Abstract

The ZnO microwires with quadrate cross section were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. The ultraviolet laser with the Fabry-pérot cavity modes was realized from an individual ZnO microwire. Under the low excitation power densities, the amplified spontaneous emission was observed from the ZnO microwire, while the lasing action was observed under the high excitation power densities. The ZnO microwire exhibited low threshold excitation intensity of 58 kW/cm2 and quality factor of 485. The characteristics and possible lasing mechanism were investigated in detail.

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  1. Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Guo, H. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Y. C. Liu, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The ultralow driven current ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diode based on n-ZnO nanowires/i-polymer/p-GaN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173508 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. B. Baxter and E. S. Aydil, “Nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053114 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. P. Wang, S. Chu, N. Zhan, Y. Q. Lin, L. Chernyak, and J. L. Liu, “ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Zhang, X. Shen, and Y. Q. Yang, “Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Porous ZnO Spheres by a Soluble Starch-Assisted Method and Their Photocatalytic Activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(15), 7145–7152 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. S. Jang, X. Y. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. X. Zhao, C. Andreazza, P. Andreazza, J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, and D. Z. Shen, “Temperature-dependent growth mode and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(4-6), 522–526 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Guo, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, F. Fang, J. Y. Zhang, and B. H. Li, “Structure and Photoluminescence Properties of Aligned ZnO Nanobolt Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 7(11), 2294–2296 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science 291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. D. Yang, “Imaging single ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities using UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101–051103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room Temperature Excitonic Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from High-Quality Hexagonal ZnO Microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Optical Cavity Effects in ZnO Nanowire Lasers and Waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(34), 8816–8828 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2011

G. P. Wang, S. Chu, N. Zhan, Y. Q. Lin, L. Chernyak, and J. L. Liu, “ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, X. Shen, and Y. Q. Yang, “Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Porous ZnO Spheres by a Soluble Starch-Assisted Method and Their Photocatalytic Activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(15), 7145–7152 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room Temperature Excitonic Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from High-Quality Hexagonal ZnO Microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Y. C. Liu, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The ultralow driven current ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diode based on n-ZnO nanowires/i-polymer/p-GaN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Jang, X. Y. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. D. Yang, “Imaging single ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities using UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101–051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Z. Guo, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, F. Fang, J. Y. Zhang, and B. H. Li, “Structure and Photoluminescence Properties of Aligned ZnO Nanobolt Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 7(11), 2294–2296 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. B. Baxter and E. S. Aydil, “Nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. X. Zhao, C. Andreazza, P. Andreazza, J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, and D. Z. Shen, “Temperature-dependent growth mode and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(4-6), 522–526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Optical Cavity Effects in ZnO Nanowire Lasers and Waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(34), 8816–8828 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science 291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andreazza, C.

D. X. Zhao, C. Andreazza, P. Andreazza, J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, and D. Z. Shen, “Temperature-dependent growth mode and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(4-6), 522–526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andreazza, P.

D. X. Zhao, C. Andreazza, P. Andreazza, J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, and D. Z. Shen, “Temperature-dependent growth mode and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(4-6), 522–526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aydil, E. S.

J. B. Baxter and E. S. Aydil, “Nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bao, J. M.

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101–051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, J. B.

J. B. Baxter and E. S. Aydil, “Nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bozack, M. J.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, B.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101–051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. W.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room Temperature Excitonic Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from High-Quality Hexagonal ZnO Microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. Y.

E. S. Jang, X. Y. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chernyak, L.

G. P. Wang, S. Chu, N. Zhan, Y. Q. Lin, L. Chernyak, and J. L. Liu, “ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choy, J. H.

E. S. Jang, X. Y. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

G. P. Wang, S. Chu, N. Zhan, Y. Q. Lin, L. Chernyak, and J. L. Liu, “ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, J. H.

E. S. Jang, X. Y. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Czekalla, C.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Z. R.

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science 291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, F.

