).

2008 (3)

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12958–12966 (2008).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).

2007 (3)

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).

B. Hou, H. B. Rao, and J. F. Li, “Phosphor coating technique with slurry method in application of white LED,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 684106 (2007).

L. Wang, K. Qian, and Y. Luo, “Discontinuous free-form lens design for prescribed irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3716–3723 (2007).

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).

2004 (1)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).

2001 (2)

H. Ries and J. Muschaweck, “Tailoring freeform lenses for illumination,” Proc. SPIE 4442, 43–50 (2001).

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al4O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).

Benítez, P.

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Y. Liu, J. Infante, J. Chaves, and W. Lin, “Applications of the SMS method to design of compact optics,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 771701 (2010).

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).

Blen, J.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).

Braune, B.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).

Cao, B.

Chaves, J.

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Y. Liu, J. Infante, J. Chaves, and W. Lin, “Applications of the SMS method to design of compact optics,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 771701 (2010).

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).

Chen, F.

Denbaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).

Ding, Y.

Dross, O.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).

Falicoff, W.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).

Feng, H.

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).

Fu, X.

Gu, P. F.

Hartmann, P.

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, and F. P. Wenzl, “The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2285–2291 (2011).

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).

Hernández, M.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).

Hoschopf, H.

Hou, B.

B. Hou, H. B. Rao, and J. F. Li, “Phosphor coating technique with slurry method in application of white LED,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 684106 (2007).

Hu, R.

H. Zheng, X. B. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. M. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).

Infante, J.

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Y. Liu, J. Infante, J. Chaves, and W. Lin, “Applications of the SMS method to design of compact optics,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 771701 (2010).

Kaempf, M.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).

Krenn, J. R.

Kromotis, P.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).

Lee, S.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al4O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).

Leising, G.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).

Li, J. F.

B. Hou, H. B. Rao, and J. F. Li, “Phosphor coating technique with slurry method in application of white LED,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 684106 (2007).

Lin, W.

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Y. Liu, J. Infante, J. Chaves, and W. Lin, “Applications of the SMS method to design of compact optics,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 771701 (2010).

Liu, J. Y.

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Y. Liu, J. Infante, J. Chaves, and W. Lin, “Applications of the SMS method to design of compact optics,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 771701 (2010).

Liu, S.

H. Zheng, X. B. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. M. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).

S. Wang, K. Wang, F. Chen, and S. Liu, “Design of primary optics for LED chip array in road lighting application,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A716–A724 (2011).

K. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Qin, F. Chen, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “New reversing design method for LED uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A830–A840 (2011).

Z. Qin, K. Wang, F. Chen, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Analysis of condition for uniform lighting generated by array of light emitting diodes with large view angle,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17460–17476 (2010).

F. Chen, K. Wang, Z. Qin, D. Wu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Design method of high-efficient LED headlamp lens,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20926–20938 (2010).

K. Wang, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Design of compact freeform lens for application specific light-emitting diode packaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 413–425 (2010).

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 247–257 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2, 119–140 (2009).

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illuminance quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).

Liu, X.

Liu, Z. Y.

K. Wang, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Design of compact freeform lens for application specific light-emitting diode packaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 413–425 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 247–257 (2010).

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2, 119–140 (2009).

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illuminance quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).

Luo, X. B.

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).

H. Zheng, X. B. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. M. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).

K. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Qin, F. Chen, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “New reversing design method for LED uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A830–A840 (2011).

Z. Qin, K. Wang, F. Chen, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Analysis of condition for uniform lighting generated by array of light emitting diodes with large view angle,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17460–17476 (2010).

F. Chen, K. Wang, Z. Qin, D. Wu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Design method of high-efficient LED headlamp lens,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20926–20938 (2010).

K. Wang, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Design of compact freeform lens for application specific light-emitting diode packaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 413–425 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 247–257 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2, 119–140 (2009).

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illuminance quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).

Luo, Y.

Miñano, J. C.

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Y. Liu, J. Infante, J. Chaves, and W. Lin, “Applications of the SMS method to design of compact optics,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 771701 (2010).

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).

Mohedano, R.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).

Muschaweck, J.

H. Ries and J. Muschaweck, “Tailoring freeform lenses for illumination,” Proc. SPIE 4442, 43–50 (2001).

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, “Is solid-state lighting ready for the incandescent lamp phase-out?” Proc. SPIE 8123, 812302 (2011).

Pachler, P.

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, and F. P. Wenzl, “The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2285–2291 (2011).

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).

Petersen, K.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).

Qian, K.

Qin, Z.

Rao, H. B.

B. Hou, H. B. Rao, and J. F. Li, “Phosphor coating technique with slurry method in application of white LED,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 684106 (2007).

Reil, F.

Ries, H.

H. Ries and J. Muschaweck, “Tailoring freeform lenses for illumination,” Proc. SPIE 4442, 43–50 (2001).

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).

Schweighart, M.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).

Seo, S. Y.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al4O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).

Sommer, C.

