Abstract

We report on observation of high-order optical nonlinearities in our recently developed photopolymerizable semiconductor CdSe quantum dot (QD)-polymer nanocomposite films at various volume fractions of CdSe QDs as high as 0.91 vol.% (3.6 wt.%). We performed Z-scan and degenerate multi-wave mixing (DMWM) measurements using a 532-nm picosecond laser delivering single 35 ps pulses at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Using the uniformly cured polymer nanocomposite films, we observed the third- and fifth-order nonlinear optical effects in closed-aperture Z-scan measurements by which it was found that saturable nonlinear absorption (light-induced transparency) and large negative nonlinear refraction were induced. We also measured dependences of the effective third- and fifth-order nonlinear refraction constants on CdSe QD volume fraction. Based on the Maxwell-Garnett model, we estimated the third- and fifth-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of CdSe QD and discussed a contribution of the third-order effect to the fifth-order one due to the cascaded (local-field) effect. Coexistence of the third- and fifth-order nonlinear refraction was also confirmed by DMWM.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

E. Hata, K. Mitsube, K. Momose, and Y. Tomita, “Holographic nanoparticle-polymer composites based on step-growth thiol-ene photopolymerization,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 207–222 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?uri=ome-1-2-207 .
[CrossRef]

J. Klepp, C. Pruner, Y. Tomita, C. Plonka-Spehr, P. Geltenbort, S. Ivanov, G. Manzin, K. H. Andersen, J. Kohlbrecher, M. A. Ellabban, and M. Fally, “Diffraction of slow neutrons by holographic SiO2 nanoparticlepolymer composite gratings,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013621 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

M. Fally, J. Klepp, Y. Tomita, T. Nakamura, C. Pruner, M. A. Ellabban, R. A. Rupp, M. Bichler, I. D. Olenik, J. Kohlbrecher, H. Eckerlebe, H. Lemmel, and H. Rauch, “Neutron optical beam splitter from holographically structured nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Dancus, V. I. Vlad, A. Petris, N. Gaponik, V. Lesnyak, and A. Eychmüller, “Saturated near-resonant refractive optical nonlinearity in CdTe quantum dots,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1079–1081 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, K. Matsumura, Y. Tomita, K. Yasui, K. Kojima, and K. Chikama, “Nonlinear optical responses of nanoparticle-polymer composites incorporating organic (hyperbranched polymer)-metallic nanoparticle complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

K. Dolgaleva, H. Shin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of a microscopic cascaded contribution to the fifth-order nonlinear susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gu, W. Ji, X. Q. Huang, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, “Nonlinear optical properties of 2,4,5-Trimethoxy-4-nitrochalcone: observation of two-photon-induced excited-state nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 17(2), 1126–1135 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, Y. Tomita, J. Oshima, K. Chikama, K. Matsubara, T. Nakashima, and T. Kawai, “Holographic assembly of semiconductor CdSe quantum dots in polymer for volume Bragg grating structures with diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

2007 (5)

E. L. Falcão-Filho, B. de Araújo, J. J. Rodrigues, and Jr., “High-order nonlinearities of aqueous colloids containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(12), 2948–2956 (2007).

L. Pan, N. Tamai, K. Kamada, and S. Deki, “Nonlinear optical properties of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots in nonresonant region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Zhang, W. Q. He, C. M. Gu, W. Z. Shen, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Determination of the third- and fifth-order nonlinear refractive indices in InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Venkatram, R. Sathyavathi, and D. N. Rao, “Size dependent multiphoton absorption and refraction of CdSe nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12258–12263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Dneprovskii, E. A. Zhukov, D. A. Kabanin, V. L. Lyaskovskii, A. V. Rakova, and T. Wumaier, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of light in a colloidal solution of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots upon two-photon resonant excitation,” Phys. Solid State 49(2), 366–370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

Y. Chen, K. Beckwitt, F. W. Wise, B. G. Aitken, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Measurement of fifth- and seventh-order nonlinearities of glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(2), 347–352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, Y. Tomita, K. Ohmori, M. Hidaka, and K. Chikama, “Highly transparent ZrO(2) nanoparticle-dispersed acrylate photopolymers for volume holographic recording,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12712–12719 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-12712 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seo, S. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ma, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, R. Battle, H. Brown, K. Lee, L. Creekmore, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, S. S. Jung, W. Yu, and M. Namkung, “Third-order nonlinear susceptibility and hyperpolarizability of CdSe nanocrystals with femtosecond excitation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48(6), 1379–1384 (2006).

