Abstract

We deployed two wavelength calibrators based on laser frequency combs (“astro-combs”) at an astronomical telescope. One astro-comb operated over a 100 nm band in the deep red (∼ 800 nm) and a second operated over a 20 nm band in the blue (∼ 400 nm). We used these red and blue astro-combs to calibrate a high-resolution astrophysical spectrograph integrated with a 1.5 m telescope, and demonstrated calibration precision and stability sufficient to enable detection of changes in stellar radial velocity < 1 m/s.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Osterman, S. Diddams, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in “Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III,” Proc. SPIE,  66931G, 1–9 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  17. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. N. E. Piskunov and J. A. Valenti, “New algorithms for reducing cross-dispersed echelle spectra,” Astron. Astrophys. 385, 1095–1106 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s−1,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Lovis and F. Pepe, “A new list of thorium and argon spectral lines in the visible,” Astron. Astrophys. 468, 1115–1121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. R. Hunter and L. W. Ramsey, “Scrambling properties of optical fibers and the performance of a double scrambler,” Proc. Astro. Soc. Pac. 104, 1244–1251 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 12736–12747 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Philips, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
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  27. C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, D. F. Philips, F. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry-Perot cavity pair for astro-combs,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2012).
  28. A. Sandage, “The change of redshift and apparent luminosity of galaxies due to the deceleration of selected expanding universes,” Astrophys. J. 136, 319–333 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Loeb, “Direct measurement of cosmological parameters from the cosmic deceleration of extragalactic objects,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 499, L111–L1114 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, D. F. Philips, F. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry-Perot cavity pair for astro-combs,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2012).

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, and S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25 GHz near-ir laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry–Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 34, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Euro. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Osterman, S. Diddams, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in “Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III,” Proc. SPIE,  66931G, 1–9 (2007).

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis and F. Pepe, “A new list of thorium and argon spectral lines in the visible,” Astron. Astrophys. 468, 1115–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. E. Piskunov and J. A. Valenti, “New algorithms for reducing cross-dispersed echelle spectra,” Astron. Astrophys. 385, 1095–1106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Baudrand and G. A. H. Walker, “Modal noise in highresolution, fiberfed spectra: A study and simple cure,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 851–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Loeb, “Direct measurement of cosmological parameters from the cosmic deceleration of extragalactic objects,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 499, L111–L1114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. R. Hunter and L. W. Ramsey, “Scrambling properties of optical fibers and the performance of a double scrambler,” Proc. Astro. Soc. Pac. 104, 1244–1251 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. W. Brault, “High precision Fourier transform spectrometry: The critical role of phase corrections,” Microchimica Acta 93, 215–227 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

A. Sandage, “The change of redshift and apparent luminosity of galaxies due to the deceleration of selected expanding universes,” Astrophys. J. 136, 319–333 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Alibert, Y.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry–Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baudrand, J.

J. Baudrand and G. A. H. Walker, “Modal noise in highresolution, fiberfed spectra: A study and simple cure,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 851–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beasley, M.

S. Osterman, S. Diddams, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in “Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III,” Proc. SPIE,  66931G, 1–9 (2007).

Bender, C. F.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, and S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25 GHz near-ir laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedick, A.

A. Benedick, J. Birge, R. Ell, O. D. Mucke, M. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave spanning 1 GHz Ti:sapphire oscillator for HeNe CH4-based frequency combs and clocks,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 and the International Quantum Electronics Conference, (CLEOE-IQEC 2007).

Benedick, A. J.

Benz, W.

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertaux, J.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertaux, J.-L.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birge, J.

A. Benedick, J. Birge, R. Ell, O. D. Mucke, M. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave spanning 1 GHz Ti:sapphire oscillator for HeNe CH4-based frequency combs and clocks,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 and the International Quantum Electronics Conference, (CLEOE-IQEC 2007).

Birge, J. R.

Bonfils, X.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Botzer, B.

Bouchy, F.

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braje, D. A.

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 34, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Euro. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brault, J. W.

J. W. Brault, “High precision Fourier transform spectrometry: The critical role of phase corrections,” Microchimica Acta 93, 215–227 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

Chen, L.-J.

Correia, A. C. M.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cramer, C.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, H.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delfosse, X.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S.

S. Osterman, S. Diddams, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in “Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III,” Proc. SPIE,  66931G, 1–9 (2007).

Diddams, S. A.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, and S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25 GHz near-ir laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 34, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Euro. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dumusque, X.

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ell, R.

A. Benedick, J. Birge, R. Ell, O. D. Mucke, M. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave spanning 1 GHz Ti:sapphire oscillator for HeNe CH4-based frequency combs and clocks,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 and the International Quantum Electronics Conference, (CLEOE-IQEC 2007).

