Abstract

We present an experimental and theoretical analysis of the influence of scattering losses on the net reflectivity of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed with a femtosecond laser and the point-by-point technique. We demonstrate that the ratio of the coupling strength coefficient to the scattering loss coefficient varies significantly with the inscribing laser pulse energy, and highlight that an optimal pulse-energy range exists for achieving high-reflectivity gratings. These results are critical for exploiting high power fiber laser opportunities based on point-by-point gratings.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1170–1172 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, “Recording of fiber Bragg gratings with femtosecond pulses using a 'point by point' technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)(Optical Society of America, 2004), p. CThM7.
  3. J. Thomas, C. Voigtländer, R. G. Becker, D. Richter, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond pulse written fiber gratings: a new avenue to integrated fiber technology,” Laser Photonics Rev., Early posting (2012).
  4. Y. Lai, A. Martinez, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1672–1674 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Jovanovic, M. Åslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Narrow linewidth, 100 W cw Yb3+-doped silica fiber laser with a point-by-point Bragg grating inscribed directly into the active core,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2804–2806 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “All-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7714–7723 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Goto, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and S. D. Jackson, “Linearly polarized fiber laser using a point-by-point Bragg grating in a single-polarization photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1872–1874 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Jovanovic, J. Thomas, R. J. Williams, M. J. Steel, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and M. J. Withford, “Polarization-dependent effects in point-by-point fiber Bragg gratings enable simple, linearly polarized fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6082–6095 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Lai, K. Zhou, K. Sugden, and I. Bennion, “Point-by-point inscription of first-order fiber Bragg grating for C-band applications,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18318–18325 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. J. Williams, C. Voigtländer, G. D. Marshall, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Point-by-point inscription of apodized fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2988–2990 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Point-by-point written fiber-Bragg gratings and their application in complex grating designs,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19844–19859 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. L. Åslund, N. Nemanja, N. Groothoff, J. Canning, G. D. Marshall, S. D. Jackson, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Optical loss mechanisms in femtosecond laser-written point-by-point fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14248–14254 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Express 19(1), 325–341 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Lu, J. Cui, and Y. Cui, “Reflection spectra of fiber Bragg gratings with random fluctuations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(2), 97–101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Janos, J. Canning, and M. G. Sceats, “Incoherent scattering losses in optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1827–1829 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1864–1866 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1864–1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1170–1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Åslund, M.

Åslund, M. L.

Becker, R. G.

Bennion, I.

Canning, J.

Cui, J.

C. Lu, J. Cui, and Y. Cui, “Reflection spectra of fiber Bragg gratings with random fluctuations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(2), 97–101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

C. Lu, J. Cui, and Y. Cui, “Reflection spectra of fiber Bragg gratings with random fluctuations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(2), 97–101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1170–1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fuerbach, A.

Goto, R.

Grobnic, D.

C. Smelser, S. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5377–5386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1864–1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Groothoff, N.

Jackson, S. D.

Janos, M.

Jovanovic, N.

R. Goto, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and S. D. Jackson, “Linearly polarized fiber laser using a point-by-point Bragg grating in a single-polarization photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1872–1874 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Express 19(1), 325–341 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “All-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7714–7723 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Point-by-point written fiber-Bragg gratings and their application in complex grating designs,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19844–19859 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, J. Thomas, R. J. Williams, M. J. Steel, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and M. J. Withford, “Polarization-dependent effects in point-by-point fiber Bragg gratings enable simple, linearly polarized fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6082–6095 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, M. Åslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Narrow linewidth, 100 W cw Yb3+-doped silica fiber laser with a point-by-point Bragg grating inscribed directly into the active core,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2804–2806 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khrushchev, I.

Y. Lai, A. Martinez, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1672–1674 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1170–1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

Lu, C.

C. Lu, J. Cui, and Y. Cui, “Reflection spectra of fiber Bragg gratings with random fluctuations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(2), 97–101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1864–1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

R. J. Williams, C. Voigtländer, G. D. Marshall, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Point-by-point inscription of apodized fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2988–2990 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Express 19(1), 325–341 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Goto, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and S. D. Jackson, “Linearly polarized fiber laser using a point-by-point Bragg grating in a single-polarization photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1872–1874 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Point-by-point written fiber-Bragg gratings and their application in complex grating designs,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19844–19859 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “All-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7714–7723 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, J. Thomas, R. J. Williams, M. J. Steel, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and M. J. Withford, “Polarization-dependent effects in point-by-point fiber Bragg gratings enable simple, linearly polarized fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6082–6095 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Åslund, N. Nemanja, N. Groothoff, J. Canning, G. D. Marshall, S. D. Jackson, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Optical loss mechanisms in femtosecond laser-written point-by-point fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14248–14254 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, M. Åslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Narrow linewidth, 100 W cw Yb3+-doped silica fiber laser with a point-by-point Bragg grating inscribed directly into the active core,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2804–2806 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, A.