H. S. Kim, M. H. Lee, N. C. Jeong, S. M. Lee, B. K. Rhee, and K. B. Yoon, “Very high third-order nonlinear optical activities of intrazeolite PbS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(47), 15070–15071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, P. Zhao, P. Lin, and F. Sun, “Thermo-optic coefficients of polymers for optical waveguide applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(14), 4893–4896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, Y. Fan, J. Wang, J. Chen, J. Ding, H. Wang, and B. Guo, “Characterization of saturable absorbers using an open-aperture Gaussian-beam Z scan,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 065803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (8)

B. Gu, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, J. Ding, and H. T. Wang, “Theory of Gaussian beam Z scan with simultaneous third- and fifth-order nonlinear refraction based on a Gaussian decomposition method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(12), 2651–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakashima, T. Sakakibara, and T. Kawai, “Highly luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites based on ionic liquid,” Chem. Lett. 34(10), 1410–1411 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tomita, N. Suzuki, and K. Chikama, “Holographic manipulation of nanoparticle distribution morphology in nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymers,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 839–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tomita, “Holographic manipulation of nanoparticle-distribution morphology in photopolymers and its applications to volume holographic recording and nonlinear photonic crystals,” OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 99, 274–280 (2005).

N. Venkatram, D. N. Rao, and M. A. Akundi, “Nonlinear absorption, scattering and optical limiting studies of CdS nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 13(3), 867–872 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. He, J. Mi, H. Li, and W. Ji, “Observation of interband two-photon absorption saturation in CdS nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(41), 19184–19187 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Padilha, J. Fu, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, C. L. Cesar, L. C. Barbosa, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Two-photon absorption in CdTe quantum dots,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6460–6467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gerdova and A. Haché, “Third-order non-linear spectroscopy of CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots,” Opt. Commun. 246(1–3), 205–212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and figure of merit of CdS nanocrystals chemically stabilized in spin-processable polymer films,” J. Mater. Sci. 39(3), 993–996 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

B. Liu, H. Li, C. H. Chew, W. Que, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, L. M. Gan, and G. Q. Xu, “PbS–polymer nanocomposite with third-order nonlinear optical response in femtosecond regime,” Mater. Lett. 51(6), 461–469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Bindra and A. K. Kar, “Role of femtosecond pulses in distinguishing third- and fifth-order nonlinearity for semiconductor-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(23), 3761–3763 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1–3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, K. Abbaoui, and Y. Cherruault, “Beyond the thin-sheet approximation: Adomian’s decomposition,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 397–401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Burda, S. Link, T. C. Green, and M. A. El-Sayed, “New transient absorption observed in the spectrum of colloidal CdSe nanoparticles pumped with high-power femtosecond pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(49), 10775–10780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47(3), 447–510 (1998) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, S. Couris, and S. Leach, “High order nonlinear optical response of fullerene solutions in the nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun. 138(4–6), 301–304 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

G. Lowet and G. Van der Perre, “Ultrasound velocity measurement in long bones: measurement method and simulation of ultrasound wave propagation,” J. Biomech. 29(10), 1255–1262 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Taheri, H. Liu, B. Jassemnejad, D. Appling, R. C. Powell, and J. J. Song, “Intensity scan and two photon absorption and nonlinear refraction of C60 in toluene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(10), 1317–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Wang and A. Zunger, “Pseudopotential calculations of nanoscale CdSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(15), 9579–9582 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, M. D. tzatzadaki, S. Couris, and S. Leach, “High-order nonlinear optical response of C60-toluene solutions in the sub-picosecond regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29(20), L773–L778 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

M. D. Dvorak, B. L. Justus, and A. D. Berry, “Pump/probe Z-scan studies of GaAs nanocrystals grown in porous glass,” Opt. Commun. 116(1–3), 149–152 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and H. M. Tan, “Optical nonlinearity of semiconductor-doped glasses at frequencies below the band gap: the role of free carriers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(4), 621–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Schmid, T. Vogtmann, and M. Schwoere, “A modulation technique for measuring the optical susceptibility χ(5) by degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Commun. 121(1–3), 55–62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. H. Park, M. P. Casey, and J. Falk, “Nonlinear optical properties of CdSe quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(12), 8041–8045 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (5)

M. G. Bawendi, W. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, “Electronic structure and photoexcited-carrier dynamics in nanometer-size CdSe clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1626 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, R. A. Morgan, Y. Z. Hu, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Nonlinear optical properties of quantum-confined CdSe microcrystallites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2097–2105 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Rios Leite, and C. B. De Araujo, “ultrafast χ(3)-related processes in semiconductor doped glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 1277–1284 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Yumoto, H. Shinojima, N. Uesugi, K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, and Y. Osaka, “Optical nonlinearity of CdSe microcrystallites in a sputtered SiO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(23), 2393–2395 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(12), 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and R. H. Stolen, “Waveguides and fibers for nonlinear optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

G. Adomian, “A review of the decomposition method in applied mathematics,” J. Math. Anal. Appl. 135(2), 501–544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kayanuma, “Quantum-size effects of interacting electrons and holes in semiconductor microcrystals with spherical shape,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(14), 9797–9805 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, and J. R. Rios Leite, “Measurement of high-order optical nonlinear susceptibilities in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(19), 1788–1790 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

S. R. Friberg and P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(12), 2089–2094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Schumitt-Rink, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemla, “Theory of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B 35(15), 8113–8125 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Abbaoui, K.

