Abstract

We present a novel plasmonic antenna geometry – the double resonant antenna (DRA) – that is optimized for second-harmonic generation (SHG). This antenna is based on two gaps coupled to each other so that a resonance at the fundamental and at the doubled frequency is obtained. Furthermore, the proximity of the localized hot spots allows for a coupling and spatial overlap between the two field enhancements at both frequencies. Using such a structure, both the generation of the second-harmonic and its re-emission into the far-field are significantly increased when compared with a standard plasmonic dipole antenna. Such DRA are fabricated in aluminium using electron beam lithography and their linear and nonlinear responses are studied experimentally and theoretically.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Gentile, M. Hentschel, R. Taubert, H. Guo, H. Giessen, and M. Fiebig, “Investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of metamaterials by second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. B105(1), 149–162 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roke and G. Gonella, “Nonlinear light scattering and spectroscopy of particles and droplets in liquids,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.63(1), 353–378 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with tailored nonlinear optical response,” Nano Lett.12(2), 673–677 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

M. Gentile, M. Hentschel, R. Taubert, H. Guo, H. Giessen, and M. Fiebig, “Investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of metamaterials by second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. B105(1), 149–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Castro-Lopez, D. Brinks, R. Sapienza, and N. F. van Hulst, “Aluminum for nonlinear plasmonics: resonance-driven polarized luminescence of Al, Ag, and Au nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4674–4678 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators,” Opt. Express19(12), 11415–11421 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Benedetti, M. Centini, C. Sibilia, and M. Bertolotti, “Engineering the second harmonic generation pattern from coupled gold nanowires,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(3), 408–416 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, B. Gallinet, and O. J. F. Martin, “Symmetry and selection rules for localized surface plasmon resonances in nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B81(23), 233407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, “Nonlinear plasmonics with gold nanoparticle antennas,” J. Opt. A11(11), 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Surface integral formulation for 3D simulations of plasmonic and high permittivity nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A26(4), 732–740 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

T. Xu, X. Jiao, G. P. Zhang, and S. Blair, “Second-harmonic emission from sub-wavelength apertures: effects of aperture symmetry and lattice arrangement,” Opt. Express15(21), 13894–13906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gesuele, S. Lettieri, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Band-edge and cavity second harmonic conversion in doubly resonant microcavity,” J. Phys. B40(4), 727–734 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “A macroscopic formalism to describe the second-order nonlinear optical response of nanostructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S278–S284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Lettieri, F. Gesuele, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Second-harmonic generation in hydrogenated amorphous-SiN doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 191110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2002

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature418(6895), 304–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

Altewischer, E.

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature418(6895), 304–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambekar, R.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

F. Gesuele, S. Lettieri, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Band-edge and cavity second harmonic conversion in doubly resonant microcavity,” J. Phys. B40(4), 727–734 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lettieri, F. Gesuele, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Second-harmonic generation in hydrogenated amorphous-SiN doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 191110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bai, B.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballarini, V.

F. Gesuele, S. Lettieri, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Band-edge and cavity second harmonic conversion in doubly resonant microcavity,” J. Phys. B40(4), 727–734 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lettieri, F. Gesuele, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Second-harmonic generation in hydrogenated amorphous-SiN doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 191110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, A.

Bertolotti, M.

Blair, S.

Boltasseva, A.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonacina, L.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bratschitsch, R.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brinks, D.

M. Castro-Lopez, D. Brinks, R. Sapienza, and N. F. van Hulst, “Aluminum for nonlinear plasmonics: resonance-driven polarized luminescence of Al, Ag, and Au nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4674–4678 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canfield, B. K.

S. Kujala, B. K. Canfield, M. Kauranen, Y. Svirko, and J. Turunen, “Multipolar analysis of second-harmonic radiation from gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express16(22), 17196–17208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “A macroscopic formalism to describe the second-order nonlinear optical response of nanostructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S278–S284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Linear and nonlinear optical responses influenced by broken symmetry in an array of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express12(22), 5418–5423 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castro-Lopez, M.

M. Castro-Lopez, D. Brinks, R. Sapienza, and N. F. van Hulst, “Aluminum for nonlinear plasmonics: resonance-driven polarized luminescence of Al, Ag, and Au nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4674–4678 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Centini, M.

Cesar, J.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciepielewski, D.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, G.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danckwerts, M.

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, “Nonlinear plasmonics with gold nanoparticle antennas,” J. Opt. A11(11), 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emani, N. K.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Extermann, J.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N. X.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiebig, M.

M. Gentile, M. Hentschel, R. Taubert, H. Guo, H. Giessen, and M. Fiebig, “Investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of metamaterials by second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. B105(1), 149–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

Foster, M. A.

