Abstract

Polarization controllers based on polymer waveguide technology are demonstrated by incorporating thermo-optic birefringence modulators (BMs) and thin-film wave plates. Highly birefringent polymer materials are used to increase the efficiency of birefringence modulation in proportion to the heating power. Thin-film quarter-wave plates are fabricated by using a crosslinkable liquid crystal, reactive mesogen, and inserted between the BMs to produce static phase retardation and polarization coupling. By applying a triangular AC signal to one BM and a DC signal to another, the polarization states of the output light are modulated to cover the entire surface of the Poincaré sphere.

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  1. N. G. Walker and G. R. Walker, “Polarization control for coherent communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 438–458 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye by polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with 1-µm probe,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12385–12396 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M.-C. Oh, W.-S. Chu, K.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kim, “Polymer waveguide integrated-optic current transducers,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9392–9400 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Heismann, “Compact electro-optic polarization scramblers for optically amplified lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(8), 1801–1814 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Shimizu, S. Yamazaki, T. Ono, and K. Emura, “Highly practical fiber squeezer polarization controller,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(10), 1217–1224 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Shimizu and K. Kaede, “Endless polarization controller using electro-optic waveplates,” Electron. Lett. 24(7), 412–413 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hirabayashi and C. Amano, “Liquid-crystal polarization controller arrays on planar waveguide circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 504–506 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N.-S. Son, K.-J. Kim, J.-W. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Near-infrared tunable lasers with polymer waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 20(2), 827–834 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J.-W. Kim, N.-S. Son, J.-H. Jang, K.-J. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Ultra-low inter-channel crosstalk in array waveguide device incorporating self-assembled microsphere diffraction layer,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20904–20909 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S.-H. Park, J.-W. Kim, M.-C. Oh, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Polymer waveguide birefringence modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 845–847 (2012).
  13. W.-S. Chu, S.-M. Kim, J.-W. Kim, K.-J. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Polarization converting waveguide devices incorporating UV-curable reactive mesogen,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15(3), 289–292 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

N.-S. Son, K.-J. Kim, J.-W. Kim, and M.-C. Oh, “Near-infrared tunable lasers with polymer waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 20(2), 827–834 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Park, J.-W. Kim, M.-C. Oh, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Polymer waveguide birefringence modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 845–847 (2012).

2011 (3)

2009 (3)

M. Yamanari, Y. Lim, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Visualization of phase retardation of deep posterior eye by polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with 1-µm probe,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12385–12396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Hirabayashi and C. Amano, “Liquid-crystal polarization controller arrays on planar waveguide circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 504–506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. Heismann, “Compact electro-optic polarization scramblers for optically amplified lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(8), 1801–1814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Shimizu, S. Yamazaki, T. Ono, and K. Emura, “Highly practical fiber squeezer polarization controller,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(10), 1217–1224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

N. G. Walker and G. R. Walker, “Polarization control for coherent communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 438–458 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Shimizu and K. Kaede, “Endless polarization controller using electro-optic waveplates,” Electron. Lett. 24(7), 412–413 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Amano, C.

K. Hirabayashi and C. Amano, “Liquid-crystal polarization controller arrays on planar waveguide circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 504–506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baek, Y.-S.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C. W.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Budd, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.-S.

Dangel, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Emura, K.

H. Shimizu, S. Yamazaki, T. Ono, and K. Emura, “Highly practical fiber squeezer polarization controller,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(10), 1217–1224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-P.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heismann, F.

F. Heismann, “Compact electro-optic polarization scramblers for optically amplified lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(8), 1801–1814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, K.

K. Hirabayashi and C. Amano, “Liquid-crystal polarization controller arrays on planar waveguide circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 504–506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.-H.

Kaede, K.

H. Shimizu and K. Kaede, “Endless polarization controller using electro-optic waveplates,” Electron. Lett. 24(7), 412–413 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-W.

Kim, K.-J.

Kim, S.-M.

Kuchta, D. M.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-H.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-J.

S.-H. Park, J.-W. Kim, M.-C. Oh, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Polymer waveguide birefringence modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 845–847 (2012).

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Libsch, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y.

Makita, S.

Noh, Y.-O.

S.-H. Park, J.-W. Kim, M.-C. Oh, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Polymer waveguide birefringence modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 845–847 (2012).

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.-C.

Ono, T.

H. Shimizu, S. Yamazaki, T. Ono, and K. Emura, “Highly practical fiber squeezer polarization controller,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(10), 1217–1224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-H.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-H.

S.-H. Park, J.-W. Kim, M.-C. Oh, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Polymer waveguide birefringence modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 845–847 (2012).

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pepeljugoski, P.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schares, L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, H.

H. Shimizu, S. Yamazaki, T. Ono, and K. Emura, “Highly practical fiber squeezer polarization controller,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(10), 1217–1224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Shimizu and K. Kaede, “Endless polarization controller using electro-optic waveplates,” Electron. Lett. 24(7), 412–413 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.-U.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, N.-S.

Walker, G. R.

N. G. Walker and G. R. Walker, “Polarization control for coherent communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 438–458 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Walker, N. G.

N. G. Walker and G. R. Walker, “Polarization control for coherent communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 438–458 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamanari, M.

Yamazaki, S.

H. Shimizu, S. Yamazaki, T. Ono, and K. Emura, “Highly practical fiber squeezer polarization controller,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(10), 1217–1224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yasuno, Y.

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Shimizu and K. Kaede, “Endless polarization controller using electro-optic waveplates,” Electron. Lett. 24(7), 412–413 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

K. Hirabayashi and C. Amano, “Liquid-crystal polarization controller arrays on planar waveguide circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 504–506 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, J.-W. Kim, M.-C. Oh, Y.-O. Noh, and H.-J. Lee, “Polymer waveguide birefringence modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(10), 845–847 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32(2), 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

N. G. Walker and G. R. Walker, “Polarization control for coherent communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 438–458 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, “Compact electro-optic polarization scramblers for optically amplified lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(8), 1801–1814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Shimizu, S. Yamazaki, T. Ono, and K. Emura, “Highly practical fiber squeezer polarization controller,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(10), 1217–1224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Opt. Express (4)

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (702 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of polarization controllers consisting of polymer waveguide birefringence modulators and thin-film quarter-wave plates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of fabrication procedures for general polarization controllers consisting of polymer waveguide and thin-film QWPs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM photograph of the groove formed by a dicing saw, and (b) photograph of the completed polarization controller chip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristics of the thin-film QWPs made of RM material; the ellipticity of the transmitted light was measured as a function of the film thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarization modulation signal with respect to the applied voltage of the birefringence modulator, which was measured by a crossed polarizer-analyzer configuration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output polarization states of the polarization controller covering the entire surface of the Poincaré sphere depending on the applied AC and DC signals: (a) AC signal applied to BM2 and DC signal applied to BM3, and (b) DC signal applied to BM3 and AC signal applied to BM2. Multimedia file for Fig. 6(b) is uploaded as Media 1.

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