Abstract

The application of large area OLEDs for lighting and signage purposes potentially requires essential changes of the common Lambert-like emission pattern. We demonstrate an array based micro optical approach for pattern shaping of area light sources based on distorted Fourier imaging of an aperture array with a micro lens array. Narrow angular emission patterns of ± 35° and ± 18° FWHM obtained experimentally demonstrate the pattern shaping with low stray light levels. The internal recycling of initially rejected photons yields intensity enhancements exceeding a factor two in forward direction that is still well below the theoretical limits due to limited reflectivity.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White Organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Sieler, P. Schreiber, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Array projection optics: Multi-channel design for ultra slim projectors,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 7716A 1–10 (2010).

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, N. Danz, C. A. Wächter, P. Dannberg, and A. H. Bräuer, “Micro-optical beam-shaper for tailoring light emission from OLEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771616, 771616-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Yang, Q. Y. Bao, Z. Q. Xu, Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, and S. Shen, “Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 223303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Brückner, J. Duparré, R. Leitel, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin wafer-level camera lenses inspired by insect compound eyes,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24379–24394 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and C. Wächter, “OLED design: combined micro- and nanophotonics modeling, and routes to a complex optimization algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 6796, 67963F, 67963F-15 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2002

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(8), 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982

Bao, Q. Y.

J. P. Yang, Q. Y. Bao, Z. Q. Xu, Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, and S. Shen, “Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 223303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biondo, V.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

Bräuer, A. H.

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, N. Danz, C. A. Wächter, P. Dannberg, and A. H. Bräuer, “Micro-optical beam-shaper for tailoring light emission from OLEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771616, 771616-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brückner, A.

Brütting, W.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Caria, S.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choong, V.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Connell, G. A.

Daly, D.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(8), 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dannberg, P.

M. Sieler, P. Schreiber, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Array projection optics: Multi-channel design for ultra slim projectors,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 7716A 1–10 (2010).

A. Brückner, J. Duparré, R. Leitel, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin wafer-level camera lenses inspired by insect compound eyes,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24379–24394 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, N. Danz, C. A. Wächter, P. Dannberg, and A. H. Bräuer, “Micro-optical beam-shaper for tailoring light emission from OLEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771616, 771616-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Duparré, P. Dannberg, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin compound-eye camera,” Appl. Opt. 44(15), 2949–2956 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danz, N.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, N. Danz, C. A. Wächter, P. Dannberg, and A. H. Bräuer, “Micro-optical beam-shaper for tailoring light emission from OLEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771616, 771616-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and C. Wächter, “OLED design: combined micro- and nanophotonics modeling, and routes to a complex optimization algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 6796, 67963F, 67963F-15 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davies, N.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(8), 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, J.

Flämmich, M.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, N. Danz, C. A. Wächter, P. Dannberg, and A. H. Bräuer, “Micro-optical beam-shaper for tailoring light emission from OLEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771616, 771616-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Frischeisen, J.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White Organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greiner, M. T.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Helander, M. G.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, Z. M.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hutley, M. C.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(8), 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Köhnen, A.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White Organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krummacher, B. C.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leitel, R.

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. Q.

J. P. Yang, Q. Y. Bao, Z. Q. Xu, Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, and S. Shen, “Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 223303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.-H.

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mathai, M. K.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White Organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melpignano, P.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, D.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, N. Danz, C. A. Wächter, P. Dannberg, and A. H. Bräuer, “Micro-optical beam-shaper for tailoring light emission from OLEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771616, 771616-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and C. Wächter, “OLED design: combined micro- and nanophotonics modeling, and routes to a complex optimization algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 6796, 67963F, 67963F-15 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murgia, M.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, Z. D.

Puzzo, D. P.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, T. D.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, P.

M. Sieler, P. Schreiber, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Array projection optics: Multi-channel design for ultra slim projectors,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 7716A 1–10 (2010).

J. Duparré, P. Dannberg, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and A. Tünnermann, “Thin compound-eye camera,” Appl. Opt. 44(15), 2949–2956 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Setz, D. S.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

J. P. Yang, Q. Y. Bao, Z. Q. Xu, Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, and S. Shen, “Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 223303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sieler, M.

M. Sieler, P. Schreiber, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Array projection optics: Multi-channel design for ultra slim projectors,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 7716A 1–10 (2010).