Fung, K. H.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

Galez, C.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallinet, B.

W. Zhang, B. Gallinet, and O. J. F. Martin, “Symmetry and selection rules for localized surface plasmon resonances in nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B81(23), 233407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gentile, M.

M. Gentile, M. Hentschel, R. Taubert, H. Guo, H. Giessen, and M. Fiebig, “Investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of metamaterials by second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. B105(1), 149–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerber-Lemaire, S.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerrmann, M.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gesuele, F.

F. Gesuele, S. Lettieri, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Band-edge and cavity second harmonic conversion in doubly resonant microcavity,” J. Phys. B40(4), 727–734 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lettieri, F. Gesuele, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Second-harmonic generation in hydrogenated amorphous-SiN doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 191110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

M. Gentile, M. Hentschel, R. Taubert, H. Guo, H. Giessen, and M. Fiebig, “Investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of metamaterials by second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. B105(1), 149–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Giorgis, F.

F. Gesuele, S. Lettieri, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Band-edge and cavity second harmonic conversion in doubly resonant microcavity,” J. Phys. B40(4), 727–734 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lettieri, F. Gesuele, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Second-harmonic generation in hydrogenated amorphous-SiN doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 191110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gonella, G.

S. Roke and G. Gonella, “Nonlinear light scattering and spectroscopy of particles and droplets in liquids,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.63(1), 353–378 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

M. Gentile, M. Hentschel, R. Taubert, H. Guo, H. Giessen, and M. Fiebig, “Investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of metamaterials by second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. B105(1), 149–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hadji, R.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanke, T.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Gentile, M. Hentschel, R. Taubert, H. Guo, H. Giessen, and M. Fiebig, “Investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of metamaterials by second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. B105(1), 149–162 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hohenester, U.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husu, H.

H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with tailored nonlinear optical response,” Nano Lett.12(2), 673–677 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, S.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jefimovs, K.

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “A macroscopic formalism to describe the second-order nonlinear optical response of nanostructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S278–S284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Linear and nonlinear optical responses influenced by broken symmetry in an array of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express12(22), 5418–5423 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, X.

Joulaud, C.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juillerat-Jeanneret, L.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasparian, C.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauranen, M.

H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with tailored nonlinear optical response,” Nano Lett.12(2), 673–677 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kujala, B. K. Canfield, M. Kauranen, Y. Svirko, and J. Turunen, “Multipolar analysis of second-harmonic radiation from gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express16(22), 17196–17208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “A macroscopic formalism to describe the second-order nonlinear optical response of nanostructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S278–S284 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Linear and nonlinear optical responses influenced by broken symmetry in an array of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express12(22), 5418–5423 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kern, A. M.

Knittel, V.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, K. D.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, G.

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuittinen, M.

H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with tailored nonlinear optical response,” Nano Lett.12(2), 673–677 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kujala, S.

Kumar, A.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laukkanen, J.

H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with tailored nonlinear optical response,” Nano Lett.12(2), 673–677 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with tailored nonlinear optical response,” Nano Lett.12(2), 673–677 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Gesuele, S. Lettieri, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Band-edge and cavity second harmonic conversion in doubly resonant microcavity,” J. Phys. B40(4), 727–734 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lettieri, F. Gesuele, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Second-harmonic generation in hydrogenated amorphous-SiN doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 191110 (2005).
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Lipson, M.

Liscidini, M.

F. Gesuele, S. Lettieri, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Band-edge and cavity second harmonic conversion in doubly resonant microcavity,” J. Phys. B40(4), 727–734 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lettieri, F. Gesuele, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Second-harmonic generation in hydrogenated amorphous-SiN doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 191110 (2005).
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Liu, G. L.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Gesuele, S. Lettieri, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Band-edge and cavity second harmonic conversion in doubly resonant microcavity,” J. Phys. B40(4), 727–734 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lettieri, F. Gesuele, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Second-harmonic generation in hydrogenated amorphous-SiN doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 191110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mäkitalo, J.

H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with tailored nonlinear optical response,” Nano Lett.12(2), 673–677 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

Mugnier, Y.

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
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P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naik, G. V.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
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S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, “Nonlinear plasmonics with gold nanoparticle antennas,” J. Opt. A11(11), 114030 (2009).
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S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, “Nonlinear plasmonics with gold nanoparticle antennas,” J. Opt. A11(11), 114030 (2009).
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D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
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Paulus, M.

