Abstract

First operation of the 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 laser transition in dysprosium doped yttrium aluminum garnet is reported. Efficient room temperature operation at 583nm was obtained using 447nm GaN diode lasers pumps. Gaussian single-mode operation was demonstrated with a non-optimized slope efficiency of 12%. Millisecond pulsed operation generated 150mW with power limited by the pump diodes’ brightness.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. S. Nakamura, S. J. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story (Springer-Verlag, 2000).
  2. A. Richter, N. Pavel, E. Heumann, G. Huber, D. Parisi, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, “Continuous-wave ultraviolet generation at 320 nm by intracavity frequency doubling of red-emitting Praseodymium lasers,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3282–3287 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, G. Maze, and A. Tunnermann, “Laser oscillation in yellow and blue spectral range in Dy3+:ZBLAN,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1386–1387 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Kaminskii, U. Hommerich, D. Temple, J. T. Seo, K. Ueda, S. Bagayev, and A. Pavlyulk, “Visible laser action of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2 crystals under Xe-flashlamp pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), 208–211 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Fujimoto, O. Ishii, and M. Yamazaki, “Yellow laser oscillation in Dy3-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fibre pumped by 398.8 nm GaN laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 586 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584 nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Klimczak, M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, and R. Piramidowicz, “Luminescence properties in the visible of Dy:YAG/YAG planar waveguides,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1869–1873 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. R. Bowman, S. P. O'Connor, S. Biswal, N. J. Condon, and A. Rosenberg, “Diode pumped dysprosium laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 31–38 (2009).
  9. P. Grünberg, S. Hufner, E. Orlich, and J. Schmitt, “Crystal field in Dysprosium garnets,” Phys. Rev. 184(2), 285–293 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and M. Enculescu, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Dy3+ doped Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(8), 083120 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996), Chap. 4.
  12. P. Laporta and M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(10), 2319–2326 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20(3), 277–278 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and M. Enculescu, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Dy3+ doped Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(8), 083120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Y. Fujimoto, O. Ishii, and M. Yamazaki, “Yellow laser oscillation in Dy3-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fibre pumped by 398.8 nm GaN laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584 nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Klimczak, M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, and R. Piramidowicz, “Luminescence properties in the visible of Dy:YAG/YAG planar waveguides,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1869–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, S. P. O'Connor, S. Biswal, N. J. Condon, and A. Rosenberg, “Diode pumped dysprosium laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 31–38 (2009).

2006 (1)

2000 (2)

J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, G. Maze, and A. Tunnermann, “Laser oscillation in yellow and blue spectral range in Dy3+:ZBLAN,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1386–1387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, U. Hommerich, D. Temple, J. T. Seo, K. Ueda, S. Bagayev, and A. Pavlyulk, “Visible laser action of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2 crystals under Xe-flashlamp pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), 208–211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. Laporta and M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(10), 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

P. Grünberg, S. Hufner, E. Orlich, and J. Schmitt, “Crystal field in Dysprosium garnets,” Phys. Rev. 184(2), 285–293 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20(3), 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bagayev, S.

A. A. Kaminskii, U. Hommerich, D. Temple, J. T. Seo, K. Ueda, S. Bagayev, and A. Pavlyulk, “Visible laser action of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2 crystals under Xe-flashlamp pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), 208–211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biswal, S.

S. R. Bowman, S. P. O'Connor, S. Biswal, N. J. Condon, and A. Rosenberg, “Diode pumped dysprosium laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 31–38 (2009).

Bowman, S. R.

S. R. Bowman, S. P. O'Connor, S. Biswal, N. J. Condon, and A. Rosenberg, “Diode pumped dysprosium laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 31–38 (2009).

Brussard, M.

P. Laporta and M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(10), 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Clay, R. A.

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20(3), 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Condon, N. J.

