Abstract

The aim of the present paper was to determine the index variation in the GaN/AlN heterostructures related to the population/depletion of the quantum well fundamental state leading to the absorption variation in the spectral domain around 1.5 µm. The variation of the refractive index was deduced from the shift of the position of the beating interference maxima of different order modes in a guided wave configuration. The obtained index variation with bias from complete depletion to full population of the quantum wells is around -5 × 10−3. This value is similar to the typical index variation achieved in InP and is an order of magnitude higher than the index variation obtained in silicon.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing aN intersubband transition,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101121 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 093109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083101 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Bigan, M. Allovon, M. Carré, C. Braud, A. Carenco, and P. Voisin, “Optimization of optical waveguide modulators based on Wannier-Stark localization: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 214–223 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Lupu, D. Marris, D. Pascal, J.-L. Cercus, A. Cordat, V. le Thanh, and S. Laval, “Experimental evidence for index modulation by carrier depletion in SiGe/Si multiple quantum wells structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 887–889 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguides for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using Eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33(4/5), 327–341 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguides for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Holmström, “Electroabsorption Modulator Using Intersubband Transitions in GaN–AlGaN–AlN Step Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 810–819 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

A. Lupu, D. Marris, D. Pascal, J.-L. Cercus, A. Cordat, V. le Thanh, and S. Laval, “Experimental evidence for index modulation by carrier depletion in SiGe/Si multiple quantum wells structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 887–889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using Eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33(4/5), 327–341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ~1.55μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. P. Weber, “Optimization of the carrier-induced effective index change in InGaAsP waveguides-application to tunable Bragg filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1801–1816 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. B. Dupont, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, “Mid-infrared phase modulation via Stark effect on intersubband transitions in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(8), 2313–2318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavallès, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: Theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Bigan, M. Allovon, M. Carré, C. Braud, A. Carenco, and P. Voisin, “Optimization of optical waveguide modulators based on Wannier-Stark localization: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 214–223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. Bigan, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carré, A. Carenco, and A. Mircea, “Efficient electroabsorption in InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 27(18), 1607–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar-Jozeph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro-optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

L. C. West and S. J. Eglash, “First observation of an extremely large-dipole infrared transition within the conduction band of a GaAs quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(12), 1156 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M.

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allovon, M.

E. Bigan, M. Allovon, M. Carré, C. Braud, A. Carenco, and P. Voisin, “Optimization of optical waveguide modulators based on Wannier-Stark localization: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 214–223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using Eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33(4/5), 327–341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bahir, G.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Jozeph, I.

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar-Jozeph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro-optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, E.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, A.

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using Eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33(4/5), 327–341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bigan, E.

E. Bigan, M. Allovon, M. Carré, C. Braud, A. Carenco, and P. Voisin, “Optimization of optical waveguide modulators based on Wannier-Stark localization: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 214–223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Bigan, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carré, A. Carenco, and A. Mircea, “Efficient electroabsorption in InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 27(18), 1607–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bougerol, C.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Braud, C.

E. Bigan, M. Allovon, M. Carré, C. Braud, A. Carenco, and P. Voisin, “Optimization of optical waveguide modulators based on Wannier-Stark localization: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 214–223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carenco, A.

E. Bigan, M. Allovon, M. Carré, C. Braud, A. Carenco, and P. Voisin, “Optimization of optical waveguide modulators based on Wannier-Stark localization: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 214–223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Bigan, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carré, A. Carenco, and A. Mircea, “Efficient electroabsorption in InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 27(18), 1607–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carlin, J.-F.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carré, M.

E. Bigan, M. Allovon, M. Carré, C. Braud, A. Carenco, and P. Voisin, “Optimization of optical waveguide modulators based on Wannier-Stark localization: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 214–223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Bigan, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carré, A. Carenco, and A. Mircea, “Efficient electroabsorption in InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 27(18), 1607–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cavallès, J. A.

J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavallès, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: Theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cen, L. B.

L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cercus, J.-L.

A. Lupu, D. Marris, D. Pascal, J.-L. Cercus, A. Cordat, V. le Thanh, and S. Laval, “Experimental evidence for index modulation by carrier depletion in SiGe/Si multiple quantum wells structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 887–889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar-Jozeph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro-optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. W.

P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ~1.55μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-N. G.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ~1.55μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cordat, A.

A. Lupu, D. Marris, D. Pascal, J.-L. Cercus, A. Cordat, V. le Thanh, and S. Laval, “Experimental evidence for index modulation by carrier depletion in SiGe/Si multiple quantum wells structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 887–889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delacourt, D.

E. B. Dupont, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, “Mid-infrared phase modulation via Stark effect on intersubband transitions in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(8), 2313–2318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Doyennette, L.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, E. B.

E. B. Dupont, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, “Mid-infrared phase modulation via Stark effect on intersubband transitions in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(8), 2313–2318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eglash, S. J.

L. C. West and S. J. Eglash, “First observation of an extremely large-dipole infrared transition within the conduction band of a GaAs quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(12), 1156 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Erman, M.

J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavallès, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: Theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feltin, E.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giorgetta, F.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giorgetta, F. R.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ~1.55μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Golka, S.

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, F.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holmström, P.

P. Holmström, “Electroabsorption Modulator Using Intersubband Transitions in GaN–AlGaN–AlN Step Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 810–819 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huet, F.