F. Sanchez, K. Abbaoui, and Y. Cherruault, “Beyond the thin-sheet approximation: Adomian’s decomposition,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 397–401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Acioli, L. H.

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Rios Leite, and C. B. De Araujo, “ultrafast χ(3)-related processes in semiconductor doped glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 1277–1284 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, and J. R. Rios Leite, “Measurement of high-order optical nonlinear susceptibilities in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(19), 1788–1790 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Adomian, G.

G. Adomian, “A review of the decomposition method in applied mathematics,” J. Math. Anal. Appl. 135(2), 501–544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Aitken, B. G.

Akundi, M. A.

Andersen, K. H.

J. Klepp, C. Pruner, Y. Tomita, C. Plonka-Spehr, P. Geltenbort, S. Ivanov, G. Manzin, K. H. Andersen, J. Kohlbrecher, M. A. Ellabban, and M. Fally, “Diffraction of slow neutrons by holographic SiO2 nanoparticlepolymer composite gratings,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013621 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(12), 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appling, D.

B. Taheri, H. Liu, B. Jassemnejad, D. Appling, R. C. Powell, and J. J. Song, “Intensity scan and two photon absorption and nonlinear refraction of C60 in toluene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(10), 1317–1319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Banfi, G. P.

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47(3), 447–510 (1998) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and H. M. Tan, “Optical nonlinearity of semiconductor-doped glasses at frequencies below the band gap: the role of free carriers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(4), 621–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, L. C.

Barthélémy, A.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1–3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Battle, R.

J. Seo, S. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ma, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, R. Battle, H. Brown, K. Lee, L. Creekmore, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, S. S. Jung, W. Yu, and M. Namkung, “Third-order nonlinear susceptibility and hyperpolarizability of CdSe nanocrystals with femtosecond excitation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48(6), 1379–1384 (2006).

Bawendi, M. G.

M. G. Bawendi, W. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, “Electronic structure and photoexcited-carrier dynamics in nanometer-size CdSe clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1626 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckwitt, K.

Berry, A. D.

M. D. Dvorak, B. L. Justus, and A. D. Berry, “Pump/probe Z-scan studies of GaAs nanocrystals grown in porous glass,” Opt. Commun. 116(1–3), 149–152 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bichler, M.

M. Fally, J. Klepp, Y. Tomita, T. Nakamura, C. Pruner, M. A. Ellabban, R. A. Rupp, M. Bichler, I. D. Olenik, J. Kohlbrecher, H. Eckerlebe, H. Lemmel, and H. Rauch, “Neutron optical beam splitter from holographically structured nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bindra, K. S.

K. S. Bindra and A. K. Kar, “Role of femtosecond pulses in distinguishing third- and fifth-order nonlinearity for semiconductor-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(23), 3761–3763 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Brown, H.

S. M. Ma, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, R. Battle, H. Brown, K. Lee, L. Creekmore, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, S. S. Jung, W. Yu, and M. Namkung, “Third-order nonlinear susceptibility and hyperpolarizability of CdSe nanocrystals with femtosecond excitation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48(6), 1379–1384 (2006).

J. Seo, S. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brozozowski, L.

Brus, L. E.

M. G. Bawendi, W. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, “Electronic structure and photoexcited-carrier dynamics in nanometer-size CdSe clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1626 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burda, C.

C. Burda, S. Link, T. C. Green, and M. A. El-Sayed, “New transient absorption observed in the spectrum of colloidal CdSe nanoparticles pumped with high-power femtosecond pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(49), 10775–10780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, P. J.

M. G. Bawendi, W. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, “Electronic structure and photoexcited-carrier dynamics in nanometer-size CdSe clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1626 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casey, M. P.

S. H. Park, M. P. Casey, and J. Falk, “Nonlinear optical properties of CdSe quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(12), 8041–8045 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cesar, C. L.

Chemla, D. S.

S. Schumitt-Rink, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemla, “Theory of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B 35(15), 8113–8125 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

B. Gu, Y. Fan, J. Wang, J. Chen, J. Ding, H. Wang, and B. Guo, “Characterization of saturable absorbers using an open-aperture Gaussian-beam Z scan,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 065803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, J. Ding, and H. T. Wang, “Theory of Gaussian beam Z scan with simultaneous third- and fifth-order nonlinear refraction based on a Gaussian decomposition method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(12), 2651–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cherruault, Y.

F. Sanchez, K. Abbaoui, and Y. Cherruault, “Beyond the thin-sheet approximation: Adomian’s decomposition,” Opt. Commun. 173(1-6), 397–401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chew, C. H.

B. Liu, H. Li, C. H. Chew, W. Que, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, L. M. Gan, and G. Q. Xu, “PbS–polymer nanocomposite with third-order nonlinear optical response in femtosecond regime,” Mater. Lett. 51(6), 461–469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chikama, K.

