Abstract

A time domain photonic arbitrary waveform generator (PAWG) scheme based on multi-wavelength optical differential quadrature phase shift keying modulation in combination with differential detection is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The time domain method shows advantages of large time-bandwidth product, good flexibility, fast waveform refreshing rate, and high waveform quality over the frequency domain method. In contrast with other proposed time domain PAWGs or photonic digital-to-analog converters, our PAWG proposal shows a greater dynamic range and a larger noise margin due to its bipolar output, and possesses good scalabilities both in resolution and sampling rate. Assisted with the integration technology, this PAWG presents a good prospect for broad range practical applications in future.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

V. Torres-Company, A. J. Metcalf, D. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Multichannel radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation based on multiwavelength comb switching and 2-D line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 891–893 (2012).

2010 (2)

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation and measurement,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18655–18670 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Time-multiplexed photonically enabled radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation with 100 ps transitions,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3242–3244 (2007).

X. Yu, K. Wang, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Incoherent photonic digital-to-analogue converter based on broadband optical source,” Electron. Lett. 43(19), 1044–1045 (2007).

2006 (1)

S. Oda and A. Maruta, “All-optical digital-to-analog conversion using nonlinear optical loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 703–705 (2006).

2005 (4)

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 115–130 (2005).

T. Nishitani, T. Konishi, H. Furukawa, and K. Itoh, “All-optical digital-to-analog conversion using pulse pattern recognition based on optical correlation processing,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10310–10315 (2005).

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Micro. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005).

P. K. Kondratko, A. Leven, Y. K. Chen, J. Lin, U. V. Koc, K. Y. Tu, and J. Lee, “12.5-GHz optically sampled interference-based photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2727–2729 (2005).

2004 (1)

S. Savory and A. Hadjifotiou, “Laser linewidth requirements for optical DQPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 930–932 (2004).

2003 (2)

A. Yacoubian and P. K. Das, “Digital-to-analog conversion using electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 117–119 (2003).

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 581–583 (2003).

Andrés, P.

Chen, A.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Chen, L. R.

Chen, Y. K.

P. K. Kondratko, A. Leven, Y. K. Chen, J. Lin, U. V. Koc, K. Y. Tu, and J. Lee, “12.5-GHz optically sampled interference-based photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2727–2729 (2005).

Chou, J.

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 581–583 (2003).

Corzine, S. W.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Das, P. K.

A. Yacoubian and P. K. Das, “Digital-to-analog conversion using electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 117–119 (2003).

Dentai, A.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Dominic, V.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Evans, P.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Fisher, M.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Fontaine, N. K.

Furukawa, H.

Geisler, D. J.

Gheorma, J.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Gnauck, A. H.

Hadjifotiou, A.

S. Savory and A. Hadjifotiou, “Laser linewidth requirements for optical DQPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 930–932 (2004).

Han, Y.

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 581–583 (2003).

Heritage, J. P.

Huang, C. B.

Itoh, K.

Jalali, B.

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 581–583 (2003).

Joyner, C. H.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Kato, M.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Kish, F.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Koc, U. V.

P. K. Kondratko, A. Leven, Y. K. Chen, J. Lin, U. V. Koc, K. Y. Tu, and J. Lee, “12.5-GHz optically sampled interference-based photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2727–2729 (2005).

Kondratko, P. K.

P. K. Kondratko, A. Leven, Y. K. Chen, J. Lin, U. V. Koc, K. Y. Tu, and J. Lee, “12.5-GHz optically sampled interference-based photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2727–2729 (2005).

Konishi, T.

Lambert, D.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Lancis, J.

Leaird, D.

V. Torres-Company, A. J. Metcalf, D. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Multichannel radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation based on multiwavelength comb switching and 2-D line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 891–893 (2012).

Leaird, D. E.

Lee, J.

P. K. Kondratko, A. Leven, Y. K. Chen, J. Lin, U. V. Koc, K. Y. Tu, and J. Lee, “12.5-GHz optically sampled interference-based photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2727–2729 (2005).

Leven, A.

P. K. Kondratko, A. Leven, Y. K. Chen, J. Lin, U. V. Koc, K. Y. Tu, and J. Lee, “12.5-GHz optically sampled interference-based photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2727–2729 (2005).