S. R. Bowman, S. P. O'Connor, S. Biswal, N. J. Condon, and A. Rosenberg, “Diode pumped dysprosium laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 31–38 (2009).

Diening, A.

Enculescu, M.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and M. Enculescu, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Dy3+ doped Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(8), 083120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Findlay, D.

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20(3), 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, Y.

Y. Fujimoto, O. Ishii, and M. Yamazaki, “Yellow laser oscillation in Dy3-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fibre pumped by 398.8 nm GaN laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gheorghe, C.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and M. Enculescu, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Dy3+ doped Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(8), 083120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, G.

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584 nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grünberg, P.

P. Grünberg, S. Hufner, E. Orlich, and J. Schmitt, “Crystal field in Dysprosium garnets,” Phys. Rev. 184(2), 285–293 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Haro-González, P.

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584 nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

Hommerich, U.

A. A. Kaminskii, U. Hommerich, D. Temple, J. T. Seo, K. Ueda, S. Bagayev, and A. Pavlyulk, “Visible laser action of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2 crystals under Xe-flashlamp pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), 208–211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Hufner, S.

P. Grünberg, S. Hufner, E. Orlich, and J. Schmitt, “Crystal field in Dysprosium garnets,” Phys. Rev. 184(2), 285–293 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and M. Enculescu, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Dy3+ doped Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(8), 083120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, O.

Y. Fujimoto, O. Ishii, and M. Yamazaki, “Yellow laser oscillation in Dy3-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fibre pumped by 398.8 nm GaN laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, U. Hommerich, D. Temple, J. T. Seo, K. Ueda, S. Bagayev, and A. Pavlyulk, “Visible laser action of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2 crystals under Xe-flashlamp pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), 208–211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klimczak, M.

M. Klimczak, M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, and R. Piramidowicz, “Luminescence properties in the visible of Dy:YAG/YAG planar waveguides,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1869–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

P. Laporta and M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(10), 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, G. Maze, and A. Tunnermann, “Laser oscillation in yellow and blue spectral range in Dy3+:ZBLAN,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1386–1387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, A.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and M. Enculescu, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Dy3+ doped Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(8), 083120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, V.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and M. Enculescu, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Dy3+ doped Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(8), 083120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, M.

M. Klimczak, M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, and R. Piramidowicz, “Luminescence properties in the visible of Dy:YAG/YAG planar waveguides,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1869–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martín, I. R.

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584 nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martín, L. L.

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584 nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maze, G.

J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, G. Maze, and A. Tunnermann, “Laser oscillation in yellow and blue spectral range in Dy3+:ZBLAN,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1386–1387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O'Connor, S. P.

S. R. Bowman, S. P. O'Connor, S. Biswal, N. J. Condon, and A. Rosenberg, “Diode pumped dysprosium laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 31–38 (2009).

Orlich, E.

P. Grünberg, S. Hufner, E. Orlich, and J. Schmitt, “Crystal field in Dysprosium garnets,” Phys. Rev. 184(2), 285–293 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Parisi, D.

Pavel, N.

Pavlyulk, A.

A. A. Kaminskii, U. Hommerich, D. Temple, J. T. Seo, K. Ueda, S. Bagayev, and A. Pavlyulk, “Visible laser action of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2 crystals under Xe-flashlamp pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), 208–211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piramidowicz, R.

M. Klimczak, M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, and R. Piramidowicz, “Luminescence properties in the visible of Dy:YAG/YAG planar waveguides,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1869–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Richter, A.

Riedel, P.

J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, G. Maze, and A. Tunnermann, “Laser oscillation in yellow and blue spectral range in Dy3+:ZBLAN,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1386–1387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, A.

S. R. Bowman, S. P. O'Connor, S. Biswal, N. J. Condon, and A. Rosenberg, “Diode pumped dysprosium laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 31–38 (2009).

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584 nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sarnecki, J.

M. Klimczak, M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, and R. Piramidowicz, “Luminescence properties in the visible of Dy:YAG/YAG planar waveguides,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1869–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J.