X. Liu, K. Matsumura, Y. Tomita, K. Yasui, K. Kojima, and K. Chikama, “Nonlinear optical responses of nanoparticle-polymer composites incorporating organic (hyperbranched polymer)-metallic nanoparticle complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y. Tomita, J. Oshima, K. Chikama, K. Matsubara, T. Nakashima, and T. Kawai, “Holographic assembly of semiconductor CdSe quantum dots in polymer for volume Bragg grating structures with diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki, Y. Tomita, K. Ohmori, M. Hidaka, and K. Chikama, “Highly transparent ZrO(2) nanoparticle-dispersed acrylate photopolymers for volume holographic recording,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12712–12719 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-12712 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tomita, N. Suzuki, and K. Chikama, “Holographic manipulation of nanoparticle distribution morphology in nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymers,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 839–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couderc, V.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1–3), 232–237 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Couris, S.

E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, S. Couris, and S. Leach, “High order nonlinear optical response of fullerene solutions in the nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun. 138(4–6), 301–304 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, M. D. tzatzadaki, S. Couris, and S. Leach, “High-order nonlinear optical response of C60-toluene solutions in the sub-picosecond regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29(20), L773–L778 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Creekmore, L.

J. Seo, S. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ma, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, R. Battle, H. Brown, K. Lee, L. Creekmore, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, S. S. Jung, W. Yu, and M. Namkung, “Third-order nonlinear susceptibility and hyperpolarizability of CdSe nanocrystals with femtosecond excitation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48(6), 1379–1384 (2006).

Cruz, C. H. B.

Dancus, I.

De Araujo, C. B.

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Rios Leite, and C. B. De Araujo, “ultrafast χ(3)-related processes in semiconductor doped glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 1277–1284 (1990).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, R. E.

de Araújo, B.

Degiorgio, V.

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47(3), 447–510 (1998) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and H. M. Tan, “Optical nonlinearity of semiconductor-doped glasses at frequencies below the band gap: the role of free carriers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(4), 621–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deki, S.

L. Pan, N. Tamai, K. Kamada, and S. Deki, “Nonlinear optical properties of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots in nonresonant region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dharmaprakash, S. M.

Ding, J.

B. Gu, Y. Fan, J. Wang, J. Chen, J. Ding, H. Wang, and B. Guo, “Characterization of saturable absorbers using an open-aperture Gaussian-beam Z scan,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 065803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, J. Chen, Y. X. Fan, J. Ding, and H. T. Wang, “Theory of Gaussian beam Z scan with simultaneous third- and fifth-order nonlinear refraction based on a Gaussian decomposition method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(12), 2651–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dneprovskii, V. S.

V. S. Dneprovskii, E. A. Zhukov, D. A. Kabanin, V. L. Lyaskovskii, A. V. Rakova, and T. Wumaier, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of light in a colloidal solution of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots upon two-photon resonant excitation,” Phys. Solid State 49(2), 366–370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dolgaleva, K.

K. Dolgaleva, H. Shin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of a microscopic cascaded contribution to the fifth-order nonlinear susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, F.

E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, S. Couris, and S. Leach, “High order nonlinear optical response of fullerene solutions in the nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun. 138(4–6), 301–304 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, M. D. tzatzadaki, S. Couris, and S. Leach, “High-order nonlinear optical response of C60-toluene solutions in the sub-picosecond regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29(20), L773–L778 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dvorak, M. D.

M. D. Dvorak, B. L. Justus, and A. D. Berry, “Pump/probe Z-scan studies of GaAs nanocrystals grown in porous glass,” Opt. Commun. 116(1–3), 149–152 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eckerlebe, H.

M. Fally, J. Klepp, Y. Tomita, T. Nakamura, C. Pruner, M. A. Ellabban, R. A. Rupp, M. Bichler, I. D. Olenik, J. Kohlbrecher, H. Eckerlebe, H. Lemmel, and H. Rauch, “Neutron optical beam splitter from holographically structured nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellabban, M. A.

J. Klepp, C. Pruner, Y. Tomita, C. Plonka-Spehr, P. Geltenbort, S. Ivanov, G. Manzin, K. H. Andersen, J. Kohlbrecher, M. A. Ellabban, and M. Fally, “Diffraction of slow neutrons by holographic SiO2 nanoparticlepolymer composite gratings,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013621 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fally, J. Klepp, Y. Tomita, T. Nakamura, C. Pruner, M. A. Ellabban, R. A. Rupp, M. Bichler, I. D. Olenik, J. Kohlbrecher, H. Eckerlebe, H. Lemmel, and H. Rauch, “Neutron optical beam splitter from holographically structured nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

C. Burda, S. Link, T. C. Green, and M. A. El-Sayed, “New transient absorption observed in the spectrum of colloidal CdSe nanoparticles pumped with high-power femtosecond pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(49), 10775–10780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eychmüller, A.

Falcão-Filho, E. L.

Falk, J.

S. H. Park, M. P. Casey, and J. Falk, “Nonlinear optical properties of CdSe quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(12), 8041–8045 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fally, M.

