Abstract

The noise figure (NF) of a phase sensitive amplifier (PSA) based on a periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) waveguide was evaluated in the optical and electrical domains. Phase sensitive amplification was realized using degenerate parametric amplification in the PPLN waveguide, which was pumped by the second harmonic frequency of the signal. Second harmonic pumping enables direct observation of the intrinsic amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), which determined the NF of the PSA. An NF below the 3 dB quantum limit was obtained by observing the intrinsic ASE. The low NF was also confirmed via the noise floor measurement of a cascaded PSA and erbium doped fiber amplifier in the electrical domain. The PSA was used as a preamplifier for detecting a 40 Gbit/s phase shift keying signal. The low noise characteristics were confirmed by the improved sensitivity.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, A. Takada, and M. Asobe, “Phase sensitive degenerate parametric amplification using directly-bonded PPLN ridge waveguides,” Opt. Express19(7), 6326–6332 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Express19(26), B131–B139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(8), 1206–1213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Asobe, T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, K. Yoshino, E. Yamazaki, and A. Takada, “Low crosstalk and variable wavelength conversion using multiple QPM LiNbO3 waveguide module,” Electron. Lett.45(10), 519–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, and D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express17(22), 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2003

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “Noise figure of phase-sensitive parametric amplifier using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with lossy Kerr media and noisy pump,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(6), 799–812 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Low-noise amplification under the 3-dB noise figure in a high-gain phase-sensitive fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1954–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “In-line phase-sensitive amplifier with optical-PLL controlled internal pump light source,” Electron. Lett.33(25), 2155–2156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

1982

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1957

K. Shimoda, H. Takahashi, and C. H. Townes, “Fluctuations in amplification of quanta with application to maser amplifiers,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.12, 686–700 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1949

C. E. Shannon, “Communication in the presence of noise,” Proc. Inst. Radio Eng.37(1), 10–21 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Abram, I.

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asobe, M.

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, A. Takada, and M. Asobe, “Phase sensitive degenerate parametric amplification using directly-bonded PPLN ridge waveguides,” Opt. Express19(7), 6326–6332 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(8), 1206–1213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, K. Yoshino, E. Yamazaki, and A. Takada, “Low crosstalk and variable wavelength conversion using multiple QPM LiNbO3 waveguide module,” Electron. Lett.45(10), 519–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Crowley, A. M.

Dasgupta, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Demeritt, J. A.

Ellis, A. D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, K.

Goto, H.

Grangier, P.

Gray, S.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herstrøm, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Imajuku, W.

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “Noise figure of phase-sensitive parametric amplifier using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with lossy Kerr media and noisy pump,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(6), 799–812 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Low-noise amplification under the 3-dB noise figure in a high-gain phase-sensitive fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1954–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “In-line phase-sensitive amplifier with optical-PLL controlled internal pump light source,” Electron. Lett.33(25), 2155–2156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kakande, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, and D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express17(22), 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karlsson, M.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasai, K.

Lee, K. J.

Levenson, J. A.

Li, M.-J.

Liu, A.

Liu, S.

Lundström, C.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mazroa, D.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakazawa, M.

O’Gorman, J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, and D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express17(22), 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petropoulos, P.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, and D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express17(22), 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phelan, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, and N. Wada, “Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides,” Opt. Express19(26), B131–B139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D.

Richardson, D. J.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rivera, T.

Ruffin, A. B.

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “Communication in the presence of noise,” Proc. Inst. Radio Eng.37(1), 10–21 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, K.

K. Shimoda, H. Takahashi, and C. H. Townes, “Fluctuations in amplification of quanta with application to maser amplifiers,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.12, 686–700 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Shinada, S.