Fendel, P.

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s−1,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, M.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T.

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Euro. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

Forveille, T.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Froning, C.

S. Osterman, S. Diddams, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in “Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III,” Proc. SPIE,  66931G, 1–9 (2007).

Furesz, G.

Glenday, A. G.

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, D. F. Philips, F. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry-Perot cavity pair for astro-combs,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2012).

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s−1,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry–Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 34, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Osterman, S. Diddams, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in “Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III,” Proc. SPIE,  66931G, 1–9 (2007).

Holzwarth, R.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry–Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, T. R.

T. R. Hunter and L. W. Ramsey, “Scrambling properties of optical fibers and the performance of a double scrambler,” Proc. Astro. Soc. Pac. 104, 1244–1251 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F.

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, D. F. Philips, F. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry-Perot cavity pair for astro-combs,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2012).

Kärtner, F. X.

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 12736–12747 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s−1,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Philips, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benedick, J. Birge, R. Ell, O. D. Mucke, M. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave spanning 1 GHz Ti:sapphire oscillator for HeNe CH4-based frequency combs and clocks,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 and the International Quantum Electronics Conference, (CLEOE-IQEC 2007).

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchner, M. S.

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 34, 872–874 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Euro. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korzennik, S.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Laskar, J.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawler, J. E.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

Li, C.

C. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.-H.

Lo Curto, G.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loeb, A.

A. Loeb, “Direct measurement of cosmological parameters from the cosmic deceleration of extragalactic objects,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 499, L111–L1114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lovis, C.

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis and F. Pepe, “A new list of thorium and argon spectral lines in the visible,” Astron. Astrophys. 468, 1115–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacQueen, P.

S. Osterman, S. Diddams, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in “Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III,” Proc. SPIE,  66931G, 1–9 (2007).

Mahadevan, S.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, and S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25 GHz near-ir laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manescau, A.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mayor, M.

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mbele, V.

S. Osterman, S. Diddams, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in “Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III,” Proc. SPIE,  66931G, 1–9 (2007).

Mordasini, C.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mucke, O. D.

A. Benedick, J. Birge, R. Ell, O. D. Mucke, M. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave spanning 1 GHz Ti:sapphire oscillator for HeNe CH4-based frequency combs and clocks,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 and the International Quantum Electronics Conference, (CLEOE-IQEC 2007).

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nave, G.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

Osterman, S.

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, and S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25 GHz near-ir laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Euro. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Osterman, S. Diddams, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in “Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III,” Proc. SPIE,  66931G, 1–9 (2007).

Osterman, S. N.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

Pasquini, L.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pepe, F.

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis and F. Pepe, “A new list of thorium and argon spectral lines in the visible,” Astron. Astrophys. 468, 1115–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrier, C.

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Philips, D. F.

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, D. F. Philips, F. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry-Perot cavity pair for astro-combs,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2012).

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Philips, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, D. F.

Piskunov, N. E.

N. E. Piskunov and J. A. Valenti, “New algorithms for reducing cross-dispersed echelle spectra,” Astron. Astrophys. 385, 1095–1106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Queloz, D.

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinlan, F.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, and S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25 GHz near-ir laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsey, L.

Ramsey, L. W.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

T. R. Hunter and L. W. Ramsey, “Scrambling properties of optical fibers and the performance of a double scrambler,” Proc. Astro. Soc. Pac. 104, 1244–1251 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Redman, S.

Redman, S. L.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

Sandage, A.

A. Sandage, “The change of redshift and apparent luminosity of galaxies due to the deceleration of selected expanding universes,” Astrophys. J. 136, 319–333 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sander, M.

A. Benedick, J. Birge, R. Ell, O. D. Mucke, M. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave spanning 1 GHz Ti:sapphire oscillator for HeNe CH4-based frequency combs and clocks,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 and the International Quantum Electronics Conference, (CLEOE-IQEC 2007).

Santos, N. C.

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasselov, D.

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s−1,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ségransan, D.

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sigurdsson, S.

Sivan, J.

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sizmann, A.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinmetz, T.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry–Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, D. F. Philips, F. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry-Perot cavity pair for astro-combs,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2012).

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s−1,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terrien, R.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, and S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25 GHz near-ir laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry–Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Udry, S.

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valenti, J. A.

N. E. Piskunov and J. A. Valenti, “New algorithms for reducing cross-dispersed echelle spectra,” Astron. Astrophys. 385, 1095–1106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. A. H.

J. Baudrand and G. A. H. Walker, “Modal noise in highresolution, fiberfed spectra: A study and simple cure,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 851–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walsworth, R. L.

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, D. F. Philips, F. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry-Perot cavity pair for astro-combs,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2012).

