Abstract

We demonstrate photothermally induced optical switching of ultra-compact hybrid Si-VO2 ring resonators. The devices consist of a sub-micron length ~70nm thick patch of phase-changing VO2 integrated onto silicon ring resonators as small as 1.5μm in radius. The semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) of VO2 is triggered using a 532nm pump laser, while optical transmission is probed using a tunable cw laser near 1550nm. We observe optical modulation greater than 10dB from modest quality-factor (~103) resonances, as well as a large –1.26nm change in resonant wavelength Δλ, resulting from the large change in the dielectric function of VO2 in the insulator-to-metal transition achieved by optical pumping.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

J. Nag, E. A. Payzant, K. L. More, and R. F. Haglund, “Enhanced performance of room-temperature-grown epitaxial thin films of vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251916 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ryckman and S. M. Weiss, “Localized field enhancements in guided and defect modes of a periodic slot waveguide,” IEEE Photon. J 3(6), 986–995 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. B. Zhang, X. G. Jian, X. Y. Han, M. S. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal-insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 732–737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ruzmetov, G. Gopalakrishnan, J. D. Deng, V. Narayanamurti, and S. Ramanathan, “Electrical triggering of metal-insulator transition in nanoscale vanadium oxide junctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9431–9435 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z. W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, “Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, R. W. Schoenlein, R. López, L. C. Feldman, R. F. Haglund, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Photoinduced phase transition in VO2 nanocrystals: ultrafast control of surface-plasmon resonance,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 558–560 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, N. G. Emerson, and C. E. Png, “A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8845–8854 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. S. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and J. R. F. Haglund, “Semiconductor to metal phase transition in the nucleation and growth of VO[sub 2] nanoparticles and thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1209–1213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Optical nonlinearities in VO2 nanoparticles and thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5191–5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. Eyert, “The metal-insulator transitions of VO2: a band theoretical approach,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 9, 650–704 (2002).

2001

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and Mott transition in VO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(41), 8837–8845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, I. Rendina, and P. M. Sarro, “Thermo-optic effect exploitation in silicon microstructures,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 71(1-2), 19–26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1959

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apsel, A. B.

Ashrit, P. V.

T. Ben-Messaoud, G. Landry, J. P. Gariepy, B. Ramamoorthy, P. V. Ashrit, and A. Hache, “High contrast optical switching in vanadium dioxide thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6024–6027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z. W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Ben-Messaoud, T.

T. Ben-Messaoud, G. Landry, J. P. Gariepy, B. Ramamoorthy, P. V. Ashrit, and A. Hache, “High contrast optical switching in vanadium dioxide thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6024–6027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L. A.

Bogaerts, W.

Bowers, J. E.

Briggs, R. M.

Cao, J.

J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal-insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 732–737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalleri, A.

M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, R. W. Schoenlein, R. López, L. C. Feldman, R. F. Haglund, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Photoinduced phase transition in VO2 nanocrystals: ultrafast control of surface-plasmon resonance,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 558–560 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B. Q.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z. W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. W.

Chen, L.

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, I. Rendina, and P. M. Sarro, “Thermo-optic effect exploitation in silicon microstructures,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 71(1-2), 19–26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, L.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z. W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Della Corte, F. G.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, I. Rendina, and P. M. Sarro, “Thermo-optic effect exploitation in silicon microstructures,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 71(1-2), 19–26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J. D.

D. Ruzmetov, G. Gopalakrishnan, J. D. Deng, V. Narayanamurti, and S. Ramanathan, “Electrical triggering of metal-insulator transition in nanoscale vanadium oxide junctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dokania, R. K.

Dumon, P.

Ehrke, H.

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO(2) studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, N. G.

Ertekin, E.

J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal-insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 732–737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyert, V.

V. Eyert, “The metal-insulator transitions of VO2: a band theoretical approach,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 9, 650–704 (2002).

Fan, W.

J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal-insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 732–737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattal, D.

Fédéli, J. M.

Feldman, L. C.

M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, R. W. Schoenlein, R. López, L. C. Feldman, R. F. Haglund, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Photoinduced phase transition in VO2 nanocrystals: ultrafast control of surface-plasmon resonance,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 558–560 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and J. R. F. Haglund, “Semiconductor to metal phase transition in the nucleation and growth of VO[sub 2] nanoparticles and thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1209–1213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Optical nonlinearities in VO2 nanoparticles and thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5191–5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forget, P.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardes, F. Y.

Gariepy, J. P.

T. Ben-Messaoud, G. Landry, J. P. Gariepy, B. Ramamoorthy, P. V. Ashrit, and A. Hache, “High contrast optical switching in vanadium dioxide thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6024–6027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y. S.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. S. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geng, B. S.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopalakrishnan, G.

D. Ruzmetov, G. Gopalakrishnan, J. D. Deng, V. Narayanamurti, and S. Ramanathan, “Electrical triggering of metal-insulator transition in nanoscale vanadium oxide junctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, J. C.

J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal-insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 732–737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hache, A.

T. Ben-Messaoud, G. Landry, J. P. Gariepy, B. Ramamoorthy, P. V. Ashrit, and A. Hache, “High contrast optical switching in vanadium dioxide thin films,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6024–6027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, J. R. F.

J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and J. R. F. Haglund, “Semiconductor to metal phase transition in the nucleation and growth of VO[sub 2] nanoparticles and thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(2), 1209–1213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

A. Pashkin, C. Kubler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO(2) studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Nag, E. A. Payzant, K. L. More, and R. F. Haglund, “Enhanced performance of room-temperature-grown epitaxial thin films of vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251916 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1114 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of a hybrid Si-VO2 micro-ring resonator with 1.5μm radius. The lithographically placed VO2 patch is highlighted in false-color. (Inset scale bar is 250nm). (b) White-light reflectivity versus temperature on a thin film VO2 control sample deposited on a Si(100) substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the optical measurement set-up. (b) Passive spectral measurements of optical transmission on 1.5μm radius micro-ring resonators with (bottom) and without (top) an integrated VO2 patch. For clarity, the top all-Si curve has been offset by + 20dBm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical transmission of the 1.5μm radius hybrid Si-VO2 ring resonator as a function of wavelength, before and after triggering the SMT with a 532nm pump laser. The lines are Lorentzian fits. Inset: IR camera images revealing vertical radiation at a fixed probe wavelength, λ = 1568.78nm (dashed line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical transmission as a function of time at λ = 1568.78nm, in the 1.5μm radius hybrid Si-VO2 device, when turning the 532nm pump laser (a) ON and (b) OFF. (c) Single-frame images from the IR camera movie Media 1, highlighting the delayed probe response observed in (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized resonance shift after photothermally triggering the SMT for hybrid Si-VO2 micro-ring resonators of different radii and the same VO2 patch length LVO2 = 560nm. (b) Corresponding Q-factor for these devices before and after triggering the SMT. Inset illustrates the various decay channels affecting total Q-factor and an IR camera image showing vertical radiation from a 10μm radius hybrid resonator when ‘on-resonance’ in the semiconducting state.

Equations (3)

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Δ N eff =Δ N SMT ( L VO2 2πR )+ Γ Si (Δ n TO +Δ n FCI ),
1 Q tot = 1 Q coup + 1 Q prop .
1 Q prop = 1 Q ring + 1 Q V O 2 .

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