Abstract

Mode instabilities, i.e. the rapid fluctuations of the output beam of an optical fiber that occur after a certain output power threshold is reached, have quickly become one of the most limiting effects for the further power scaling of fiber laser systems. Even though much work has been done over the last year, the exact origin of the temporal dynamics of this phenomenon is not fully understood yet. In this paper we show that the origin of mode instabilities can be explained by taking into account the interplay between the temporal evolution of the three-dimensional temperature profile inside of the active fiber and the related waveguide changes that it produces via the thermo-optical effect. In particular it is proposed that non-adiabatic waveguide changes play an important role in allowing energy transfer from the fundamental mode into the higher order mode. As it is discussed in the paper, this description of mode instabilities can explain many of the experimental observations reported to date.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B63–B92 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jabobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME2.
  4. F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnerman, “Temporal dynamics of mode-instabilities in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express. submitted.
    [PubMed]
  9. C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. A. Fotiadi, O. L. Antipov, and P. Megret, “Resonantly induced refractive index changes in Yb-doped fibers: the origin, properties and application for all-fiber coherent beam combining,” Frontiers in Guided Wave Opt. and Optoelectr. 209–234 (2010), http://www.intechopen.com/books/howtoreference/frontiers-in-guided-wave-optics-and-optoelectronics/resonantly-induced-refractive-index-changes-in-yb-doped-fibers-the-origin-properties-and-application .
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Malvache, X. Chen, C. G. Durfee, A. Jullien, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Multi-mJ pulse compression in hollow fibers using circular polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 5–9 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. E. Mack, “Stimulated thermal light scattering in the picosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(1), 13–15 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Marcou, J. L. Auguste, and J. M. Blondy, “Cylindrical 2D beam propagation method for optical structures maintaining a revolution symmetry,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5(1), 105–118 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Gong, Y. Yuan, C. Li, P. Yan, H. Zhang, and S. Liao, “Numerical modeling of transverse mode competition in strongly pumped multimode fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3236–3246 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Riishede, N. A. Mortensen, and J. Lægsgaard, “A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modeling micro-structured optical fibres,” J. Opt. A 5(5), 534–538 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instabilities in a high power continuous wave fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express. submitted.

2012

2011

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Malvache, X. Chen, C. G. Durfee, A. Jullien, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Multi-mJ pulse compression in hollow fibers using circular polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 5–9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2007

2003

J. Riishede, N. A. Mortensen, and J. Lægsgaard, “A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modeling micro-structured optical fibres,” J. Opt. A 5(5), 534–538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Marcou, J. L. Auguste, and J. M. Blondy, “Cylindrical 2D beam propagation method for optical structures maintaining a revolution symmetry,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5(1), 105–118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1969

M. E. Mack, “Stimulated thermal light scattering in the picosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(1), 13–15 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Allison, T. K.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, T. V.

Auguste, J. L.

J. Marcou, J. L. Auguste, and J. M. Blondy, “Cylindrical 2D beam propagation method for optical structures maintaining a revolution symmetry,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5(1), 105–118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blondy, J. M.

J. Marcou, J. L. Auguste, and J. M. Blondy, “Cylindrical 2D beam propagation method for optical structures maintaining a revolution symmetry,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5(1), 105–118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

A. Malvache, X. Chen, C. G. Durfee, A. Jullien, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Multi-mJ pulse compression in hollow fibers using circular polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 5–9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cingöz, A.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarkson, W. A.

de Vries, O.

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instabilities in a high power continuous wave fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express. submitted.

Durfee, C. G.

A. Malvache, X. Chen, C. G. Durfee, A. Jullien, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Multi-mJ pulse compression in hollow fibers using circular polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 5–9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eberhardt, R.

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instabilities in a high power continuous wave fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express. submitted.

Eidam, T.

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnerman, “Temporal dynamics of mode-instabilities in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express. submitted.
[PubMed]

Gabler, T.

Gaida, C.

Gong, M.

Haarlammert, N.

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instabilities in a high power continuous wave fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express. submitted.

