Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the coexistence of two opposite photo-effects, viz. fast photodarkening (PD) and slow photobleaching (PB) in Ge19As21Se60 thin films, when illuminated with a laser of wavelength 671 nm. PD appears to begin instantaneously upon light illumination and saturates in tens of seconds. By comparison, PB is a slower process that starts only after PD has saturated. Both PD and PB follow stretched exponetial dependence on time. Modeling of overall change as a linear sum of two contributions suggests that the changes in As and Ge parts of glass network respond to light effectively indepndent of each other.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).
  2. K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. E. Asatryan, S. Frédérick, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, “Recording of polarization holograms in photodarkened amorphous chalcogenide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1626–1628 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. L. Trunov, P. M. Lytvyn, S. N. Yannopoulos, I. A. Szabo, and S. Kokenyesi, “Photoinduced mass-transport based holographic recording of surface relief gratings in amorphous selenium films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051906 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 917–923 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Antoine, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. D. Senanayake, and D. A. Drabold, “Chemical origin of polarization-dependent photoinduced changes in an As36Se64glass film via in situ synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(5), 054204 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Flaxer, M. Klebanov, D. Abrahamoff, S. Noah, and V. Lyubin, “Photodarkening of As50Se50 glassy films under μs light pulses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 688–690 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of photo-oxidation on photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21390–21395 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Tichý, H. Ticha, P. Nagels, and E. Sleeckx, “A review of the specific role of oxygen in irreversible photo- and thermally induced changes of the optical properties of thin film amorphous chalcogenides,” Opt. Mater. 4(6), 771–779 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. A. Spence and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced oxidation and band-edge shifts in thermally evaporated films of germanium chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(8), 5452–5463 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Naik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Ganesan, and K. S. Sangunni, “Giant photoinduced optical bleaching at room and liquid helium temperatures in Sb/As2S3 multilayered films,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5319–5322 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced transparency of effective three-photon absorption coefficient for femtosecond laser pulses in Ge16As29Se55 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201111 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, “Role of rigidity and temperature in the kinetics of photodarkening in Ge(x)As(45-x)Se55 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13158–13163 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

M. L. Trunov, P. M. Lytvyn, S. N. Yannopoulos, I. A. Szabo, and S. Kokenyesi, “Photoinduced mass-transport based holographic recording of surface relief gratings in amorphous selenium films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of photo-oxidation on photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21390–21395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Naik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Ganesan, and K. S. Sangunni, “Giant photoinduced optical bleaching at room and liquid helium temperatures in Sb/As2S3 multilayered films,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5319–5322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced transparency of effective three-photon absorption coefficient for femtosecond laser pulses in Ge16As29Se55 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, “Role of rigidity and temperature in the kinetics of photodarkening in Ge(x)As(45-x)Se55 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13158–13163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. Antoine, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. D. Senanayake, and D. A. Drabold, “Chemical origin of polarization-dependent photoinduced changes in an As36Se64glass film via in situ synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(5), 054204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Flaxer, M. Klebanov, D. Abrahamoff, S. Noah, and V. Lyubin, “Photodarkening of As50Se50 glassy films under μs light pulses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 688–690 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. E. Asatryan, S. Frédérick, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, “Recording of polarization holograms in photodarkened amorphous chalcogenide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1626–1628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 917–923 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Tichý, H. Ticha, P. Nagels, and E. Sleeckx, “A review of the specific role of oxygen in irreversible photo- and thermally induced changes of the optical properties of thin film amorphous chalcogenides,” Opt. Mater. 4(6), 771–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. A. Spence and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced oxidation and band-edge shifts in thermally evaporated films of germanium chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(8), 5452–5463 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abrahamoff, D.

E. Flaxer, M. Klebanov, D. Abrahamoff, S. Noah, and V. Lyubin, “Photodarkening of As50Se50 glassy films under μs light pulses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 688–690 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adarsh, K. V.

