Abstract

This work reveals a cost-efficient and flexible approach to various microlens arrays on polymers, which is essential to micro-optics elements. An 800-nm femtosecond laser is employed to control the hydrofluoric (HF) acid etching process on silica glasses, and concave microstructures with smooth curved surfaces are produced by this method. Then, the micro-structured glass templates can serve as molds for replicating microlenses on polymers. In this paper, a high-ordered microlens array with over 16,000 hexagonal-shaped lenses is fabricated on poly (dimethyl siloxane) [PDMS], and its perfect light-gathering ability and imaging performance are demonstrated. The flexibility of this method is demonstrated by successful preparation of several concave molds with different patterns which are difficult to be obtained by other methods. This technique provides a new route to small-scaled, smooth and curved surfaces which is widely used in micro-optics, biochemical analysis and superhydrophobic interface.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. A. Biebuyck and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-organization of organic liquids on patterned self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on gold,” Langmuir 10(8), 2790–2793 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography,” Langmuir 18(24), 9312–9318 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Peng, Y. Guo, S. Liu, and Z. Cui, “Real-time gray-scale photolithography for fabrication of continuous microstructure,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1720–1722 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. K. Lee, K. C. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “A simple method for microlens fabrication by the modified LIGA process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(3), 334–340 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, “Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 124101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, G.-R. Yi, and H. Choi, “Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres,” Langmuir 22(17), 7358–7363 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Guo, S. Z. Xiao, X. M. Zhai, J. W. Li, A. D. Xia, and W. H. Huang, “Micro lens fabrication by means of femtosecond two photon photopolymerization,” Opt. Express 14(2), 810–816 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, “Ferrofluids for fabrication of remotely controllable micro-nanomachines by two-photon polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(29), 3204–3207 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, “High numerical aperture microlens arrays of close packing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Liu, F. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Yang, D. Zhang, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Photoetching of spherical microlenses on glasses using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 282(20), 4119–4123 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 79, 1695–1709 (2004).
  14. W. G. Roeterdink, L. B. F. Juurlink, O. P. H. Vaughan, J. Dura Diez, M. Bonn, and A. W. Kleyn, “Coulomb explosion in femtosecond laser ablation of Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4190 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Hu, X. Wang, H. Zhai, N. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Generation of multiple stress waves in silica glass in high fluence femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061117 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Budiman, E. M. Hsu, H. K. Haugen, and G. A. Botton, “Cross-sectional study of femtosecond laser bulk modification of crystalline α-quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(4), 849–853 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, E. M. Hsu, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of metal and thermal oxide layers on silicon: studies utilizing cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 473–478 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. C. Chen, W. K. Huang, and C. J. Ko, “Self-organization of microlens arrays caused by the spin-coating-assisted hydrophobic effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2454–2456 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Tripathi, T. V. Chokshi, and N. Chronis, “A high numerical aperture, polymer-based, planar microlens array,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19908–19918 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, “High numerical aperture microlens arrays of close packing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, X. Wang, H. Zhai, N. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Generation of multiple stress waves in silica glass in high fluence femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Budiman, E. M. Hsu, H. K. Haugen, and G. A. Botton, “Cross-sectional study of femtosecond laser bulk modification of crystalline α-quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(4), 849–853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, “Ferrofluids for fabrication of remotely controllable micro-nanomachines by two-photon polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(29), 3204–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, F. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Yang, D. Zhang, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Photoetching of spherical microlenses on glasses using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 282(20), 4119–4123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Tripathi, T. V. Chokshi, and N. Chronis, “A high numerical aperture, polymer-based, planar microlens array,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19908–19918 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, E. M. Hsu, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of metal and thermal oxide layers on silicon: studies utilizing cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 473–478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

F. C. Chen, W. K. Huang, and C. J. Ko, “Self-organization of microlens arrays caused by the spin-coating-assisted hydrophobic effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2454–2456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, G.-R. Yi, and H. Choi, “Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres,” Langmuir 22(17), 7358–7363 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Guo, S. Z. Xiao, X. M. Zhai, J. W. Li, A. D. Xia, and W. H. Huang, “Micro lens fabrication by means of femtosecond two photon photopolymerization,” Opt. Express 14(2), 810–816 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, “Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 79, 1695–1709 (2004).

