Abstract

Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are promising materials for saturable absorbers (SAs) in mode-locked lasers. However it has been widely recognized that the degradation of optical properties of film-type SWNTs used in femtosecond mode-locked lasers limits the achievable long-term stability of such lasers. In this paper, we study the degradation of optical properties of SWNT-SA fabricated as sandwich type using HiPCO SWNTs with an Er-doped all-fiber laser. The thresholds of laser pump power are examined to avoid the damage of the SWNT-SA. Based on the proposed analysis, it is shown that all-fiber laser pulses of 300 fs pulse width, 3.85 mW average output power, 211.7 MW/cm2 peak intensity and 69.9 MHz repetition rate can be reliably generated without any significant damage to the SWNT-SA film.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 5A), 494–496 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 51–56 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2449–2451 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res.3(6), 404–411 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Shohda, M. Nakazawa, J. Mata, and J. Tsukamoto, “A 113 fs fiber laser operating at 1.56 µm using a cascadable film-type saturable absorber with P3HT-incorporated single-wall carbon nanotubes coated on polyamide,” Opt. Express18(9), 9712–9721 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. C. H. Li, H. C. Liu, S. C. Tseng, Y. P. Lin, S. P. Chen, J. Y. Li, K. H. Wu, and J. Y. Juang, “Enhancement of the field emission properties of low-temperature-growth multi-wall carbon nanotubes by KrF excimer laser irradiation post-treatments,” Diamond Related Materials15(11-12), 2010–2014 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Nakamiya, T. Ueda, T. Ikegami, K. Ebihara, and R. Tsuda, “Thermal analysis of carbon nanotube film irradiated by a pulsed laser,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(3-4), 400–403 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

W. J. Blau and J. Wang, “Optical Materials: variety pays off for nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 705–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakamiya, T. Ueda, T. Ikegami, K. Ebihara, and R. Tsuda, “Thermal analysis of carbon nanotube film irradiated by a pulsed laser,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(3-4), 400–403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(21), 2449–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C. H. Li, H. C. Liu, S. C. Tseng, Y. P. Lin, S. P. Chen, J. Y. Li, K. H. Wu, and J. Y. Juang, “Enhancement of the field emission properties of low-temperature-growth multi-wall carbon nanotubes by KrF excimer laser irradiation post-treatments,” Diamond Related Materials15(11-12), 2010–2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 51–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sun, J. L. Gong, Z. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Zhu, S. X. He, Z. X. Wang, Y. Chen, and G. Hu, “Nanocrystalline diamond from carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2901–2903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 5A), 494–496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Z. Ma, B. Q. Wei, C. L. Xu, J. Liang, and D. H. Wu, “The morphology changes of carbon nanotubes under laser irradiation,” Carbon38(4), 636–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. Iijima, “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon,” Nature354(6348), 56–58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 5A), 494–496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

W. J. Blau and J. Wang, “Optical Materials: variety pays off for nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 705–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. P.

C. H. Li, H. C. Liu, S. C. Tseng, Y. P. Lin, S. P. Chen, J. Y. Li, K. H. Wu, and J. Y. Juang, “Enhancement of the field emission properties of low-temperature-growth multi-wall carbon nanotubes by KrF excimer laser irradiation post-treatments,” Diamond Related Materials15(11-12), 2010–2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

L. T. Sun, J. L. Gong, Z. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Zhu, S. X. He, Z. X. Wang, Y. Chen, and G. Hu, “Nanocrystalline diamond from carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2901–2903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W. B.

Choi, S. Y.

Ebihara, K.

T. Nakamiya, T. Ueda, T. Ikegami, K. Ebihara, and R. Tsuda, “Thermal analysis of carbon nanotube film irradiated by a pulsed laser,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(3-4), 400–403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res.3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gong, J. L.

L. T. Sun, J. L. Gong, Z. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Zhu, S. X. He, Z. X. Wang, Y. Chen, and G. Hu, “Nanocrystalline diamond from carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2901–2903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res.3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, S. X.

L. T. Sun, J. L. Gong, Z. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Zhu, S. X. He, Z. X. Wang, Y. Chen, and G. Hu, “Nanocrystalline diamond from carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2901–2903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, G.

L. T. Sun, J. L. Gong, Z. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Zhu, S. X. He, Z. X. Wang, Y. Chen, and G. Hu, “Nanocrystalline diamond from carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2901–2903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, S.