R. Naik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Ganesan, and K. S. Sangunni, “Giant photoinduced optical bleaching at room and liquid helium temperatures in Sb/As2S3 multilayered films,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5319–5322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced transparency of effective three-photon absorption coefficient for femtosecond laser pulses in Ge16As29Se55 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, “Role of rigidity and temperature in the kinetics of photodarkening in Ge(x)As(45-x)Se55 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13158–13163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, K.

K. Antoine, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. D. Senanayake, and D. A. Drabold, “Chemical origin of polarization-dependent photoinduced changes in an As36Se64glass film via in situ synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(5), 054204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asatryan, K. E.

K. E. Asatryan, S. Frédérick, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, “Recording of polarization holograms in photodarkened amorphous chalcogenide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1626–1628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barik, A. R.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, “Role of rigidity and temperature in the kinetics of photodarkening in Ge(x)As(45-x)Se55 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13158–13163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced transparency of effective three-photon absorption coefficient for femtosecond laser pulses in Ge16As29Se55 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brunéel, J. L.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of photo-oxidation on photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21390–21395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couzi, M.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davies, B. L.

B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Davis, E. A.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 917–923 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drabold, D. A.

K. Antoine, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. D. Senanayake, and D. A. Drabold, “Chemical origin of polarization-dependent photoinduced changes in an As36Se64glass film via in situ synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(5), 054204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, O. M.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Elliott, S. R.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Spence and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced oxidation and band-edge shifts in thermally evaporated films of germanium chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(8), 5452–5463 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flaxer, E.

E. Flaxer, M. Klebanov, D. Abrahamoff, S. Noah, and V. Lyubin, “Photodarkening of As50Se50 glassy films under μs light pulses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 688–690 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frédérick, S.

K. E. Asatryan, S. Frédérick, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, “Recording of polarization holograms in photodarkened amorphous chalcogenide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1626–1628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T.

K. E. Asatryan, S. Frédérick, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, “Recording of polarization holograms in photodarkened amorphous chalcogenide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1626–1628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ganesan, R.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, “Role of rigidity and temperature in the kinetics of photodarkening in Ge(x)As(45-x)Se55 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13158–13163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Naik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Ganesan, and K. S. Sangunni, “Giant photoinduced optical bleaching at room and liquid helium temperatures in Sb/As2S3 multilayered films,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5319–5322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ganjoo, A.

G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 917–923 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D.

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, M.

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jain, H.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of photo-oxidation on photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21390–21395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced transparency of effective three-photon absorption coefficient for femtosecond laser pulses in Ge16As29Se55 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, “Role of rigidity and temperature in the kinetics of photodarkening in Ge(x)As(45-x)Se55 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13158–13163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Antoine, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. D. Senanayake, and D. A. Drabold, “Chemical origin of polarization-dependent photoinduced changes in an As36Se64glass film via in situ synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(5), 054204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitano, K.

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 917–923 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klebanov, M.

E. Flaxer, M. Klebanov, D. Abrahamoff, S. Noah, and V. Lyubin, “Photodarkening of As50Se50 glassy films under μs light pulses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 688–690 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kokenyesi, S.

M. L. Trunov, P. M. Lytvyn, S. N. Yannopoulos, I. A. Szabo, and S. Kokenyesi, “Photoinduced mass-transport based holographic recording of surface relief gratings in amorphous selenium films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, A.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lytvyn, P. M.

M. L. Trunov, P. M. Lytvyn, S. N. Yannopoulos, I. A. Szabo, and S. Kokenyesi, “Photoinduced mass-transport based holographic recording of surface relief gratings in amorphous selenium films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lyubin, V.

E. Flaxer, M. Klebanov, D. Abrahamoff, S. Noah, and V. Lyubin, “Photodarkening of As50Se50 glassy films under μs light pulses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 688–690 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagels, P.

L. Tichý, H. Ticha, P. Nagels, and E. Sleeckx, “A review of the specific role of oxygen in irreversible photo- and thermally induced changes of the optical properties of thin film amorphous chalcogenides,” Opt. Mater. 4(6), 771–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naik, R.