P. Grünberg, S. Hufner, E. Orlich, and J. Schmitt, “Crystal field in Dysprosium garnets,” Phys. Rev. 184(2), 285–293 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Seelert, W.

Seo, J. T.

A. A. Kaminskii, U. Hommerich, D. Temple, J. T. Seo, K. Ueda, S. Bagayev, and A. Pavlyulk, “Visible laser action of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2 crystals under Xe-flashlamp pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), 208–211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Temple, D.

A. A. Kaminskii, U. Hommerich, D. Temple, J. T. Seo, K. Ueda, S. Bagayev, and A. Pavlyulk, “Visible laser action of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2 crystals under Xe-flashlamp pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), 208–211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Toncelli, A.

Tonelli, M.

Tunnermann, A.

J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, G. Maze, and A. Tunnermann, “Laser oscillation in yellow and blue spectral range in Dy3+:ZBLAN,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1386–1387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

A. A. Kaminskii, U. Hommerich, D. Temple, J. T. Seo, K. Ueda, S. Bagayev, and A. Pavlyulk, “Visible laser action of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2 crystals under Xe-flashlamp pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), 208–211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, M.

Y. Fujimoto, O. Ishii, and M. Yamazaki, “Yellow laser oscillation in Dy3-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fibre pumped by 398.8 nm GaN laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zellmer, H.

J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, G. Maze, and A. Tunnermann, “Laser oscillation in yellow and blue spectral range in Dy3+:ZBLAN,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1386–1387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, P. Riedel, G. Maze, and A. Tunnermann, “Laser oscillation in yellow and blue spectral range in Dy3+:ZBLAN,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1386–1387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fujimoto, O. Ishii, and M. Yamazaki, “Yellow laser oscillation in Dy3-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fibre pumped by 398.8 nm GaN laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 46(8), 586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Laporta and M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(10), 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, C. Gheorghe, A. Ikesue, and M. Enculescu, “Spectroscopic characteristics of Dy3+ doped Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(8), 083120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

M. Klimczak, M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, and R. Piramidowicz, “Luminescence properties in the visible of Dy:YAG/YAG planar waveguides,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1869–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, U. Hommerich, D. Temple, J. T. Seo, K. Ueda, S. Bagayev, and A. Pavlyulk, “Visible laser action of Dy3+ ions in monoclinic KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2 crystals under Xe-flashlamp pumping,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 3A/B), 208–211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Haro-González, L. L. Martín, I. R. Martín, G. Grazyna Dominiak-Dzik, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Pump and probe measurements of optical amplification at 584 nm in dysprosium doped lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 196–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20(3), 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. Grünberg, S. Hufner, E. Orlich, and J. Schmitt, “Crystal field in Dysprosium garnets,” Phys. Rev. 184(2), 285–293 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. R. Bowman, S. P. O'Connor, S. Biswal, N. J. Condon, and A. Rosenberg, “Diode pumped dysprosium laser materials,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 31–38 (2009).

Other (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996), Chap. 4.

S. Nakamura, S. J. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story (Springer-Verlag, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy structure of Dy:YAG showing the pump, laser, and cross-relaxation transitions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Blue absorption of 3% Dy:YAG at room temperature. Inset shows diode pump band on expanded scale. Sample was uncoated and 3.39 mm thick.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room temperature yellow emission cross sections of Dy:YAG calculated from the spectral intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Room temperature fluorescence decay of Dy:YAG. Emission measured at 580nm after blue excitation. Lifetimes are exponential fits to first 500µs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

End-pumped yellow laser performance measured with 2ms pump pulses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated average threshold density and cavity loss analysis as discussed in text.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N thres = η 0 P abs τ s h ν p V eff [ 1 e ( τ t / τ s ) ].
N thres = [ δln( R ) ] / 2 L c σ e .

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