J. Klepp, C. Pruner, Y. Tomita, C. Plonka-Spehr, P. Geltenbort, S. Ivanov, G. Manzin, K. H. Andersen, J. Kohlbrecher, M. A. Ellabban, and M. Fally, “Diffraction of slow neutrons by holographic SiO2 nanoparticlepolymer composite gratings,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013621 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fally, J. Klepp, Y. Tomita, T. Nakamura, C. Pruner, M. A. Ellabban, R. A. Rupp, M. Bichler, I. D. Olenik, J. Kohlbrecher, H. Eckerlebe, H. Lemmel, and H. Rauch, “Neutron optical beam splitter from holographically structured nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Y.

B. Gu, Y. Fan, J. Wang, J. Chen, J. Ding, H. Wang, and B. Guo, “Characterization of saturable absorbers using an open-aperture Gaussian-beam Z scan,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 065803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. X.

Fluegel, B.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(12), 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, S. R.

S. R. Friberg and P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(12), 2089–2094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.

Gan, C.

C. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Linear and nonlinear optical refractions of CR39 composite with CdSe nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 30(9), 1440–1445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gan, L. M.

B. Liu, H. Li, C. H. Chew, W. Que, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, L. M. Gan, and G. Q. Xu, “PbS–polymer nanocomposite with third-order nonlinear optical response in femtosecond regime,” Mater. Lett. 51(6), 461–469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaponik, N.

Gaylord, T. K.

Geltenbort, P.

J. Klepp, C. Pruner, Y. Tomita, C. Plonka-Spehr, P. Geltenbort, S. Ivanov, G. Manzin, K. H. Andersen, J. Kohlbrecher, M. A. Ellabban, and M. Fally, “Diffraction of slow neutrons by holographic SiO2 nanoparticlepolymer composite gratings,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013621 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerdova, I.

I. Gerdova and A. Haché, “Third-order non-linear spectroscopy of CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots,” Opt. Commun. 246(1–3), 205–212 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, and A. S. L. Gomes, “Nonresonant high-order nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19244–19252 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Rios Leite, and C. B. De Araujo, “ultrafast χ(3)-related processes in semiconductor doped glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 1277–1284 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, and J. R. Rios Leite, “Measurement of high-order optical nonlinear susceptibilities in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(19), 1788–1790 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Green, T. C.

C. Burda, S. Link, T. C. Green, and M. A. El-Sayed, “New transient absorption observed in the spectrum of colloidal CdSe nanoparticles pumped with high-power femtosecond pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(49), 10775–10780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

Gu, C. M.

Z. Q. Zhang, W. Q. He, C. M. Gu, W. Z. Shen, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Determination of the third- and fifth-order nonlinear refractive indices in InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, B.

B. Gu, Y. Fan, J. Wang, J. Chen, J. Ding, H. Wang, and B. Guo, “Characterization of saturable absorbers using an open-aperture Gaussian-beam Z scan,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 065803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Q. X.

Z. Q. Zhang, W. Q. He, C. M. Gu, W. Z. Shen, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Determination of the third- and fifth-order nonlinear refractive indices in InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haché, A.

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V. S. Dneprovskii, E. A. Zhukov, D. A. Kabanin, V. L. Lyaskovskii, A. V. Rakova, and T. Wumaier, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of light in a colloidal solution of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots upon two-photon resonant excitation,” Phys. Solid State 49(2), 366–370 (2007).
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Rativa, D.

Rauch, H.

M. Fally, J. Klepp, Y. Tomita, T. Nakamura, C. Pruner, M. A. Ellabban, R. A. Rupp, M. Bichler, I. D. Olenik, J. Kohlbrecher, H. Eckerlebe, H. Lemmel, and H. Rauch, “Neutron optical beam splitter from holographically structured nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123904 (2010).
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H. S. Kim, M. H. Lee, N. C. Jeong, S. M. Lee, B. K. Rhee, and K. B. Yoon, “Very high third-order nonlinear optical activities of intrazeolite PbS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(47), 15070–15071 (2006).
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G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47(3), 447–510 (1998) (and references therein).
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L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Rios Leite, and C. B. De Araujo, “ultrafast χ(3)-related processes in semiconductor doped glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 1277–1284 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, and J. R. Rios Leite, “Measurement of high-order optical nonlinear susceptibilities in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(19), 1788–1790 (1988).
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Rothberg, L.

M. G. Bawendi, W. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, “Electronic structure and photoexcited-carrier dynamics in nanometer-size CdSe clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1626 (1990).
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M. Fally, J. Klepp, Y. Tomita, T. Nakamura, C. Pruner, M. A. Ellabban, R. A. Rupp, M. Bichler, I. D. Olenik, J. Kohlbrecher, H. Eckerlebe, H. Lemmel, and H. Rauch, “Neutron optical beam splitter from holographically structured nanoparticle-polymer composites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123904 (2010).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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T. Nakashima, T. Sakakibara, and T. Kawai, “Highly luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites based on ionic liquid,” Chem. Lett. 34(10), 1410–1411 (2005).
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W. Schmid, T. Vogtmann, and M. Schwoere, “A modulation technique for measuring the optical susceptibility χ(5) by degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Commun. 121(1–3), 55–62 (1995).
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S. Schumitt-Rink, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemla, “Theory of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor microcrystallites,” Phys. Rev. B 35(15), 8113–8125 (1987).
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J. Seo, S. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
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S. M. Ma, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, R. Battle, H. Brown, K. Lee, L. Creekmore, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, S. S. Jung, W. Yu, and M. Namkung, “Third-order nonlinear susceptibility and hyperpolarizability of CdSe nanocrystals with femtosecond excitation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48(6), 1379–1384 (2006).