R. Naik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Ganesan, and K. S. Sangunni, “Giant photoinduced optical bleaching at room and liquid helium temperatures in Sb/As2S3 multilayered films,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5319–5322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced transparency of effective three-photon absorption coefficient for femtosecond laser pulses in Ge16As29Se55 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, “Role of rigidity and temperature in the kinetics of photodarkening in Ge(x)As(45-x)Se55 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13158–13163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noah, S.

E. Flaxer, M. Klebanov, D. Abrahamoff, S. Noah, and V. Lyubin, “Photodarkening of As50Se50 glassy films under μs light pulses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 688–690 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Philip, R.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced transparency of effective three-photon absorption coefficient for femtosecond laser pulses in Ge16As29Se55 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of photo-oxidation on photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21390–21395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Richardson, K. A.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sandeep, C. S. S.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced transparency of effective three-photon absorption coefficient for femtosecond laser pulses in Ge16As29Se55 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sangunni, K. S.

R. Naik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Ganesan, and K. S. Sangunni, “Giant photoinduced optical bleaching at room and liquid helium temperatures in Sb/As2S3 multilayered films,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5319–5322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Senanayake, S. D.

K. Antoine, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. D. Senanayake, and D. A. Drabold, “Chemical origin of polarization-dependent photoinduced changes in an As36Se64glass film via in situ synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(5), 054204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimakawa, K.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, “Role of rigidity and temperature in the kinetics of photodarkening in Ge(x)As(45-x)Se55 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13158–13163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 917–923 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sleeckx, E.

L. Tichý, H. Ticha, P. Nagels, and E. Sleeckx, “A review of the specific role of oxygen in irreversible photo- and thermally induced changes of the optical properties of thin film amorphous chalcogenides,” Opt. Mater. 4(6), 771–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spence, C. A.

C. A. Spence and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced oxidation and band-edge shifts in thermally evaporated films of germanium chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(8), 5452–5463 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szabo, I. A.

M. L. Trunov, P. M. Lytvyn, S. N. Yannopoulos, I. A. Szabo, and S. Kokenyesi, “Photoinduced mass-transport based holographic recording of surface relief gratings in amorphous selenium films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ticha, H.

L. Tichý, H. Ticha, P. Nagels, and E. Sleeckx, “A review of the specific role of oxygen in irreversible photo- and thermally induced changes of the optical properties of thin film amorphous chalcogenides,” Opt. Mater. 4(6), 771–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tichý, L.

L. Tichý, H. Ticha, P. Nagels, and E. Sleeckx, “A review of the specific role of oxygen in irreversible photo- and thermally induced changes of the optical properties of thin film amorphous chalcogenides,” Opt. Mater. 4(6), 771–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Trunov, M. L.

M. L. Trunov, P. M. Lytvyn, S. N. Yannopoulos, I. A. Szabo, and S. Kokenyesi, “Photoinduced mass-transport based holographic recording of surface relief gratings in amorphous selenium films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

K. E. Asatryan, S. Frédérick, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, “Recording of polarization holograms in photodarkened amorphous chalcogenide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1626–1628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vlcek, M.

K. Antoine, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. D. Senanayake, and D. A. Drabold, “Chemical origin of polarization-dependent photoinduced changes in an As36Se64glass film via in situ synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(5), 054204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yan, Q.

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of photo-oxidation on photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21390–21395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Yang, W.

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yannopoulos, S. N.

M. L. Trunov, P. M. Lytvyn, S. N. Yannopoulos, I. A. Szabo, and S. Kokenyesi, “Photoinduced mass-transport based holographic recording of surface relief gratings in amorphous selenium films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Zhao, D.