E. Bigan, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carré, A. Carenco, and A. Mircea, “Efficient electroabsorption in InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 27(18), 1607–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hui, R.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, N.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguides for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing aN intersubband transition,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jarry, P.

J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavallès, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: Theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. X.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Julien, F.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Julien, F. H.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kandaswamy, P.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, K.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguides for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing aN intersubband transition,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. Y.

P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kheirodin, N.

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar-Jozeph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro-optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

A. Lupu, D. Marris, D. Pascal, J.-L. Cercus, A. Cordat, V. le Thanh, and S. Laval, “Experimental evidence for index modulation by carrier depletion in SiGe/Si multiple quantum wells structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 887–889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

le Thanh, V.

A. Lupu, D. Marris, D. Pascal, J.-L. Cercus, A. Cordat, V. le Thanh, and S. Laval, “Experimental evidence for index modulation by carrier depletion in SiGe/Si multiple quantum wells structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 887–889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leconte, S.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. C.

P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. P.

P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Y.

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D. Y.

P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lupu, A.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lupu, D. Marris, D. Pascal, J.-L. Cercus, A. Cordat, V. le Thanh, and S. Laval, “Experimental evidence for index modulation by carrier depletion in SiGe/Si multiple quantum wells structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 887–889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Machhadani, H.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marris, D.

A. Lupu, D. Marris, D. Pascal, J.-L. Cercus, A. Cordat, V. le Thanh, and S. Laval, “Experimental evidence for index modulation by carrier depletion in SiGe/Si multiple quantum wells structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 887–889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meignien, L.

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. I.

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar-Jozeph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro-optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mircea, A.

E. Bigan, A. Ougazzaden, F. Huet, M. Carré, A. Carenco, and A. Mircea, “Efficient electroabsorption in InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 27(18), 1607–1609 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
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C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ~1.55μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3722 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
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H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
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N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Remmele, T.

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
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J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavallès, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: Theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
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H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
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H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
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L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 093109 (2009).
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L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
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H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
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A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice matched GaN/InAlN waveguides at λ=1.55 µm grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
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H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
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N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
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M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
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Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
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P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
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H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
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J. F. Vinchant, J. A. Cavallès, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, “InP/GaInAsP guided-wave phase modulators based on carrier-induced effects: Theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(1), 63–70 (1992).
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H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
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N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 724–726 (2008).
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H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125023 (2009).
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L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223511 (2007).
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M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125347 (2006).
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P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
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P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
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L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 093109 (2009).
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P. Chen, X. G. Tu, S. P. Li, J. C. Li, W. Lin, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, J. Y. Kang, Y. H. Zuo, L. Zhao, S. W. Chen, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhanced Pockels effect in GaN/AlxGa1−xN superlattice measured by polarization-maintaining fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(3), 031103 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ~1.55μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Operation principle of the depletion modulator. Under positive bias the electron population of the wells gives rise to ISB absorption at 1.5μm wavelength, while under negative bias the QWs are depleted and no absorption takes place. The inset shows the device scheme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Waveguide transmission spectra for TE-polarized and TM-polarized light under −10V, 0V and 5V bias. (b) High-resolution TM-polarized transmission spectra showing the change of the oscillation pattern with bias.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Slab index profile of the modulator and modal structure for TM polarization. (b,c) Near-field intensity pattern of the waveguide output at negative bias “transmission on” (b) and positive bias “transmission off” (c). Both pictures have been taken under identical exposure conditions. The circle in Fig. 3(c) indicates the analyzed area used in Fig. 2(b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Fourier distribution spectral response at different bias. (a) TE polarization; (b) TM polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Refractive index shift versus bias for different wavelengths. (b) ISB absorption spectrum at +5V bias together with its Lorentzian fit and corresponding dispersion of the index of refraction. The grey rectangle corresponds to the experimentally measured spectral range.

Equations (14)

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Δ n eff0 = n eff0 n g0 n g1 n eff0 n eff1 Δλ λ
| n g0 n g1 |= c τ 1 L
2πL λ 1 ( n eff1 ( λ 1 ) n eff2 ( λ 1 ) )=2mπ
2πL λ 2 ( n eff1 ( λ 2 ) n eff2 ( λ 2 ) )=2( m1 )π
n eff1 ( λ 1 ) n eff2 ( λ 1 ) λ 1 n eff1 ( λ 1 +Δλ ) n eff2 ( λ 1 +Δλ ) λ 1 +Δλ = 1 L
n( λ 1 +Δλ )=n( λ 1 )+Δλ n λ
n g ( λ )=n( λ )λ n λ
Δλ( n g1 n g2 )=( λ 2 λ 1 )( n g1 n g2 )= λ 1 λ 2 L
c( n g1 n g2 )( 1 λ 1 1 λ 2 )=( n g1 n g2 )( f 1 f 2 )= ( n g1 n g2 ) τ = c L
n eff1 ( λ 1 )+Δλ n eff1 λ +ΔV n eff1 V n eff2 ( λ 1 )Δλ n eff2 λ ΔV n eff2 V = m( λ 1 +Δλ ) L
Δλ( n eff1 λ n eff2 λ )+ΔV( n eff1 V n eff2 V )= mΔλ L = Δλ λ 1 ( n eff1 n eff2 )
λΔV( n eff1 V n eff2 V )=Δλ( n g1 n g2 )
λ( Δ n eff1 Δ n eff2 )=Δλ( n g1 n g2 )
Δ n eff2 =Δ n eff1 n eff2 n eff1

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