2003 (1)

W. G. Roeterdink, L. B. F. Juurlink, O. P. H. Vaughan, J. Dura Diez, M. Bonn, and A. W. Kleyn, “Coulomb explosion in femtosecond laser ablation of Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. K. Lee, K. C. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “A simple method for microlens fabrication by the modified LIGA process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(3), 334–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography,” Langmuir 18(24), 9312–9318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Peng, Y. Guo, S. Liu, and Z. Cui, “Real-time gray-scale photolithography for fabrication of continuous microstructure,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1720–1722 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. A. Biebuyck and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-organization of organic liquids on patterned self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on gold,” Langmuir 10(8), 2790–2793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ananthavel, S. P.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, S.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biebuyck, H. A.

H. A. Biebuyck and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-organization of organic liquids on patterned self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on gold,” Langmuir 10(8), 2790–2793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccurso, E.

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, “Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bonn, M.

W. G. Roeterdink, L. B. F. Juurlink, O. P. H. Vaughan, J. Dura Diez, M. Bonn, and A. W. Kleyn, “Coulomb explosion in femtosecond laser ablation of Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Botton, G. A.

M. Budiman, E. M. Hsu, H. K. Haugen, and G. A. Botton, “Cross-sectional study of femtosecond laser bulk modification of crystalline α-quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(4), 849–853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, E. M. Hsu, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of metal and thermal oxide layers on silicon: studies utilizing cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 473–478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Budiman, M.

M. Budiman, E. M. Hsu, H. K. Haugen, and G. A. Botton, “Cross-sectional study of femtosecond laser bulk modification of crystalline α-quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(4), 849–853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Butt, H. J.

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, “Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

H. Liu, F. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Yang, D. Zhang, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Photoetching of spherical microlenses on glasses using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 282(20), 4119–4123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. C.

F. C. Chen, W. K. Huang, and C. J. Ko, “Self-organization of microlens arrays caused by the spin-coating-assisted hydrophobic effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2454–2456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. D.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, “High numerical aperture microlens arrays of close packing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.-D.

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, “Ferrofluids for fabrication of remotely controllable micro-nanomachines by two-photon polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(29), 3204–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, G.-R. Yi, and H. Choi, “Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres,” Langmuir 22(17), 7358–7363 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chokshi, T. V.

Chronis, N.

Crawford, T. H. R.

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, E. M. Hsu, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of metal and thermal oxide layers on silicon: studies utilizing cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 473–478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Z.

Cumpston, B. H.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Du, X.-B.

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, “Ferrofluids for fabrication of remotely controllable micro-nanomachines by two-photon polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(29), 3204–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dura Diez, J.

W. G. Roeterdink, L. B. F. Juurlink, O. P. H. Vaughan, J. Dura Diez, M. Bonn, and A. W. Kleyn, “Coulomb explosion in femtosecond laser ablation of Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, D. L.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erskine, L. L.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H. H.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, “High numerical aperture microlens arrays of close packing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Graf, K.

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, “Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guizard, S.

S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Guo, R.

Guo, Y.

Hankeln, B.

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, “Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

M. Budiman, E. M. Hsu, H. K. Haugen, and G. A. Botton, “Cross-sectional study of femtosecond laser bulk modification of crystalline α-quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(4), 849–853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, E. M. Hsu, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of metal and thermal oxide layers on silicon: studies utilizing cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 473–478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, “Ferrofluids for fabrication of remotely controllable micro-nanomachines by two-photon polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(29), 3204–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heikal, A. A.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

H. Liu, F. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Yang, D. Zhang, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Photoetching of spherical microlenses on glasses using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 282(20), 4119–4123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, E. M.

M. Budiman, E. M. Hsu, H. K. Haugen, and G. A. Botton, “Cross-sectional study of femtosecond laser bulk modification of crystalline α-quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(4), 849–853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, E. M. Hsu, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of metal and thermal oxide layers on silicon: studies utilizing cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 473–478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

H. Hu, X. Wang, H. Zhai, N. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Generation of multiple stress waves in silica glass in high fluence femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. H.

Huang, W. K.

F. C. Chen, W. K. Huang, and C. J. Ko, “Self-organization of microlens arrays caused by the spin-coating-assisted hydrophobic effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2454–2456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, D.-Y.

H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, G.-R. Yi, and H. Choi, “Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres,” Langmuir 22(17), 7358–7363 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juurlink, L. B. F.

W. G. Roeterdink, L. B. F. Juurlink, O. P. H. Vaughan, J. Dura Diez, M. Bonn, and A. W. Kleyn, “Coulomb explosion in femtosecond laser ablation of Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kleyn, A. W.

W. G. Roeterdink, L. B. F. Juurlink, O. P. H. Vaughan, J. Dura Diez, M. Bonn, and A. W. Kleyn, “Coulomb explosion in femtosecond laser ablation of Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ko, C. J.