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, and F. P. Wenzl, “The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2285–2291 (2011).

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).

Strauss, J.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).

Sung, Y. E.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al4O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).

Tasch, S.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).

Tonzani, S.

S. Tonzani, “Lighting technology: Time to change the bulb,” Nature 459(7245), 312–314 (2009).

Wang, K.

S. Wang, K. Wang, F. Chen, and S. Liu, “Design of primary optics for LED chip array in road lighting application,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A716–A724 (2011).

K. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Qin, F. Chen, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “New reversing design method for LED uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A830–A840 (2011).

F. Chen, K. Wang, Z. Qin, D. Wu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Design method of high-efficient LED headlamp lens,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20926–20938 (2010).

Z. Qin, K. Wang, F. Chen, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Analysis of condition for uniform lighting generated by array of light emitting diodes with large view angle,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17460–17476 (2010).

K. Wang, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Design of compact freeform lens for application specific light-emitting diode packaging,” Opt. Express 18(2), 413–425 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 247–257 (2010).

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2, 119–140 (2009).

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illuminance quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).

Wang, L.

Wang, S.

Wang, Y. M.

Wenzl, F. P.

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, and F. P. Wenzl, “The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2285–2291 (2011).

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).

Wu, D.

Yum, J. H.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al4O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).

Zheng, H.

Zheng, Z. R.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Front. Optoelectron. China (1)

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging,” Front. Optoelectron. China 2, 119–140 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Lumin. (1)

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Feng, and S. Liu, “Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lumin. 132(5), 1252–1256 (2012).

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).

Nature (1)

S. Tonzani, “Lighting technology: Time to change the bulb,” Nature 459(7245), 312–314 (2009).

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illuminance quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48(12), 123002 (2009).

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).

Proc. SPIE (6)

J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Y. Liu, J. Infante, J. Chaves, and W. Lin, “Applications of the SMS method to design of compact optics,” Proc. SPIE 7717, 771701 (2010).

H. Ries and J. Muschaweck, “Tailoring freeform lenses for illumination,” Proc. SPIE 4442, 43–50 (2001).

N. Narendran, “Is solid-state lighting ready for the incandescent lamp phase-out?” Proc. SPIE 8123, 812302 (2011).

B. Hou, H. B. Rao, and J. F. Li, “Phosphor coating technique with slurry method in application of white LED,” Proc. SPIE 6841, 684106 (2007).

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al4O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white light-emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).

Other (4)

S. Liu and X. B. Luo, LED Packaging for Lighting Applications: Design, Manufacturing and Testing (John Wiley & Sons, 2011).

L. Piegl and W. Tiller, The NURBS Book, 2nd ed. (Springer, 1996).

B. P. Loh, N. W. Medendorp, Jr., P. Andrews, Y. Fu, M. Laughner, and R. Letoquin, “Method of uniform phosphor chip coating and LED package fabricated using method,” US Patent 20080079017 A1 (2008).

W. D. Collins, M. R. Krames, G. J. Verhoeckx, and N. J. M. Leth, “Using electrophoresis to produce a conformal coated phosphor-converted light emitting semiconductor,” US Patent 6576488 (2001).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) LED packaging module with conventional freeform lens, and (b) LED packaging module with novel freeform lens applied to conformal phosphor coating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of light–energy mapping between the light source and the target plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of typical light path from the light source to the target plane through the present freeform lens. The inner surface is a cylinder and the outer surface is freeform.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Specific light paths from the light source to the target plane through the present freeform lens. Phosphor silicone matrix is filled in the interspace between the light source and inner surface of the lens. Blue lines are the typical light paths. Red dashed lines are the normal plane and green dashed lines are the tangent plane. Point AT is the turning point of the inner surface. αx(x = i,j) and βx(x = i,j) are the incident angle and refraction angle on the inner surface, respectively. ψx(x = i,j) and ωx(x = i,j) are the incident angle and refraction angle on the outer surface, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of point generation on the outer surface of the present freeform lens. Red dashed lines are the normal plane and green boxes are the tangent plane of the points on the outer surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Packaging configuration of LED module with present freeform lens. (b)Structure of conventional GaN LED chip.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Lighting performance of the present freeform lens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Lighting performance of the conventional freeform lens.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of light intensity of YBR and ACU in the whole radiation angle between the LED modules with the present freeform lens and the conventional freeform lens.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ(θ)= 0 2π θ i θ i+1 I(θ,φ)sinθdθdφ ,
Φ total = 0 π 2 Φ(θ)dθ ,
0 θ i 2πI(θ)sinθdθ=i Φ total M ,(i=1,2,,M).
π r i 2 =i C i π L 2 M ,(i=1,2,,M).
r i =L i C i M .
n 1 OA | OA | × N 1 = n 2 AB | AB | × N 1 ,
n 2 AB | AB | × N 2 = n 3 BR | BR | × N 2 ,
n 1 sin α x = n 2 sin β x ,( x=i,j ),
n 2 sin ψ x = n 3 sin ω x ,(x=i,j).

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