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Z. Q. Zhang, W. Q. He, C. M. Gu, W. Z. Shen, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Determination of the third- and fifth-order nonlinear refractive indices in InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221902 (2007).
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S. M. Ma, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, R. Battle, H. Brown, K. Lee, L. Creekmore, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, S. S. Jung, W. Yu, and M. Namkung, “Third-order nonlinear susceptibility and hyperpolarizability of CdSe nanocrystals with femtosecond excitation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48(6), 1379–1384 (2006).

J. Seo, S. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
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Smektala, F.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses measured by Z-scan,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1–3), 232–237 (2000).
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S. R. Friberg and P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(12), 2089–2094 (1987).
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H. Song, Y. Zhai, Z. Zhou, Z. Hao, and L. Zhou, “Optical nonlinearity of CdSe and CdSe-C60 quantum dot,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 22(32), 3207–3213 (2008).
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B. Taheri, H. Liu, B. Jassemnejad, D. Appling, R. C. Powell, and J. J. Song, “Intensity scan and two photon absorption and nonlinear refraction of C60 in toluene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(10), 1317–1319 (1996).
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Steigerwald, M. L.

M. G. Bawendi, W. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, “Electronic structure and photoexcited-carrier dynamics in nanometer-size CdSe clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1626 (1990).
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Sun, F.

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Tabibi, B.

J. Seo, S. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
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S. M. Ma, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, R. Battle, H. Brown, K. Lee, L. Creekmore, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, S. S. Jung, W. Yu, and M. Namkung, “Third-order nonlinear susceptibility and hyperpolarizability of CdSe nanocrystals with femtosecond excitation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48(6), 1379–1384 (2006).

Tago, A.

Taheri, B.

B. Taheri, H. Liu, B. Jassemnejad, D. Appling, R. C. Powell, and J. J. Song, “Intensity scan and two photon absorption and nonlinear refraction of C60 in toluene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(10), 1317–1319 (1996).
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X. Liu, K. Matsumura, Y. Tomita, K. Yasui, K. Kojima, and K. Chikama, “Nonlinear optical responses of nanoparticle-polymer composites incorporating organic (hyperbranched polymer)-metallic nanoparticle complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073102 (2010).
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X. Liu, Y. Tomita, J. Oshima, K. Chikama, K. Matsubara, T. Nakashima, and T. Kawai, “Holographic assembly of semiconductor CdSe quantum dots in polymer for volume Bragg grating structures with diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261109 (2009).
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N. Suzuki, Y. Tomita, K. Ohmori, M. Hidaka, and K. Chikama, “Highly transparent ZrO(2) nanoparticle-dispersed acrylate photopolymers for volume holographic recording,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12712–12719 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-26-12712 .
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J. Yumoto, H. Shinojima, N. Uesugi, K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, and Y. Osaka, “Optical nonlinearity of CdSe microcrystallites in a sputtered SiO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(23), 2393–2395 (1990).
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E. Koudoumas, F. Dong, M. D. tzatzadaki, S. Couris, and S. Leach, “High-order nonlinear optical response of C60-toluene solutions in the sub-picosecond regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29(20), L773–L778 (1996).
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J. Yumoto, H. Shinojima, N. Uesugi, K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, and Y. Osaka, “Optical nonlinearity of CdSe microcrystallites in a sputtered SiO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(23), 2393–2395 (1990).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Venkatram, N.

Vlad, V. I.

Vogtmann, T.

W. Schmid, T. Vogtmann, and M. Schwoere, “A modulation technique for measuring the optical susceptibility χ(5) by degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Commun. 121(1–3), 55–62 (1995).
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B. Gu, Y. Fan, J. Wang, J. Chen, J. Ding, H. Wang, and B. Guo, “Characterization of saturable absorbers using an open-aperture Gaussian-beam Z scan,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 065803 (2006).
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B. Gu, Y. Fan, J. Wang, J. Chen, J. Ding, H. Wang, and B. Guo, “Characterization of saturable absorbers using an open-aperture Gaussian-beam Z scan,” Phys. Rev. A 73(6), 065803 (2006).
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L. W. Wang and A. Zunger, “Pseudopotential calculations of nanoscale CdSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(15), 9579–9582 (1996).
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C. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Linear and nonlinear optical refractions of CR39 composite with CdSe nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 30(9), 1440–1445 (2008).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Wilson, W. L.