Lin, I. S.

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Micro. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005).

Lin, J.

P. K. Kondratko, A. Leven, Y. K. Chen, J. Lin, U. V. Koc, K. Y. Tu, and J. Lee, “12.5-GHz optically sampled interference-based photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2727–2729 (2005).

Lyubomirsky, I.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Maruta, A.

S. Oda and A. Maruta, “All-optical digital-to-analog conversion using nonlinear optical loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 703–705 (2006).

McKinney, J. D.

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Micro. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005).

Metcalf, A. J.

V. Torres-Company, A. J. Metcalf, D. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Multichannel radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation based on multiwavelength comb switching and 2-D line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 891–893 (2012).

Missey, M.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Murthy, S.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Muthiah, R.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Nagarajan, R.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Nilsson, A.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Nishitani, T.

Oda, S.

S. Oda and A. Maruta, “All-optical digital-to-analog conversion using nonlinear optical loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 703–705 (2006).

Okamoto, K.

Peng, Y.

Y. Peng, H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Yao, “Photonic digital-to-analog converter based on summing of serial weighted multiwavelength Pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2135–2137 (2008).

Pleumeekers, J. L.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Rahn, J.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Salvatore, R.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Samra, P.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Savory, S.

S. Savory and A. Hadjifotiou, “Laser linewidth requirements for optical DQPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 930–932 (2004).

Schneider, R.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Scott, R. P.

Spannagel, A.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Stewart, J.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Strzelecka, E.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Studenkov, P.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Torres-Company, V.

V. Torres-Company, A. J. Metcalf, D. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Multichannel radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation based on multiwavelength comb switching and 2-D line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 891–893 (2012).

V. Torres-Company and L. R. Chen, “Radio-frequency waveform generator with time-multiplexing capabilities based on multi-wavelength pulse compression,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22553–22565 (2009).

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, and L. R. Chen, “Reconfigurable RF-waveform generation based on incoherent-filter design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2476–2483 (2008).

Tu, K. Y.

P. K. Kondratko, A. Leven, Y. K. Chen, J. Lin, U. V. Koc, K. Y. Tu, and J. Lee, “12.5-GHz optically sampled interference-based photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2727–2729 (2005).

Wang, K.

X. Yu, K. Wang, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Incoherent photonic digital-to-analogue converter based on broadband optical source,” Electron. Lett. 43(19), 1044–1045 (2007).

Weiner, A. M.

V. Torres-Company, A. J. Metcalf, D. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Multichannel radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation based on multiwavelength comb switching and 2-D line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 891–893 (2012).

C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Time-multiplexed photonically enabled radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation with 100 ps transitions,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3242–3244 (2007).

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Micro. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005).

Welch, D. F.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Winzer, P. J.

Yacoubian, A.

A. Yacoubian and P. K. Das, “Digital-to-analog conversion using electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 117–119 (2003).

Yang, C.

Yao, M.

Y. Peng, H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Yao, “Photonic digital-to-analog converter based on summing of serial weighted multiwavelength Pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2135–2137 (2008).

Yoo, S. J. B.

Yu, X.

X. Yu, K. Wang, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Incoherent photonic digital-to-analogue converter based on broadband optical source,” Electron. Lett. 43(19), 1044–1045 (2007).

Zhang, H.

Y. Peng, H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Yao, “Photonic digital-to-analog converter based on summing of serial weighted multiwavelength Pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2135–2137 (2008).

X. Yu, K. Wang, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Incoherent photonic digital-to-analogue converter based on broadband optical source,” Electron. Lett. 43(19), 1044–1045 (2007).

Zhang, Y.

Y. Peng, H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Yao, “Photonic digital-to-analog converter based on summing of serial weighted multiwavelength Pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2135–2137 (2008).

Zheng, X.

X. Yu, K. Wang, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Incoherent photonic digital-to-analogue converter based on broadband optical source,” Electron. Lett. 43(19), 1044–1045 (2007).

Ziari, M.

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

Electron. Lett. (1)

X. Yu, K. Wang, X. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Incoherent photonic digital-to-analogue converter based on broadband optical source,” Electron. Lett. 43(19), 1044–1045 (2007).

