Abstract

The carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-dependent above-barrier ionization (ABI) has been investigated in order to probe the bound-state electron dynamics. It is found that when the system is initially prepared in the excited state, the ionization yield asymmetry between left and right sides can occur both in low-energy and high-energy parts of the photoelectron spectra. Moreover, in electron momentum map, a new interference effect along the direction perpendicular to the laser polarization is found. We show that this interference is related to the competition among different excited states. The interference effect is dependent on CEPs of few-cycle probe pulses, which can be used to trace the superposition information and control the electron wave packet of low excited states.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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M. V. Fedorov, N. P. Poluektov, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, V. Yu. Kharin, and E. A. Volkova, “Interference stabilization revisited,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 42–53 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Wirth, M. Th. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Süßmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Rühl, and M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys.7(8), 656–662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

E. Goulielmakis, Z. H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, W. Yang, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Unipolar half-cycle pulse generation in asymmetrical media with a periodic subwavelength structure,” Phys. Rev. A82(5), 053821 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Smirnova, “Spectroscopy: Attosecond prints of electrons,” Nature466(7307), 700–702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Swoboda, T. Fordell, K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, C. Buth, K. J. Schafer, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, and M. Gisselbrecht, “Phase measurement of resonant two-photon ionization in Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(10), 103003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, X. Song, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Quantum path interferences of electron trajectories in two-center molecules,” Opt. Express18(3), 2558–2565 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Palacios, T. N. Rescigno, and C. W. McCurdy, “Two-electron time-delay interference in atomic double ionization by attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(25), 253001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, X. Song, C. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “Carrier-envelope phase dependent transmitted spectra in inversion-asymmetric media with permanent dipole moments,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.42(17), 175601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Dynamic chirp control and pulse compression for attosecond high-order harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(4), 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. T. He, S. G. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a midinfrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(9), 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, “Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A77(1), 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, X. Song, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Generation of intense extreme supercontinuum radiation via resonant propagation effects,” Phys. Rev. A78(2), 023836 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys.3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Bucksbaum, “The future of attosecond spectroscopy,” Science317(5839), 766–769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent x-rays,” Science317(5839), 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, “Molecular imaging using recolliding electrons,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.40(16), R135–R173 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, X. Song, S. Gong, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Carrier-envelope phase dependence of few-cycle ultrashort laser pulse propagation in a polar molecule medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(13), 133602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, and M. Spanner, “Direct XUV probing of attosecond electron recollision,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

X. M. Tong, K. Hino, and N. Toshima, “Phase-dependent atomic ionization in few-cycle intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A74(3), 031405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.39(14), R203–R262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, S. Gong, and Z. Xu, “Enhancement of ultrafast four-wave mixing in a polar molecule medium,” Opt. Express14(16), 7216–7223 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, “Phase dependence of enhanced ionization in asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(20), 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, A. Suda, and K. Midorikawa, “Focusing coherent soft-x-ray radiation to a micrometer spot size with an intensity of 1014 W/cm2.,” Opt. Lett.29(16), 1927–1929 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. Valentin, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, Th. Lefrou, G. Grillon, F. Augé, G. Mullot, Ph. Balcou, P. Mercère, and Ph. Zeitoun, “Imaging and quality assessment of high-harmonic focal spots,” Opt. Lett.28(12), 1049–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(25), 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature417(6892), 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yoshitomi, T. Shimizu, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, “Generation and focusing of submilliwatt-average-power 50-nm pulses by the fifth harmonic of a KrF laser,” Opt. Lett.27(24), 2170–2172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser field: frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Chelkowski, C. Foisy, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Electron-nuclear dynamics of multiphoton H2+ dissociative ionization in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A57(2), 1176–1185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, and P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys.60(4), 389–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. V. Fedorov, M. M. Tehranchi, and S. M. Fedorov, “Interference stabilization of Rydberg atom: numerical calculations and physical models,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.29(13), 2907–2924 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. H. Hoogenraad, R. B. Vrijen, and L. D. Noordam, “Ionization suppression of Rydberg atoms by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A50(5), 4133–4138 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

M. V. Fedorov and A. M. Movsesian, “Field-induced effects of narrowing of photoelectron spectra and stabilization of Rydberg atom,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.21(7), L155–L158 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1969

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev.183(2), 457–485 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.18(21), 908–911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, I.

S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Süßmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Rühl, and M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys.7(8), 656–662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alahmed, Z. A.

A. Wirth, M. Th. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science334(6053), 195–200 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonsson, E.

S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Süßmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Rühl, and M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys.7(8), 656–662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
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http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/handbook/element_name.htm .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The time-dependent population of different bound states. (b) Electric field E(t) as a function of time in optical cycles for the CEP ( ϕ=0 ) of the few-cycle pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The time-dependent population of different bound states for CEPs (a) ϕ=0 and (b) ϕ=0.5π .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ionization yields to the left and right sides as a function of the CEP of few-cycle pulse. Plots (a)-(d) are for CEPs ϕ=0,0.3π,0.5πand0.8π , respectively. The peak intensity of the few-cycle pulse is I=2.0× 10 14 W/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The real part of electron wave function (a) and (c), and momentum distribution of ABI electrons ((b) and (d), as a function of the CEP. For CEPs ϕ=0 ((a) and (b)), ϕ=0.5π ((c) and (d)). The laser intensity is I=9.5× 10 13 W/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The real part of wave function after the interaction and electron momentum distribution in ATI scheme. The laser intensity is I=4.7× 10 14 W/cm2.

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