G. Chang, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Toward a broadband astro-comb: effects of nonlinear spectral broadening in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18, 12736–12747 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-J. Chen, G. Chang, C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, D. F. Philips, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Broadband dispersion-free optical cavities based on zero group delay dispersion mirror sets,” Opt. Express 18, 23204–23211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, A. G. Glenday, C.-H. Li, D. F. Phillips, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Korzennik, G. Furesz, R. L. Walsworth, and F. X. Kärtner, “Visible wavelength astro-comb,” Opt. Express 18, 19175–19184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Li, A. G. Glenday, A. J. Benedick, G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, C. Cramer, P. Fendel, G. Furesz, F. X. Kärtner, S. Korzennik, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s−1,” Opt. Express 18, 13239–13249 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A.

S. Osterman, S. Diddams, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in “Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III,” Proc. SPIE,  66931G, 1–9 (2007).

Weiner, A. M.

Wilken, T.

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry–Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ycas, G. G.

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, and S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25 GHz near-ir laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 6631–6643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Fabry–Pérot filter cavities for wide-spaced frequency combs with large spectral bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. B 96, 251–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (4)

N. E. Piskunov and J. A. Valenti, “New algorithms for reducing cross-dispersed echelle spectra,” Astron. Astrophys. 385, 1095–1106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Lovis and F. Pepe, “A new list of thorium and argon spectral lines in the visible,” Astron. Astrophys. 468, 1115–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Ségransan, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, X. Dumusque, M. Mayor, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, and S. Udry, “The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone,” Astron. Astrophys. 534, A58, 1–16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Udry, X. Bonfils, X. Delfosse, T. Forveille, M. Mayor, C. Perrier, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, and J.-L. Bertaux, “The harps search for southern extra-solar planets,” Astron. Astrophys. 469, L43–L47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

A. Sandage, “The change of redshift and apparent luminosity of galaxies due to the deceleration of selected expanding universes,” Astrophys. J. 136, 319–333 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Lett. (1)

A. Loeb, “Direct measurement of cosmological parameters from the cosmic deceleration of extragalactic objects,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 499, L111–L1114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Euro. Phys. J. D (1)

D. A. Braje, M. S. Kirchner, S. Osterman, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Astronomical spectrograph calibration with broad-spectrum frequency combs,” Euro. Phys. J. D 48, 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microchimica Acta (1)

J. W. Brault, “High precision Fourier transform spectrometry: The critical role of phase corrections,” Microchimica Acta 93, 215–227 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380, 839–847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. (1)

T. Wilken, C. Lovis, A. Manescau, T. Steinmetz, L. Pasquini, G. Lo Curto, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “High-precision calibration of spectrographs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 405, L16–L20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

C. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lovis, M. Mayor, F. Pepe, Y. Alibert, W. Benz, F. Bouchy, A. C. M. Correia, J. Laskar, C. Mordasini, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos, S. Udry, J. Bertaux, and J. Sivan, “An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets,” Nature 441, 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Astro. Soc. Pac. (1)

T. R. Hunter and L. W. Ramsey, “Scrambling properties of optical fibers and the performance of a double scrambler,” Proc. Astro. Soc. Pac. 104, 1244–1251 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Osterman, S. Diddams, M. Beasley, C. Froning, L. Hollberg, P. MacQueen, V. Mbele, and A. Weiner, “A proposed laser frequency comb-based wavelength reference for high-resolution spectroscopy,” in “Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets III,” Proc. SPIE,  66931G, 1–9 (2007).

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

J. Baudrand and G. A. H. Walker, “Modal noise in highresolution, fiberfed spectra: A study and simple cure,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 851–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. (1)

S. L. Redman, G. G. Ycas, R. Terrien, S. Mahadevan, L. W. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, S. N. Osterman, S. A. Diddams, F. Quinlan, J. E. Lawler, and G. Nave, “A high-resolution atlas of uranium-neon in the h band,” The Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 199(2), 1–11 (2012).

Other (3)

A. Benedick, J. Birge, R. Ell, O. D. Mucke, M. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Octave spanning 1 GHz Ti:sapphire oscillator for HeNe CH4-based frequency combs and clocks,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 and the International Quantum Electronics Conference, (CLEOE-IQEC 2007).

G. Furesz, “Design and application of high resolution and multiobject spectrographs: Dynamical studies of open clusters,” Ph. D. thesis, University of Szeged, Hungary (2008).