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced transparency of effective three-photon absorption coefficient for femtosecond laser pulses in Ge16As29Se55 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of photo-oxidation on photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21390–21395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, R. Ganesan, G. Yang, D. Zhao, H. Jain, and K. Shimakawa, “Role of rigidity and temperature in the kinetics of photodarkening in Ge(x)As(45-x)Se55 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13158–13163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. E. Asatryan, S. Frédérick, T. Galstian, and R. Vallée, “Recording of polarization holograms in photodarkened amorphous chalcogenide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(10), 1626–1628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Trunov, P. M. Lytvyn, S. N. Yannopoulos, I. A. Szabo, and S. Kokenyesi, “Photoinduced mass-transport based holographic recording of surface relief gratings in amorphous selenium films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Barik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Naik, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, D. Zhao, and H. Jain, “Photoinduced transparency of effective three-photon absorption coefficient for femtosecond laser pulses in Ge16As29Se55 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

A. Ganjoo, K. Shimakawa, K. Kitano, and E. A. Davis, “Transient photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 917–923 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

Q. Yan, H. Jain, J. Ren, D. Zhao, and G. Chen, “Effect of photo-oxidation on photobleaching of GeSe2 and Ge2Se3 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21390–21395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Naik, K. V. Adarsh, R. Ganesan, and K. S. Sangunni, “Giant photoinduced optical bleaching at room and liquid helium temperatures in Sb/As2S3 multilayered films,” Opt. Commun. 284(22), 5319–5322 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (3)

L. Tichý, H. Ticha, P. Nagels, and E. Sleeckx, “A review of the specific role of oxygen in irreversible photo- and thermally induced changes of the optical properties of thin film amorphous chalcogenides,” Opt. Mater. 4(6), 771–779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Flaxer, M. Klebanov, D. Abrahamoff, S. Noah, and V. Lyubin, “Photodarkening of As50Se50 glassy films under μs light pulses,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 688–690 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

K. Antoine, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. D. Senanayake, and D. A. Drabold, “Chemical origin of polarization-dependent photoinduced changes in an As36Se64glass film via in situ synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(5), 054204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

C. A. Spence and S. R. Elliott, “Light-induced oxidation and band-edge shifts in thermally evaporated films of germanium chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(8), 5452–5463 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Contour plot of Tf/Ti as a function of time at selected wavelengths close to the optical bandgap of Ge19As21Se60 thin film when irradiated with a 671nm laser of intensity: (a) 2 W/cm2 and (b) 0.2 W/cm2. The color bars indicate the value of Tf/Ti, where Tf and Ti are transmission spectra of the sample at a particular time after the laser was turned on and for as-prepared sample in dark condition, respectively. At indicated wavelengths, transmission decreases initially, followed by a sharp increase in transmission. Time evolution of Tf/Ti at λ = 590nm for the pump beam intensity (c) 2W/cm2 and (d) 0.2W/cm2. Here the black and red lines represent the experimental data and theoretical fit (using Eq. (5), respectively. Figures clearly demonstrate the coexistence of PD and PB with the former being a significantly faster process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The observation of reversible, transient photodarkening (TPD). When the pump beam was turned off, the relative transparency of the film (Tf/Ti) increases and saturates quickly. However, when the pump beam is turned on, it decreases and quickly returns to the pre-switching value.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TPD measurements in Ge19As21Se60 thin film for λ = 671 nm, when it undergoes initial PD with pump beam illumination. The dotted red and blue lines indicate the time at which the pump beam is turned on and off respectively. With pump beam illumination transmission decreases quickly. However, when the pump beam is turned off, transmission increases, but never recovers completely showing the metastable and transient component of PD. For consecutive on and off cycle for short time, the TPD is fully reversible. However, when the sample is illuminated for a long time, the sample begins to show the effect of PB.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitting parameters obtained from Eq. (5) that corresponds to PD and PB at two intensities. The subscript b and d refer to bleaching and darkening, respectively.

Equations (5)

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A s ( xy ) S e Z +ySe+hυA s x S e z
GeGe+SeSe+hυ2GeSe
ΔT=C[ exp{ ( t τ d ) β d } ]+Δ T sd
ΔT=Δ T sb [ 1exp{ ( t τ d ) β d } ]
ΔT=C[ exp{ ( t τ d ) β d } ]+Δ T sd +Δ T sb [ 1exp{ ( t τ d ) β d } ]

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