Z. Guo, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, F. Fang, J. Y. Zhang, and B. H. Li, “Structure and Photoluminescence Properties of Aligned ZnO Nanobolt Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 7(11), 2294–2296 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gargas, D. J.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. D. Yang, “Imaging single ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities using UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grundmann, M.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Y. C. Liu, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The ultralow driven current ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diode based on n-ZnO nanowires/i-polymer/p-GaN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, F. Fang, J. Y. Zhang, and B. H. Li, “Structure and Photoluminescence Properties of Aligned ZnO Nanobolt Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 7(11), 2294–2296 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, R. R.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, D. J.

E. S. Jang, X. Y. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, E. S.

E. S. Jang, X. Y. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Optical Cavity Effects in ZnO Nanowire Lasers and Waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(34), 8816–8828 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, M.

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. W.

E. S. Jang, X. Y. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutsen, K.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koinuma, H.

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Law, M.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. H.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Y. C. Liu, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The ultralow driven current ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diode based on n-ZnO nanowires/i-polymer/p-GaN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, F. Fang, J. Y. Zhang, and B. H. Li, “Structure and Photoluminescence Properties of Aligned ZnO Nanobolt Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 7(11), 2294–2296 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. Q.

G. P. Wang, S. Chu, N. Zhan, Y. Q. Lin, L. Chernyak, and J. L. Liu, “ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ling, B.

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room Temperature Excitonic Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from High-Quality Hexagonal ZnO Microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. L.

G. P. Wang, S. Chu, N. Zhan, Y. Q. Lin, L. Chernyak, and J. L. Liu, “ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. C.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Y. C. Liu, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The ultralow driven current ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diode based on n-ZnO nanowires/i-polymer/p-GaN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Zhao, C. Andreazza, P. Andreazza, J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, and D. Z. Shen, “Temperature-dependent growth mode and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(4-6), 522–526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, M.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J. G.

D. X. Zhao, C. Andreazza, P. Andreazza, J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, and D. Z. Shen, “Temperature-dependent growth mode and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(4-6), 522–526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mckinney, J. R.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moore, M. C.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, S.

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101–051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ni, A.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtomo, A.

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z. W.

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science 291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, M.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pham, J.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ronning, C.

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101–051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saykally, R.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Optical Cavity Effects in ZnO Nanowire Lasers and Waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(34), 8816–8828 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Grund, R.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, Y.

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H. W.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Z.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Y. C. Liu, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The ultralow driven current ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diode based on n-ZnO nanowires/i-polymer/p-GaN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, F. Fang, J. Y. Zhang, and B. H. Li, “Structure and Photoluminescence Properties of Aligned ZnO Nanobolt Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 7(11), 2294–2296 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Zhao, C. Andreazza, P. Andreazza, J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, and D. Z. Shen, “Temperature-dependent growth mode and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(4-6), 522–526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

G. Zhang, X. Shen, and Y. Q. Yang, “Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Porous ZnO Spheres by a Soluble Starch-Assisted Method and Their Photocatalytic Activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(15), 7145–7152 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, C.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. D.

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room Temperature Excitonic Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from High-Quality Hexagonal ZnO Microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. W.

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room Temperature Excitonic Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from High-Quality Hexagonal ZnO Microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, Z. K.

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tin, C. C.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toimil-Molares, M. E.

D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. D. Yang, “Imaging single ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities using UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzeng, Y.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. P.

G. P. Wang, S. Chu, N. Zhan, Y. Q. Lin, L. Chernyak, and J. L. Liu, “ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science 291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J. R.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Won, J. H.

E. S. Jang, X. Y. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K. L.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H. Q.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Optical Cavity Effects in ZnO Nanowire Lasers and Waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(34), 8816–8828 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. D.

D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. D. Yang, “Imaging single ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities using UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Optical Cavity Effects in ZnO Nanowire Lasers and Waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(34), 8816–8828 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. Q.