Hanf, S.

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnerman, “Temporal dynamics of mode-instabilities in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express. submitted.
[PubMed]

Jullien, A.

A. Malvache, X. Chen, C. G. Durfee, A. Jullien, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Multi-mJ pulse compression in hollow fibers using circular polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 5–9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kliner, A.

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instabilities in a high power continuous wave fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express. submitted.

Lægsgaard, J.

J. Riishede, N. A. Mortensen, and J. Lægsgaard, “A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modeling micro-structured optical fibres,” J. Opt. A 5(5), 534–538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Liao, S.

Liem, A.

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instabilities in a high power continuous wave fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express. submitted.

Limpert, J.

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnerman, “Temporal dynamics of mode-instabilities in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express. submitted.
[PubMed]

Lopez-Martens, R.

A. Malvache, X. Chen, C. G. Durfee, A. Jullien, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Multi-mJ pulse compression in hollow fibers using circular polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 5–9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mack, M. E.

M. E. Mack, “Stimulated thermal light scattering in the picosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(1), 13–15 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Malvache, A.

A. Malvache, X. Chen, C. G. Durfee, A. Jullien, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Multi-mJ pulse compression in hollow fibers using circular polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 5–9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marcou, J.

J. Marcou, J. L. Auguste, and J. M. Blondy, “Cylindrical 2D beam propagation method for optical structures maintaining a revolution symmetry,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5(1), 105–118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

J. Riishede, N. A. Mortensen, and J. Lægsgaard, “A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modeling micro-structured optical fibres,” J. Opt. A 5(5), 534–538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Otto, H.-J.

Peschel, T.

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instabilities in a high power continuous wave fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express. submitted.

Richardson, D. J.

Riishede, J.

J. Riishede, N. A. Mortensen, and J. Lægsgaard, “A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modeling micro-structured optical fibres,” J. Opt. A 5(5), 534–538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Seise, E.

Smith, A. V.

Smith, J. J.

Steinmetz, A.

Stutzki, F.

Tünnerman, A.

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnerman, “Temporal dynamics of mode-instabilities in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express. submitted.
[PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instabilities in a high power continuous wave fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express. submitted.

Wirth, C.

Yan, P.

Ye, J.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yost, D. C.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Phys. B

A. Malvache, X. Chen, C. G. Durfee, A. Jullien, and R. Lopez-Martens, “Multi-mJ pulse compression in hollow fibers using circular polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 5–9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

J. Riishede, N. A. Mortensen, and J. Lægsgaard, “A ‘poor man’s approach’ to modeling micro-structured optical fibres,” J. Opt. A 5(5), 534–538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnerman, “Temporal dynamics of mode-instabilities in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express. submitted.
[PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Haarlammert, O. de Vries, A. Liem, A. Kliner, T. Peschel, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Build up and decay of mode instabilities in a high power continuous wave fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express. submitted.

M. Gong, Y. Yuan, C. Li, P. Yan, H. Zhang, and S. Liao, “Numerical modeling of transverse mode competition in strongly pumped multimode fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3236–3246 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol.

J. Marcou, J. L. Auguste, and J. M. Blondy, “Cylindrical 2D beam propagation method for optical structures maintaining a revolution symmetry,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5(1), 105–118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Mack, “Stimulated thermal light scattering in the picosecond regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(1), 13–15 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. A. Fotiadi, O. L. Antipov, and P. Megret, “Resonantly induced refractive index changes in Yb-doped fibers: the origin, properties and application for all-fiber coherent beam combining,” Frontiers in Guided Wave Opt. and Optoelectr. 209–234 (2010), http://www.intechopen.com/books/howtoreference/frontiers-in-guided-wave-optics-and-optoelectronics/resonantly-induced-refractive-index-changes-in-yb-doped-fibers-the-origin-properties-and-application .

C. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, A. Galvanauskas, D. Guertin, N. Jabobson, and K. Tankala, “Effectively single-mode chirally-coupled core fiber,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME2.

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