S. Iijima, “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon,” Nature354(6348), 56–58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

T. Nakamiya, T. Ueda, T. Ikegami, K. Ebihara, and R. Tsuda, “Thermal analysis of carbon nanotube film irradiated by a pulsed laser,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(3-4), 400–403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Itoga, E.

Jablonski, M.

Juang, J. Y.

C. H. Li, H. C. Liu, S. C. Tseng, Y. P. Lin, S. P. Chen, J. Y. Li, K. H. Wu, and J. Y. Juang, “Enhancement of the field emission properties of low-temperature-growth multi-wall carbon nanotubes by KrF excimer laser irradiation post-treatments,” Diamond Related Materials15(11-12), 2010–2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kataura, H.

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 5A), 494–496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kazaoui, S.

Lee, S.

Li, C. H.

C. H. Li, H. C. Liu, S. C. Tseng, Y. P. Lin, S. P. Chen, J. Y. Li, K. H. Wu, and J. Y. Juang, “Enhancement of the field emission properties of low-temperature-growth multi-wall carbon nanotubes by KrF excimer laser irradiation post-treatments,” Diamond Related Materials15(11-12), 2010–2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. Y.

C. H. Li, H. C. Liu, S. C. Tseng, Y. P. Lin, S. P. Chen, J. Y. Li, K. H. Wu, and J. Y. Juang, “Enhancement of the field emission properties of low-temperature-growth multi-wall carbon nanotubes by KrF excimer laser irradiation post-treatments,” Diamond Related Materials15(11-12), 2010–2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

R. Z. Ma, B. Q. Wei, C. L. Xu, J. Liang, and D. H. Wu, “The morphology changes of carbon nanotubes under laser irradiation,” Carbon38(4), 636–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. P.

C. H. Li, H. C. Liu, S. C. Tseng, Y. P. Lin, S. P. Chen, J. Y. Li, K. H. Wu, and J. Y. Juang, “Enhancement of the field emission properties of low-temperature-growth multi-wall carbon nanotubes by KrF excimer laser irradiation post-treatments,” Diamond Related Materials15(11-12), 2010–2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

C. H. Li, H. C. Liu, S. C. Tseng, Y. P. Lin, S. P. Chen, J. Y. Li, K. H. Wu, and J. Y. Juang, “Enhancement of the field emission properties of low-temperature-growth multi-wall carbon nanotubes by KrF excimer laser irradiation post-treatments,” Diamond Related Materials15(11-12), 2010–2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R. Z.

R. Z. Ma, B. Q. Wei, C. L. Xu, J. Liang, and D. H. Wu, “The morphology changes of carbon nanotubes under laser irradiation,” Carbon38(4), 636–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, S.

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mata, J.

Minami, N.

Minoshima, K.

Miyashita, K.

Nakamiya, T.

T. Nakamiya, T. Ueda, T. Ikegami, K. Ebihara, and R. Tsuda, “Thermal analysis of carbon nanotube film irradiated by a pulsed laser,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(3-4), 400–403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

Petrov, V.

Rotermund, F.

Rozhin, A. G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res.3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 5A), 494–496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

Set, S. Y.

Shohda, F.

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L. T.

L. T. Sun, J. L. Gong, Z. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Zhu, S. X. He, Z. X. Wang, Y. Chen, and G. Hu, “Nanocrystalline diamond from carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2901–2903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res.3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Tatsuura, S.

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 5A), 494–496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tokumoto, M.

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 5A), 494–496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, S. C.

C. H. Li, H. C. Liu, S. C. Tseng, Y. P. Lin, S. P. Chen, J. Y. Li, K. H. Wu, and J. Y. Juang, “Enhancement of the field emission properties of low-temperature-growth multi-wall carbon nanotubes by KrF excimer laser irradiation post-treatments,” Diamond Related Materials15(11-12), 2010–2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, R.

T. Nakamiya, T. Ueda, T. Ikegami, K. Ebihara, and R. Tsuda, “Thermal analysis of carbon nanotube film irradiated by a pulsed laser,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(3-4), 400–403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, J.

Ueda, T.