Sinesi, S.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R. A.

Stevens, R. F.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(8), 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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J. P. Yang, Q. Y. Bao, Z. Q. Xu, Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, and S. Shen, “Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 223303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and C. Wächter, “OLED design: combined micro- and nanophotonics modeling, and routes to a complex optimization algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 6796, 67963F, 67963F-15 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wächter, C. A.

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, N. Danz, C. A. Wächter, P. Dannberg, and A. H. Bräuer, “Micro-optical beam-shaper for tailoring light emission from OLEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771616, 771616-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Westenhöfer, S.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winnacker, A.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Q.

J. P. Yang, Q. Y. Bao, Z. Q. Xu, Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, and S. Shen, “Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 223303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

Yang, J. P.

J. P. Yang, Q. Y. Bao, Z. Q. Xu, Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, and S. Shen, “Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 223303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zamboni, R.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White Organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Melpignano, V. Biondo, S. Sinesi, M. T. Gale, S. Westenhöfer, M. Murgia, S. Caria, and R. Zamboni, “Efficient light extraction and beam shaping from flexible, optically integrated organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Yang, Q. Y. Bao, Z. Q. Xu, Y. Q. Li, J. X. Tang, and S. Shen, “Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 223303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. C. Krummacher, M. K. Mathai, V. Choong, S. A. Choulis, F. So, and A. Winnacker, “General method to evaluate substrate surface modification techniques for light extraction enhancement of organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Meas. Sci. Technol.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting photoresist,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(8), 759–766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron.

M. Flämmich, J. Frischeisen, D. S. Setz, D. Michaelis, B. C. Krummacher, T. D. Schmidt, W. Brütting, and N. Danz, “Oriented phosphorescent emitters boost OLED efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(10), 1663–1668 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Sieler, P. Schreiber, P. Dannberg, and A. Bräuer, “Array projection optics: Multi-channel design for ultra slim projectors,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 7716A 1–10 (2010).

M. Flämmich, D. Michaelis, N. Danz, C. A. Wächter, P. Dannberg, and A. H. Bräuer, “Micro-optical beam-shaper for tailoring light emission from OLEDs,” Proc. SPIE 7716, 771616, 771616-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and C. Wächter, “OLED design: combined micro- and nanophotonics modeling, and routes to a complex optimization algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 6796, 67963F, 67963F-15 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the system under study, comprising an OLED equipped with substrate outcoupling components and a separate pattern shaping element. All optical materials are considered to exhibit refractive index n. The shaper aperture size with respect to unit cell is α.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Relative emitted power Pff/(POLED Ts) and (b) recycling enhancement Pff/(POLED α Ts) are calculated according to Eq. (4) with p = 1 for different values of the reflectivity product RSROLED and the far field NA, which is related to the aperture ration by α = NA2 in Eq. (3).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sequential ray tracing transmission model of the ± 18° (a, b, c) and the ± 35° (d, e, f) shapers assuming n = 1.523 and illumination from air with NA = 1. The diagrams (b, e) show the shaper transmission α∙TS vs. lens curvature and spacer thickness, assuming an aperture according to Eq. (3). The diagrams (c, f) depict shaper transmission α∙TS vs. aperture size and spacer thickness for a lens radius ρ/l = 0.525 slightly above the half ball case. The ray tracing sketches (a, d) illustrate the configuration according to the dots in diagrams (b, c) and (e, f), respectively, with rays transmitting the aperture center drawn blue, and those originating from the aperture edge drawn red. The dash-dot lines depict the cross talk limit according to Eq. (2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dark field microscope images of the ± 35° shaper when viewed from the lens (a) and the aperture side (b), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular resolved radiation patterns obtained for the OLED without (dashed black) and with (solid black) micro lens array for substrate coupling. Adding a shaping element ± 35° (blue) or ± 18° (red) yields a significantly decreased angular width and increased perpendicular emission due to photon recycling.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two photographs of a housed, emitting ORBEOS light source equipped with a shaping element taken at different viewing angles: near normal observation (a) and approximately 60° (b).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d ρ n1 + ρ 2 l 2 /4
d la 2tan θ g
α sin 2 θ ff
P ff = P OLED α T S ( α ) 1( 1α ) R S p 2 R OLED
B ff = P OLED T S ( α ) 1( 1α ) R S p 2 R OLED

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