G. Zhang, X. Shen, and Y. Q. Yang, “Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Porous ZnO Spheres by a Soluble Starch-Assisted Method and Their Photocatalytic Activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(15), 7145–7152 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Y. C. Liu, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The ultralow driven current ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diode based on n-ZnO nanowires/i-polymer/p-GaN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, N.

G. P. Wang, S. Chu, N. Zhan, Y. Q. Lin, L. Chernyak, and J. L. Liu, “ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, X. Shen, and Y. Q. Yang, “Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Porous ZnO Spheres by a Soluble Starch-Assisted Method and Their Photocatalytic Activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(15), 7145–7152 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Y. C. Liu, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The ultralow driven current ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diode based on n-ZnO nanowires/i-polymer/p-GaN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

Z. Guo, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, F. Fang, J. Y. Zhang, and B. H. Li, “Structure and Photoluminescence Properties of Aligned ZnO Nanobolt Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 7(11), 2294–2296 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Y.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. Z.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Y. C. Liu, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The ultralow driven current ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diode based on n-ZnO nanowires/i-polymer/p-GaN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D. X.

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Y. C. Liu, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The ultralow driven current ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diode based on n-ZnO nanowires/i-polymer/p-GaN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, F. Fang, J. Y. Zhang, and B. H. Li, “Structure and Photoluminescence Properties of Aligned ZnO Nanobolt Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 7(11), 2294–2296 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Zhao, C. Andreazza, P. Andreazza, J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, and D. Z. Shen, “Temperature-dependent growth mode and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(4-6), 522–526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zimmler, M. A.

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101–051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room Temperature Excitonic Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from High-Quality Hexagonal ZnO Microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. Mckinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101–051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Jang, X. Y. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25), 3270–3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Y. C. Liu, B. Yao, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, and D. Z. Shen, “The ultralow driven current ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diode based on n-ZnO nanowires/i-polymer/p-GaN heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 173508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Baxter and E. S. Aydil, “Nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wang, S. Chu, N. Zhan, Y. Q. Lin, L. Chernyak, and J. L. Liu, “ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

D. X. Zhao, C. Andreazza, P. Andreazza, J. G. Ma, Y. C. Liu, and D. Z. Shen, “Temperature-dependent growth mode and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(4-6), 522–526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des.

Z. Guo, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, F. Fang, J. Y. Zhang, and B. H. Li, “Structure and Photoluminescence Properties of Aligned ZnO Nanobolt Arrays,” Cryst. Growth Des. 7(11), 2294–2296 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

D. J. Gargas, M. E. Toimil-Molares, and P. D. Yang, “Imaging single ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities using UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(6), 2125–2127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C. C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Williams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

J. C. Johnson, H. Q. Yan, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Optical Cavity Effects in ZnO Nanowire Lasers and Waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(34), 8816–8828 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

G. Zhang, X. Shen, and Y. Q. Yang, “Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Porous ZnO Spheres by a Soluble Starch-Assisted Method and Their Photocatalytic Activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(15), 7145–7152 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Laser Action in Semiconductor Powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides,” Science 291(5510), 1947–1949 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The SEM image of single ZnO microwire on silicon substrate. The right inset shows the cross section of the ZnO microwire. (b) The schematic diagram for the lasing detection around the ZnO microcavity by moving the fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The emission spectra evolution of individual ZnO microwire with the width of 7 μm under different excitation power intensities with 350 nm (120 fs, 1000 Hz) laser at room temperature. From bottom up, the excitation intensity is 39, 65, 109, 181 kW/cm2. The inset is the PL spectrum of the ZnO microwire carried out by using the 325 nm at room temperature. (b) The relationship between the integrated emission intensity and excitation power density on the microwire.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The emission spectra of individual ZnO microwire with the width of 7 μm at different detection angle under the excitation power intensities of 181 kW/cm2 at room temperature.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q=λ/Δλ
Δλ= λ 2 /[2L(n-λdn/dλ)]
Q=2πnL/λ(1-R)
Γ g th = α w + α m , α m = (2L) 1 ln ( R 1 R 2 ) 1

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