M. G. Bawendi, W. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, and L. E. Brus, “Electronic structure and photoexcited-carrier dynamics in nanometer-size CdSe clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(13), 1623–1626 (1990).
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Wise, F. W.

Wumaier, T.

V. S. Dneprovskii, E. A. Zhukov, D. A. Kabanin, V. L. Lyaskovskii, A. V. Rakova, and T. Wumaier, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of light in a colloidal solution of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots upon two-photon resonant excitation,” Phys. Solid State 49(2), 366–370 (2007).
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C. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Linear and nonlinear optical refractions of CR39 composite with CdSe nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 30(9), 1440–1445 (2008).
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S. M. Ma, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, R. Battle, H. Brown, K. Lee, L. Creekmore, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, S. S. Jung, W. Yu, and M. Namkung, “Third-order nonlinear susceptibility and hyperpolarizability of CdSe nanocrystals with femtosecond excitation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48(6), 1379–1384 (2006).

J. Seo, S. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
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X. Liu, K. Matsumura, Y. Tomita, K. Yasui, K. Kojima, and K. Chikama, “Nonlinear optical responses of nanoparticle-polymer composites incorporating organic (hyperbranched polymer)-metallic nanoparticle complex,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, W. N.

Yoon, K. B.

H. S. Kim, M. H. Lee, N. C. Jeong, S. M. Lee, B. K. Rhee, and K. B. Yoon, “Very high third-order nonlinear optical activities of intrazeolite PbS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(47), 15070–15071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, W.

J. Seo, S. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ma, J. T. Seo, Q. Yang, R. Battle, H. Brown, K. Lee, L. Creekmore, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, S. S. Jung, W. Yu, and M. Namkung, “Third-order nonlinear susceptibility and hyperpolarizability of CdSe nanocrystals with femtosecond excitation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48(6), 1379–1384 (2006).

Yumoto, J.

J. Yumoto, H. Shinojima, N. Uesugi, K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, and Y. Osaka, “Optical nonlinearity of CdSe microcrystallites in a sputtered SiO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(23), 2393–2395 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Y.

H. Song, Y. Zhai, Z. Zhou, Z. Hao, and L. Zhou, “Optical nonlinearity of CdSe and CdSe-C60 quantum dot,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 22(32), 3207–3213 (2008).
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Y. Lin, J. Zhang, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and figure of merit of CdS nanocrystals chemically stabilized in spin-processable polymer films,” J. Mater. Sci. 39(3), 993–996 (2004).
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C. Gan, Y. Zhang, S. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Linear and nonlinear optical refractions of CR39 composite with CdSe nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 30(9), 1440–1445 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, P. Zhao, P. Lin, and F. Sun, “Thermo-optic coefficients of polymers for optical waveguide applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(14), 4893–4896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Zhang, W. Q. He, C. M. Gu, W. Z. Shen, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Determination of the third- and fifth-order nonlinear refractive indices in InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, P.

Z. Zhang, P. Zhao, P. Lin, and F. Sun, “Thermo-optic coefficients of polymers for optical waveguide applications,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(14), 4893–4896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

H. Song, Y. Zhai, Z. Zhou, Z. Hao, and L. Zhou, “Optical nonlinearity of CdSe and CdSe-C60 quantum dot,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 22(32), 3207–3213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

H. Song, Y. Zhai, Z. Zhou, Z. Hao, and L. Zhou, “Optical nonlinearity of CdSe and CdSe-C60 quantum dot,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 22(32), 3207–3213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, E. A.

V. S. Dneprovskii, E. A. Zhukov, D. A. Kabanin, V. L. Lyaskovskii, A. V. Rakova, and T. Wumaier, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction of light in a colloidal solution of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots upon two-photon resonant excitation,” Phys. Solid State 49(2), 366–370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zunger, A.

L. W. Wang and A. Zunger, “Pseudopotential calculations of nanoscale CdSe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(15), 9579–9582 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Phys. (1)

G. P. Banfi, V. Degiorgio, and D. Ricard, “Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Adv. Phys. 47(3), 447–510 (1998) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

X. Liu, Y. Tomita, J. Oshima, K. Chikama, K. Matsubara, T. Nakashima, and T. Kawai, “Holographic assembly of semiconductor CdSe quantum dots in polymer for volume Bragg grating structures with diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 261109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Yumoto, H. Shinojima, N. Uesugi, K. Tsunetomo, H. Nasu, and Y. Osaka, “Optical nonlinearity of CdSe microcrystallites in a sputtered SiO2 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(23), 2393–2395 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, and J. R. Rios Leite, “Measurement of high-order optical nonlinear susceptibilities in semiconductor-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(19), 1788–1790 (1988).
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K. S. Bindra and A. K. Kar, “Role of femtosecond pulses in distinguishing third- and fifth-order nonlinearity for semiconductor-doped glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(23), 3761–3763 (2001).
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L. Pan, N. Tamai, K. Kamada, and S. Deki, “Nonlinear optical properties of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots in nonresonant region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Zhang, W. Q. He, C. M. Gu, W. Z. Shen, H. Ogawa, and Q. X. Guo, “Determination of the third- and fifth-order nonlinear refractive indices in InN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Taheri, H. Liu, B. Jassemnejad, D. Appling, R. C. Powell, and J. J. Song, “Intensity scan and two photon absorption and nonlinear refraction of C60 in toluene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(10), 1317–1319 (1996).
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Chem. Lett. (1)