Sjödin, M.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slavík, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sygletos, S.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, A. Takada, and M. Asobe, “Phase sensitive degenerate parametric amplification using directly-bonded PPLN ridge waveguides,” Opt. Express19(7), 6326–6332 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(8), 1206–1213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, K. Yoshino, E. Yamazaki, and A. Takada, “Low crosstalk and variable wavelength conversion using multiple QPM LiNbO3 waveguide module,” Electron. Lett.45(10), 519–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, A. Takada, and M. Asobe, “Phase sensitive degenerate parametric amplification using directly-bonded PPLN ridge waveguides,” Opt. Express19(7), 6326–6332 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asobe, T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, K. Yoshino, E. Yamazaki, and A. Takada, “Low crosstalk and variable wavelength conversion using multiple QPM LiNbO3 waveguide module,” Electron. Lett.45(10), 519–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “Noise figure of phase-sensitive parametric amplifier using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with lossy Kerr media and noisy pump,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(6), 799–812 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Low-noise amplification under the 3-dB noise figure in a high-gain phase-sensitive fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1954–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “In-line phase-sensitive amplifier with optical-PLL controlled internal pump light source,” Electron. Lett.33(25), 2155–2156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

K. Shimoda, H. Takahashi, and C. H. Townes, “Fluctuations in amplification of quanta with application to maser amplifiers,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.12, 686–700 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express18(14), 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townes, C. H.

K. Shimoda, H. Takahashi, and C. H. Townes, “Fluctuations in amplification of quanta with application to maser amplifiers,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.12, 686–700 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Umeki, T.

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, A. Takada, and M. Asobe, “Phase sensitive degenerate parametric amplification using directly-bonded PPLN ridge waveguides,” Opt. Express19(7), 6326–6332 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(8), 1206–1213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, K. Yoshino, E. Yamazaki, and A. Takada, “Low crosstalk and variable wavelength conversion using multiple QPM LiNbO3 waveguide module,” Electron. Lett.45(10), 519–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vasilyev, M.

Wada, N.

Walton, D. T.

Wang, J.

Weerasuriya, R.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamabayashi, Y.

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Low-noise amplification under the 3-dB noise figure in a high-gain phase-sensitive fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1954–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, E.

M. Asobe, T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, K. Yoshino, E. Yamazaki, and A. Takada, “Low crosstalk and variable wavelength conversion using multiple QPM LiNbO3 waveguide module,” Electron. Lett.45(10), 519–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

Yoshino, K.

M. Asobe, T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, K. Yoshino, E. Yamazaki, and A. Takada, “Low crosstalk and variable wavelength conversion using multiple QPM LiNbO3 waveguide module,” Electron. Lett.45(10), 519–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zenteno, L. A.

Electron. Lett.

M. Asobe, T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, K. Yoshino, E. Yamazaki, and A. Takada, “Low crosstalk and variable wavelength conversion using multiple QPM LiNbO3 waveguide module,” Electron. Lett.45(10), 519–520 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Low-noise amplification under the 3-dB noise figure in a high-gain phase-sensitive fiber amplifier,” Electron. Lett.35(22), 1954–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “In-line phase-sensitive amplifier with optical-PLL controlled internal pump light source,” Electron. Lett.33(25), 2155–2156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “Noise figure of phase-sensitive parametric amplifier using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with lossy Kerr media and noisy pump,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(6), 799–812 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(8), 1206–1213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

K. Shimoda, H. Takahashi, and C. H. Townes, “Fluctuations in amplification of quanta with application to maser amplifiers,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.12, 686–700 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields26(8), 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Inst. Radio Eng.

C. E. Shannon, “Communication in the presence of noise,” Proc. Inst. Radio Eng.37(1), 10–21 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Myslivets and S. Radic, “Advanced fiber optic parametric synthsis and characterization” in Optical Fiber Communications/ National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011 Paper OWL5 (2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectra of the EDFA and the PSA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ASE power of the EDFA and the PSA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electrical noise spectra of the EDFA and the cascaded PSA and EDFA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average noise power density of the EDFA and the cascaded PSA and EDFA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Bit error rate performance.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PSA: n out =G n in + 1 4 { ( G1 )+( 1 G 1 ) },
PIA: n out =G n in +(G1) n sp m,
PSA: P ASE = 1 4 η out (G1)( 1+D(αL) ) e αL hνΔν,
EDFA: P ASE =2 η out (G1) n sp hνΔν,
D(αL)= 1 ( αL ) 2 ( e αL 1αL 1 2 ( αL ) 2 ),
G ext = η in G e αL η out ,
PSA: NF= 1 η in G e αL η out + 1+D( αL ) η in G1 G = 1 G ext + P ASE 1 4 G ext hνΔν ,
EDFA: NF= 1 η in G η out + 2 n sp η in G1 G = 1 G ext + P ASE G ext hνΔν ,
F PSA+PIA = F PSA + F PIA 1 G 1 ,

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