C.-H. Li, G. Chang, A. G. Glenday, D. F. Philips, F. Kärtner, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “Conjugate Fabry-Perot cavity pair for astro-combs,” submitted to Opt. Lett. (2012).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of astro-comb spectrum. (a) Source comb spectrum with line spacing of 1 GHz (≈ 0.002 nm at 800 nm) and a diode laser spectral line which provides a fiducial reference to determine the absolute frequency of the comb spectrum. (b) Fabry-Pérot Cavity (FPC) transmission spectrum spaced by 50 GHz. (c) Resultant astro-comb spectrum showing exaggerated unsuppressed comb lines (referred to as “side modes” in the text). Large dots represent source-comb lines left unshown for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram for the red and blue astro-combs operating at around 800 nm and 400 nm, respectively. A 1-GHz repetition-rate Ti:Sapphire laser frequency comb (source comb), with a spectrum centered at 800 nm and stabilized to a rubidium atomic clock, provides emission lines regularly spaced by 0.002 nm. Light from the source-comb, either directly or after frequency doubling in a BBO crystal to 400 nm to provide the blue source-comb, is spatially overlapped with light from a single wavelength reference diode laser and sent via a single-mode optical fiber through a Fabry-Pérot cavity to create an astro-comb spectrum with an adjustable effective repetition rate up to 50 GHz (i.e., spectral line spacing up to 0.1 nm). A multi-mode fiber, which can be physically shaken to produce optical mode scrambling, sends the astro-comb light to the wavelength calibration system of the TRES spectrograph.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example spectrum for the red astro-comb, acquired with the TRES spectrograph. (a) Small region of the 2-D spectral image encompassing 300 by 200 pixels on the CCD corresponding to the central 1 nm of each of the six spectrograph grating orders containing significant astro-comb intensity. Each astro-comb tooth (spectral peak) has a point spread function (PSF) corresponding to the image of the optical fiber convolved with the optical response of the spectrograph optics. (b) Red astro-comb spectrum covering six spectrograph orders and reduced to 1-D. FWHM of spectrum is approximately 100 nm with about 50 000 peak counts acquired in a 300 s exposure. Gaps in spectrum are regions in which calibration light is not focused onto the CCD [18]. The strong line at 795 nm is the reference laser used to stabilize the Fabry-Pérot filter cavity and provide a fiducial marker of known absolute wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example 1-D spectrum of the blue astro-comb, acquired with the TRES spectrograph. FWHM of the spectrum is approximately 10 nm with 40000 to 60000 peak counts acquired in a 10 s exposure with the astro-comb light attenuated by a factor of 10.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example model fit (red solid line) of TRES spectrograph 1-D reduced instrument profile. Model consists of the convolution of a distorted half circle representing the 1-D reduced optical fiber profile (black dashed line) and a sum of Hermite-Gaussians representing the optical response of the TRES spectrograph (green dotted line). The convolved line profile is then numerically integrated to determine the value at each point in a 1-D spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Cross-section of the image of a 100 μm multi-mode optical fiber with mechanical shaker off and on, showing reduced intensity variation across the fiber surface in the presence of shaking, observed with a laboratory CMOS camera. (b) Reduced noise in the blue astro-comb spectrum on the TRES spectrograph with mechanical shaking. Astro-comb lines are normalized and folded on top of each other, as described in the main text. Residuals of data from fit model are approximately 5 times expected photon shot-noise in the absence of shaking and within 10% of photon shot-noise with the shaker on.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fit to one order of the blue astro-comb spectrum, using the model and procedure described in the main text. Bottom panel: folded spectrum in which the centroids of all 200 astro-comb lines are aligned, and their amplitudes and widths normalized. Top panel: folded fit residuals (points) and mean and 95% confidence levels (solid lines). Middle panel: averaged residuals normalized to the expected photon shot-noise, showing near shot-noise performance near the folded line center.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Measured drift over five nights of the TRES spectrograph frequency solution from red astro-comb calibrations in the 800–900 nm spectral range, expressed as an effective PRV shift. Calibrations are shown using two input optical channels to the spectrograph: the science and sky fibers. (b) Drift between frequency solutions for science and sky fibers over one night, likely due to input coupling of off-axis sky channel. Comparable drifts were seen across all five nights, with the divergence between the two fibers never > 10 m/s. Uncertainties in the data points of (a) and (b) ≈ 1 m/s.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured drift over about one hour of the TRES spectrograph frequency solution from blue astro-comb calibration. (a) Frequency solution (expressed as an effective PRV shift) from averaging four spectrograph orders of blue astro-comb data between 400 and 420 nm. Error bars indicate the standard deviation of the averaged orders. Observed PRV variations ∼ 30 m/s over spans of several minutes are consistent with known drift rates of the TRES spectrograph [18]. (b) For each spectrograph order, variations of frequency solutions from the average solution (expressed as effective PRV shifts) ≈ 1 m/s.

Equations (4)

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f = f ceo + n × f rep
f AC = f ceo + ( l + K n ) f rep
δ ν = A FWHM S / N × n
f AC = f ceo + ( l + K n ) f rep .

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