T. Nakashima, T. Sakakibara, and T. Kawai, “Highly luminescent CdTe nanocrystal-polymer composites based on ionic liquid,” Chem. Lett. 34(10), 1410–1411 (2005).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Acioli, A. S. L. Gomes, J. R. Rios Leite, and C. B. De Araujo, “ultrafast χ(3)-related processes in semiconductor doped glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(7), 1277–1284 (1990).
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S. R. Friberg and P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear optical glasses for ultrafast optical switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(12), 2089–2094 (1987).
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N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, and M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(12), 2516–2522 (1989).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. S. Kim, M. H. Lee, N. C. Jeong, S. M. Lee, B. K. Rhee, and K. B. Yoon, “Very high third-order nonlinear optical activities of intrazeolite PbS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(47), 15070–15071 (2006).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral linear absorption coefficients for cured polymer nanocomposite film samples at different volume fractions of CdSe QDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for forward DMWM. BS, a beam splitter; L, a convex lens; S, a polymer nanocomposite film sample; P, a prism. k3, k5, k3 and k5 indicate wavevetors of self-diffracted beams.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Open-aperture Z-scan T(z) at I0 = 1.8 GW/cm2 as a function of sample position z for a polymer nanocomposite film sample with 0.91 vol.% CdSe QDs. The solid curves are the least-squares fits of the TPA (curve in red), SA1 (curve in blue) and SA2 (curve in brown) models to the data. Best fit values for the TPA, SA1 and SA2 models are β = 107 cm/GW, Is = 0.53 and 0.11 GW/cm2, respectively. (b) Transmittance change ΔT at z = 0 as a function of input intensity I0. The solid curves are the least-squares fits of the TPA (curve in red), SA1 (curve in blue) and SA2 (curve in brown) models to the data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Closed-aperture Z-scan T(z) at I0 = 1.8 GW/cm2 as a function of sample position z for the same polymer nanocomposite film sample with 0.91 vol.% CdSe QDs as that shown in Fig. 3. Solid curves correspond to the least-squares fits of the theoretical formulae for the closed-aperture Gaussian-beam Z-scan T(z) without (curve in red) and with (curve in blue) saturable absorption of the SA1 type. The best-fit values for n2 and n4 are −4.0 × 10−3 cm2/GW and + 1.5 × 10−3 cm4/GW2, respectively. (b) ΔTp-v/I0 as a function of input intensity I0. The solid line is the least-squares linear fit to the data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Extracted values for (a) n2 and (b) n4 as a function of input intensity I0 for a polymer nanocomposite film sample doped with 0.91 vol.% CdSe QDs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extracted values for (a) n2 and (b) n4 as a function of volume fraction of CdSe QDs. The solid curves are the least-squares fits to the data.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Closed-aperture Z-scan T(z) as a function of incident intensity for a polymer nanocomposite film sample doped with 0.91 vol.% CdSe QDs when the sample is placed at the valley (○) and peak (●) positions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Far-field transmitted and diffracted beams from the polymer nanocomposite film sample with 0.91 vol.% CdSe QDs at grating spacing of (a) 40 μm and (b) 1 μm.

Equations (12)

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n CdSe = 1+(ε1)/[1+ (7.5/D) 1.2 ] ,
α(I)={ α 0 1+I/ I s forahomogeneousbroadeningsystem(SA1) α 0 1+I/ I s foraninhomogeneousbroadeningsystem(SA2),
T(x)=1+ 4x ( x 2 +1)( x 2 +9) Δ Φ 0 (3) + 8x ( x 2 +1) 2 ( x 2 +25) Δ Φ 0 (5) ,
Δϕ( z,r,t )=k n 2 0 L I( z ,r,t)d z +k n 4 0 L I 2 ( z ,r,t)d z ,
E e (z,r,t)= I(L) exp[iΔϕ(z,r,t)].
E a (z,r,t)= I(L) m=0 [iΔϕ(z,r=0,t)] m m! w m0 w m exp( r 2 w m 2 ik r 2 2 R m +i θ m ).
T(z)= P T (z,t)dt S P i (t)dt ,
P T (z,t)=2π 0 r a I a (z,r,t)rdr= c ε 0 n 0 π 0 r a | E a (z,r,t) | 2 rdr,
n thermal = dn dT F 0 α 0 2ρ C v I 0 ,
χ eff (3) =f|q | 2 q 2 χ n (3) ,
q= 3 ε h ε n +2 ε h ,
χ eff (5) =f|q | 4 q 2 χ n (5) .

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