Y. Lai, A. Martinez, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1672–1674 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1170–1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S.

Mihailov, S. J.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1864–1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nemanja, N.

Nolte, S.

Sceats, M. G.

Smelser, C.

Smelser, C. W.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1864–1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Sugden, K.

Thomas, J.

Tünnermann, A.

Voigtländer, C.

Walker, R. B.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1864–1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. J.

Withford, M. J.

R. Goto, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, and S. D. Jackson, “Linearly polarized fiber laser using a point-by-point Bragg grating in a single-polarization photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1872–1874 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Express 19(1), 325–341 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Williams, C. Voigtländer, G. D. Marshall, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Point-by-point inscription of apodized fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2988–2990 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “All-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7714–7723 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Point-by-point written fiber-Bragg gratings and their application in complex grating designs,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19844–19859 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, J. Thomas, R. J. Williams, M. J. Steel, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and M. J. Withford, “Polarization-dependent effects in point-by-point fiber Bragg gratings enable simple, linearly polarized fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6082–6095 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Åslund, N. Nemanja, N. Groothoff, J. Canning, G. D. Marshall, S. D. Jackson, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Optical loss mechanisms in femtosecond laser-written point-by-point fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14248–14254 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, M. Åslund, A. Fuerbach, S. D. Jackson, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Narrow linewidth, 100 W cw Yb3+-doped silica fiber laser with a point-by-point Bragg grating inscribed directly into the active core,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2804–2806 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, K.

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1170–1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, “Fiber Bragg gratings with suppressed cladding modes made in SMF-28 with a femtosecond IR laser and a phase mask,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1864–1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

C. Smelser, S. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, “Formation of Type I-IR and Type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5377–5386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, K. Sugden, and I. Bennion, “Point-by-point inscription of first-order fiber Bragg grating for C-band applications,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18318–18325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Åslund, N. Nemanja, N. Groothoff, J. Canning, G. D. Marshall, S. D. Jackson, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Optical loss mechanisms in femtosecond laser-written point-by-point fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14248–14254 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, J. Thomas, R. J. Williams, M. J. Steel, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and M. J. Withford, “Polarization-dependent effects in point-by-point fiber Bragg gratings enable simple, linearly polarized fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6082–6095 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “All-optical, actively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7714–7723 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Marshall, R. J. Williams, N. Jovanovic, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Point-by-point written fiber-Bragg gratings and their application in complex grating designs,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19844–19859 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Express 19(1), 325–341 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

C. Lu, J. Cui, and Y. Cui, “Reflection spectra of fiber Bragg gratings with random fluctuations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(2), 97–101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, “Recording of fiber Bragg gratings with femtosecond pulses using a 'point by point' technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)(Optical Society of America, 2004), p. CThM7.

J. Thomas, C. Voigtländer, R. G. Becker, D. Richter, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Femtosecond pulse written fiber gratings: a new avenue to integrated fiber technology,” Laser Photonics Rev., Early posting (2012).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission and reflection spectra of a 5 mm-long, uniform PbP grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Grating strength (black squares), scattering loss (blue triangles) and net reflectivity (red circles) of 5 mm-long PbP gratings inscribed with different pulse energies. Each grating has a 2nd order resonance in the C-band. Differential-interference-contrast micrographs of the PbP gratings inscribed with (b) 90 nJ, (c) 200 nJ and (d) 350 nJ are shown on the right (viewed from the direction of the inscribing beam). The measurement uncertainty of the data in (a) is 0.02 dB due to splices between the grating and the swept wavelength system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The ratio of coupling strength coefficient to scattering loss coefficient as a function of the inscribing pulse energy. Two data sets are shown from different days (higher ratios for data set #2 are most likely due to variation in femtosecond laser beam parameters from day to day). The uncertainty in these data arises from the measurement of the scattering loss which includes up to 0.02 dB splice loss from splicing the grating into the swept wavelength system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated net reflectivity and length of gratings with κL = 4 and with κ/α values corresponding to data set #1 in Fig. 3. Grating length is plotted on a logarithmic scale.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T λ λ B r a g g = exp [ 2 α L ] ,
T λ B r a g g exp [ 2 κ L ] ,
T λ B r a g g N e t = 10 log 10 ( 1 R ) ,
R λ B r a g g = | i κ α + α 2 + κ 2 coth ( L α 2 + κ 2 ) | 2 .

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