T. Nakamiya, T. Ueda, T. Ikegami, K. Ebihara, and R. Tsuda, “Thermal analysis of carbon nanotube film irradiated by a pulsed laser,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(3-4), 400–403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res.3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

W. J. Blau and J. Wang, “Optical Materials: variety pays off for nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 705–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. X.

L. T. Sun, J. L. Gong, Z. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Zhu, S. X. He, Z. X. Wang, Y. Chen, and G. Hu, “Nanocrystalline diamond from carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2901–2903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, B. Q.

R. Z. Ma, B. Q. Wei, C. L. Xu, J. Liang, and D. H. Wu, “The morphology changes of carbon nanotubes under laser irradiation,” Carbon38(4), 636–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res.3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. H.

R. Z. Ma, B. Q. Wei, C. L. Xu, J. Liang, and D. H. Wu, “The morphology changes of carbon nanotubes under laser irradiation,” Carbon38(4), 636–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K. H.

C. H. Li, H. C. Liu, S. C. Tseng, Y. P. Lin, S. P. Chen, J. Y. Li, K. H. Wu, and J. Y. Juang, “Enhancement of the field emission properties of low-temperature-growth multi-wall carbon nanotubes by KrF excimer laser irradiation post-treatments,” Diamond Related Materials15(11-12), 2010–2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. L.

R. Z. Ma, B. Q. Wei, C. L. Xu, J. Liang, and D. H. Wu, “The morphology changes of carbon nanotubes under laser irradiation,” Carbon38(4), 636–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yaguchi, H.

Yamashita, S.

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yim, J. H.

Zhu, D. Z.

L. T. Sun, J. L. Gong, Z. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Zhu, S. X. He, Z. X. Wang, Y. Chen, and G. Hu, “Nanocrystalline diamond from carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2901–2903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z. Y.

L. T. Sun, J. L. Gong, Z. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Zhu, S. X. He, Z. X. Wang, Y. Chen, and G. Hu, “Nanocrystalline diamond from carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2901–2903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Sun, J. L. Gong, Z. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Zhu, S. X. He, Z. X. Wang, Y. Chen, and G. Hu, “Nanocrystalline diamond from carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(15), 2901–2903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carbon

R. Z. Ma, B. Q. Wei, C. L. Xu, J. Liang, and D. H. Wu, “The morphology changes of carbon nanotubes under laser irradiation,” Carbon38(4), 636–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys.

T. Nakamiya, T. Ueda, T. Ikegami, K. Ebihara, and R. Tsuda, “Thermal analysis of carbon nanotube film irradiated by a pulsed laser,” Curr. Appl. Phys.8(3-4), 400–403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Related Materials

C. H. Li, H. C. Liu, S. C. Tseng, Y. P. Lin, S. P. Chen, J. Y. Li, K. H. Wu, and J. Y. Juang, “Enhancement of the field emission properties of low-temperature-growth multi-wall carbon nanotubes by KrF excimer laser irradiation post-treatments,” Diamond Related Materials15(11-12), 2010–2014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Sakakibara, S. Tatsuura, H. Kataura, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Achiba, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of single-wall carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 5A), 494–496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Res.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Res.3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

W. J. Blau and J. Wang, “Optical Materials: variety pays off for nanotubes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 705–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

S. Iijima, “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon,” Nature354(6348), 56–58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

S. Yamashita, “Carbon nanotube based mode-locked fiber lasers,” Proccedings of the OSA/AOE, Paper No. SaG5 (2008).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SWNT-SA. (a) Schematics of the sandwich type SWNT-SA. (b) Photograph of a SWNT-SA

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristics of the fabricated SWNT-SA. (a) Absorption spectra of the SWNTs film. (b) Nonlinear power-dependent normalized absorbance of the SWNT-SA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematics of the stretched-pulse fiber laser with the SWNT-SA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristics of the laser output. (a) Autocorrelation trace. (b) Optical spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the output pulse. (a) Output power. (b) FWHM bandwidth.(c) FWHM bandwidth vs. Output power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of measuring system for change in absorbance of a SWNT-SA with time.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Change in optical absorbance over time.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Changes in absorbance a function of incident power levels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical microscope images of a SWNT-SA.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Raman spectra of the SWNT-SA.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

SEM images for SWNT-SA. (a) Entire SEM image. (b) Enlarged view of the area with the laser irradiation. (c) Enlarged view without laser irradiation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Manufactured SWNT-SA Film

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