F. C. Chen, W. K. Huang, and C. J. Ko, “Self-organization of microlens arrays caused by the spin-coating-assisted hydrophobic effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2454–2456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, S. M.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-Y. S.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. C.

S. K. Lee, K. C. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “A simple method for microlens fabrication by the modified LIGA process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(3), 334–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. K.

S. K. Lee, K. C. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “A simple method for microlens fabrication by the modified LIGA process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(3), 334–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

S. K. Lee, K. C. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “A simple method for microlens fabrication by the modified LIGA process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(3), 334–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. W.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, F. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Yang, D. Zhang, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Photoetching of spherical microlenses on glasses using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 282(20), 4119–4123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Mao, S. S.

S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Mao, X.

S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Marder, S. R.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P.

S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 79, 1695–1709 (2004).

McCord-Maughon, D.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nam, H. J.

H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, G.-R. Yi, and H. Choi, “Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres,” Langmuir 22(17), 7358–7363 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niesenhaus, B.

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, “Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niu, L. G.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, “High numerical aperture microlens arrays of close packing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, C.

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography,” Langmuir 18(24), 9312–9318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Q.

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Qin, J.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quéré, F.

S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Röckel, H.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roeterdink, W. G.

W. G. Roeterdink, L. B. F. Juurlink, O. P. H. Vaughan, J. Dura Diez, M. Bonn, and A. W. Kleyn, “Coulomb explosion in femtosecond laser ablation of Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rumi, M.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R. E.

S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Si, J.

H. Liu, F. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Yang, D. Zhang, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Photoetching of spherical microlenses on glasses using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 282(20), 4119–4123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. F.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, “High numerical aperture microlens arrays of close packing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, “High numerical aperture microlens arrays of close packing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H.-B.

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, “Ferrofluids for fabrication of remotely controllable micro-nanomachines by two-photon polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(29), 3204–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Y.

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, “Ferrofluids for fabrication of remotely controllable micro-nanomachines by two-photon polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(29), 3204–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tripathi, A.

Vaughan, O. P. H.

W. G. Roeterdink, L. B. F. Juurlink, O. P. H. Vaughan, J. Dura Diez, M. Bonn, and A. W. Kleyn, “Coulomb explosion in femtosecond laser ablation of Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, “Ferrofluids for fabrication of remotely controllable micro-nanomachines by two-photon polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(29), 3204–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. N.

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

H. Hu, X. Wang, H. Zhai, N. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Generation of multiple stress waves in silica glass in high fluence femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, “High numerical aperture microlens arrays of close packing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

H. Hu, X. Wang, H. Zhai, N. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Generation of multiple stress waves in silica glass in high fluence femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, F. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Yang, D. Zhang, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Photoetching of spherical microlenses on glasses using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 282(20), 4119–4123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography,” Langmuir 18(24), 9312–9318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Biebuyck and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-organization of organic liquids on patterned self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on gold,” Langmuir 10(8), 2790–2793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, “High numerical aperture microlens arrays of close packing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M. H.

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography,” Langmuir 18(24), 9312–9318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Z.

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, “High numerical aperture microlens arrays of close packing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.-L.

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xia, A. D.

Xia, H.

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, “Ferrofluids for fabrication of remotely controllable micro-nanomachines by two-photon polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(29), 3204–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S. Z.

Yamanaka, J.

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, E. M. Hsu, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of metal and thermal oxide layers on silicon: studies utilizing cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 473–478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

H. Liu, F. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Yang, D. Zhang, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Photoetching of spherical microlenses on glasses using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 282(20), 4119–4123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G.-R.

H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, G.-R. Yi, and H. Choi, “Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres,” Langmuir 22(17), 7358–7363 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhai, H.

H. Hu, X. Wang, H. Zhai, N. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Generation of multiple stress waves in silica glass in high fluence femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, X. M.

Zhang, D.

H. Liu, F. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Yang, D. Zhang, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Photoetching of spherical microlenses on glasses using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 282(20), 4119–4123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, N.

H. Hu, X. Wang, H. Zhai, N. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Generation of multiple stress waves in silica glass in high fluence femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.-L.