IEEE Micro. Wirel. Compon. Lett. (1)

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, and A. M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication,” IEEE Micro. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 15(4), 226–228 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (8)

P. K. Kondratko, A. Leven, Y. K. Chen, J. Lin, U. V. Koc, K. Y. Tu, and J. Lee, “12.5-GHz optically sampled interference-based photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2727–2729 (2005).

Y. Peng, H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and M. Yao, “Photonic digital-to-analog converter based on summing of serial weighted multiwavelength Pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2135–2137 (2008).

V. Torres-Company, A. J. Metcalf, D. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Multichannel radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation based on multiwavelength comb switching and 2-D line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 891–893 (2012).

S. Oda and A. Maruta, “All-optical digital-to-analog conversion using nonlinear optical loop mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(5), 703–705 (2006).

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 581–583 (2003).

A. Yacoubian and P. K. Das, “Digital-to-analog conversion using electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 117–119 (2003).

S. Savory and A. Hadjifotiou, “Laser linewidth requirements for optical DQPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 930–932 (2004).

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, M. Kato, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, I. Lyubomirsky, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, A. Spannagel, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. L. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, C. H. Joyner, F. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale InP transmitter PICs for PM-DQPSK fiber transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1015–1017 (2010).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (6)

M. Kroh, G. Unterbörsch, G. Tsianos, R. Ziegler, A. G. Steffan, H. G. Bach, J. Kreissl, R. Kunkel, G. G. Mekonnen, W. Rehbein, D. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, K. Petermann, J. Bruns, T. Mitze, K. Voigt, and L. Zimmermann, “Hybrid integrated 40 Gb/s DPSK receiver on SOI,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK3.

J. Liao, H. Wen, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, Y. Guo, and B. Zhou, “A 2N-bit bipolar photonic digital-to-analog converter based on multi-wavelength optical DQPSK modulation in combination with balanced detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.78.

IEEE standard for terminology and test methods for analog-to-digital converters, IEEE Std 1241–2000 (2001).

Y. M. Greshishchev, D. Pollex, S.-C. Wang, M. Besson, P. Flemeke, S. Szilagyi, J. Aguirre, C. Falt, N. Ben-Hamida, R. Gibbins, and P. Schvan, “A 56GS/S 6b DAC in 65nm CMOS with 256×6b memory,” in proceedings of IEEE Solid-State Circuits Conference, pp.194–196, 2011.

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C. H. Lee, Microwave Photonics (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2007), Chap. 6.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)Architecture of the PAWG with 2N-bit resolution. (b) The changing form of the analog output Vout varies with the phase shift ∆φ in the 2-bit PAWG. When ∆φ≈18.4°, Vout presents bipolar four-equally-spaced discrete values.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Requirements on the multi-wavelength laser array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Architecture of the time multiplexing PAWG with 2N-bit resolution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experiment setup of a PAWG with 4-bit resolution at 2.5GS/s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)Generated raw waveforms of the sawtooth wave (with 16 ramp), the triangle wave (with 16 ramp), the sinusoidal wave (f = 99.82MHz), and the two-tone wave (f1 = 399.22MHz / f2 = 439.14MHz). (b)Comparison between the corresponding filtered waveforms (blue line) and the ideal waveforms (red line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) SFDR and ENOB results. (b) Spectrum of two-tone signals at three groups of frequency.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Generated pulse train at 10GHz when only one channel is used. (b) Generated pulse train at 20GHz when two channels are used.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The One-To-One Mapping Between the Input and the Output

Equations (3)

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V out | E 1 ( tT ) e i θ 1 + E 2 ( t ) e i θ 2 e iΔφ | 2 | E 1 ( tT ) e i θ 1 E 2 ( t ) e i θ 2 e iΔφ | 2 =4| E 1 ( tT ) E 2 * ( t ) |cos( Δθ+Δφ ),Δθ=( θ 2 θ 1 ){ 0,π/2 ,π, 3π /2 }
{ I n = D 2n1 D 2n ¯ ( D 2n1 I n-1 )+( D 2n1 D 2n )( D 2n Q n-1 ) Q n = D 2n1 D 2n ¯ ( D 2n Q n-1 )+( D 2n1 D 2n )( D 2n1 I n-1 )
d V out / V out =tan(Δθ+Δφ)dΔφ| Δφ= 18.4

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