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Gesuele, S. Lettieri, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Band-edge and cavity second harmonic conversion in doubly resonant microcavity,” J. Phys. B40(4), 727–734 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lettieri, F. Gesuele, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Second-harmonic generation in hydrogenated amorphous-SiN doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 191110 (2005).
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S. Roke and G. Gonella, “Nonlinear light scattering and spectroscopy of particles and droplets in liquids,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.63(1), 353–378 (2012).
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D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
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M. Castro-Lopez, D. Brinks, R. Sapienza, and N. F. van Hulst, “Aluminum for nonlinear plasmonics: resonance-driven polarized luminescence of Al, Ag, and Au nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4674–4678 (2011).
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D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
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P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
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Sibilia, C.

Siikanen, R.

H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with tailored nonlinear optical response,” Nano Lett.12(2), 673–677 (2012).
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D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
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S. Kujala, B. K. Canfield, M. Kauranen, Y. Svirko, and J. Turunen, “Multipolar analysis of second-harmonic radiation from gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express16(22), 17196–17208 (2008).
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B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “A macroscopic formalism to describe the second-order nonlinear optical response of nanostructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S278–S284 (2006).
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M. Gentile, M. Hentschel, R. Taubert, H. Guo, H. Giessen, and M. Fiebig, “Investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of metamaterials by second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. B105(1), 149–162 (2011).
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K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(1), 61–65 (2011).
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T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
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S. Kujala, B. K. Canfield, M. Kauranen, Y. Svirko, and J. Turunen, “Multipolar analysis of second-harmonic radiation from gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express16(22), 17196–17208 (2008).
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B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
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B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “A macroscopic formalism to describe the second-order nonlinear optical response of nanostructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S278–S284 (2006).
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B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Linear and nonlinear optical responses influenced by broken symmetry in an array of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express12(22), 5418–5423 (2004).
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E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature418(6895), 304–306 (2002).
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M. Castro-Lopez, D. Brinks, R. Sapienza, and N. F. van Hulst, “Aluminum for nonlinear plasmonics: resonance-driven polarized luminescence of Al, Ag, and Au nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4674–4678 (2011).
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P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
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T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(25), 257404 (2009).
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D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
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ACS Nano

D. Staedler, T. Magouroux, R. Hadji, C. Joulaud, J. Extermann, S. Schwung, S. Passemard, C. Kasparian, G. Clarke, M. Gerrmann, R. Le Dantec, Y. Mugnier, D. Rytz, D. Ciepielewski, C. Galez, S. Gerber-Lemaire, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, “Harmonic nanocrystals for biolabeling: a survey of optical properties and biocompatibility,” ACS Nano6(3), 2542–2549 (2012).
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S. Roke and G. Gonella, “Nonlinear light scattering and spectroscopy of particles and droplets in liquids,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.63(1), 353–378 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. B

M. Gentile, M. Hentschel, R. Taubert, H. Guo, H. Giessen, and M. Fiebig, “Investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of metamaterials by second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. B105(1), 149–162 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Lettieri, F. Gesuele, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Second-harmonic generation in hydrogenated amorphous-SiN doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 191110 (2005).
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J. Opt. A

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, “Nonlinear plasmonics with gold nanoparticle antennas,” J. Opt. A11(11), 114030 (2009).
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J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

B. K. Canfield, S. Kujala, K. Jefimovs, Y. Svirko, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “A macroscopic formalism to describe the second-order nonlinear optical response of nanostructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(4), S278–S284 (2006).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

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F. Gesuele, S. Lettieri, P. Maddalena, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, C. Ricciardi, V. Ballarini, and F. Giorgis, “Band-edge and cavity second harmonic conversion in doubly resonant microcavity,” J. Phys. B40(4), 727–734 (2007).
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P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Intensity enhancement calculated in the center of both gaps (left gap: solid orange line, right gap: dashed green line) for the optimized DRA (50x50x170 nm3). The blue and red peaks indicate spectra for the fundamental and SHG; (b) intensity enhancement at the gap in the dipole antenna. The insets show the geometries used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Computed near-field intensity maps for (a) the resonance at λ = 400 nm, which is mediated by a radiating dipole in the two short arms, (b) the resonance at the fundamental at λ = 800 nm that is controlled by the long arm of the antenna, (c) the resonance at λ = 800 nm for the reference dipole antenna.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Scattering spectra of the standard dipole antenna (DA) and the double resonant antenna (DRA). The double structure shows a clear enhancement of the scattering around λ = 400nm, both structures are made of aluminium; (b) a comparison of the experimental SHG signal with a quadratic fit, for a DA and a DRA shows the enhanced SHG from the DRA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) A spectrum showing the fundamental and the SHG for the DRA with an inset showing the two photon photoluminescence (TPPL), that was removed with filters for SHG measurements for different input powers – from 90mW up to 200mW, with counts of less than 1000; (b) polarization measurements of the SHG using horizontal (along antenna axis) and vertical detection for a DRA: the SHG is clearly polarized along the antenna.

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