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, “Ferrofluids for fabrication of remotely controllable micro-nanomachines by two-photon polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(29), 3204–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

H. Xia, J. Wang, Y. Tian, Q.-D. Chen, X.-B. Du, Y.-L. Zhang, Y. He, and H.-B. Sun, “Ferrofluids for fabrication of remotely controllable micro-nanomachines by two-photon polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(29), 3204–3207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

W. G. Roeterdink, L. B. F. Juurlink, O. P. H. Vaughan, J. Dura Diez, M. Bonn, and A. W. Kleyn, “Coulomb explosion in femtosecond laser ablation of Si(111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4190 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, X. Wang, H. Zhai, N. Zhang, and P. Wang, “Generation of multiple stress waves in silica glass in high fluence femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, S. Z. Wu, L. G. Niu, Q. D. Chen, R. Wang, J. F. Song, H. H. Fang, and H. B. Sun, “High numerical aperture microlens arrays of close packing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Bonaccurso, H. J. Butt, B. Hankeln, B. Niesenhaus, and K. Graf, “Fabrication of microvessels and microlenses from polymers by solvent droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 124101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

M. Budiman, E. M. Hsu, H. K. Haugen, and G. A. Botton, “Cross-sectional study of femtosecond laser bulk modification of crystalline α-quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(4), 849–853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. R. Crawford, J. Yamanaka, E. M. Hsu, G. A. Botton, and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser irradiation of metal and thermal oxide layers on silicon: studies utilizing cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(3), 473–478 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. C. Chen, W. K. Huang, and C. J. Ko, “Self-organization of microlens arrays caused by the spin-coating-assisted hydrophobic effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2454–2456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

S. K. Lee, K. C. Lee, and S. S. Lee, “A simple method for microlens fabrication by the modified LIGA process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(3), 334–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

D. Wu, Q. D. Chen, L. G. Niu, J. N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, “Femtosecond laser rapid prototyping of nanoshells and suspending components towards microfluidic devices,” Lab Chip 9(16), 2391–2394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (3)

H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, G.-R. Yi, and H. Choi, “Close-packed hemispherical microlens array from two-dimensional ordered polymeric microspheres,” Langmuir 22(17), 7358–7363 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Biebuyck and G. M. Whitesides, “Self-organization of organic liquids on patterned self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on gold,” Langmuir 10(8), 2790–2793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wu, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of microlenses with controlled profiles using gray-scale microlens projection photolithography,” Langmuir 18(24), 9312–9318 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. W. Perry, B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, and S. R. Marder, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Liu, F. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Yang, D. Zhang, J. Si, and X. Hou, “Photoetching of spherical microlenses on glasses using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 282(20), 4119–4123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of the fabrication procedures: (1) an array of laser-exposed spots is produced on a silica glass by a point-by-point process; (2) concave microstructures with smooth surfaces are formed by chemical wet etching process; (3) and (4) show the replica molding of convex PDMS MLAs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The evolution of the diameter (black circles) and depth (blue dots) of the structures versus the wet-etching time. (b) The SEM image of a laser-induced crater. (c) The morphology of the crater after a 30-minutes chemical corrosion. (d) Schematic diagrams of the formation process of the concave structures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The results of the hexagonal-shaped mold for replicating PDMS MLAs. (a) The formation process of the concave microstructures during the chemical etching. The laser exposure spots are triangular-packed with an interspacing of 80 μm. The circular-shaped curved surfaces are expanding during the chemical etching process and the patterns begin to “squeeze” with each other at 60 minutes. The scale bar is 100 μm. (b) The SEM result of the hexagonal-shaped mold. (c) and (d) show the 3D and cross-sectional profiles of the mold, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The diameter and the depth of the circular concave structures vs. the laser parameters. (a) The power-dependency of the diameter of the structures. Insertions show the OM images of the structures fabricated by 500-ms exposure and 40-min wet etch process. The used laser power, from left to right, is 0.5 mW, 1.5 mW, 2.5 mW, 3.5 mW and 4.5 mW, respectively. The scale bar is 50 μm. (b) The power-dependency of the depth of the structures. (c) The relationship between the diameter and laser exposure time. The OM images of the structures shown in the insertions are produced by 0.5-mW laser pulses, and the exposure time is 10 ms, 100 ms, 500 ms, 1000 ms, 1500 ms and 3000ms, respectively. (d) The relationship between the depth and the laser exposure time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The OM images of the concave molds with different shapes. (a) Dual-size mold with circular-shaped structures. (b) Dual-shape mold with octagonal and diamond structures. (c) Triangular-shaped concave mold. (d) Rectangular-shaped concave mold.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The results of the replicated microlens array. (a) The SEM image of the microlens array. (b) and (c) present the 3D and cross-sectional profiles of the microlenses. (d) The images of a word, “soft”, generated through the fabricated microlens array, which is captured by the optical microscope system equipped with tungsten light source. The insertion shows the magnified images.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R= h 2 + r 2 2h ,f= R n1 , f # = f 2r ,NA= D 2f

Metrics